002 NCWRM 2011_Quteishat
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002 NCWRM 2011_Quteishat



Regional Conference on Advancing Non Conventional Water Resources Management in the Mediterranean, 14-15 September 2011, Athens, Greece

Regional Conference on Advancing Non Conventional Water Resources Management in the Mediterranean, 14-15 September 2011, Athens, Greece



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    002 NCWRM 2011_Quteishat 002 NCWRM 2011_Quteishat Presentation Transcript

    • JoDRA Non Conventional Water A New Paradigm by Koussai Quteishat Director Jordan River Consultancy Services, JoDRA President Jordan Desalination and Reuse Association, JoDRA Amman-JordanRegional Conference on Advancing Non-Conventional Water Resources Management September 15, 2011 Athens, Greece JoDRA 1
    • JoDRA Introduction NCWR• Desalinated water• Wastewater• Water harvesting• Aquifer recharge JoDRA 2
    • JoDRA Introduction NCWRParadigm Change COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT of NCWR JoDRA 3
    • JoDRA Introduction NCWR Management Issues• Having the water to reuse• Look ahead when designing for treatment• Energy• Environment• Political will• Acceptability• Funding options JoDRA 4
    • JoDRAPrerequisite: Water Management Hierarchy (WMH)WMH is a hierarchy of water conservation priorities: • Elimination of the water demand • Reduction of the demand • Explore all water-saving options • Outsourcing/reuse/regeneration - such as rainwater harvesting, wastewater treatment and reuse THEN, Consider new supplies JoDRA 5
    • JoDRA Policy OptionsParadigm Change INTRODUCE POLICY OPTIONS JoDRA 6
    • JoDRA Iterative Policy Options• Put the right price tag on water• Allocate water and water-related funding more efficiently• Improve drought risk management• Foster water efficient technologies and practices• Foster the emergence of a water-saving culture• Improve knowledge and data collectionTHEN,Consider additional water supply infrastructure JoDRA 7
    • JoDRA Project DevelopmentFinance and delivery• Private Sector Investments• IWP and BOO• Hybrid mixes of finance JoDRA 8
    • JoDRASustainable Financing of ProjectsEssentials:• Recover Cost of Water• Encourage Local Banks to be involved• Establish Local Water Funds and Bonds JoDRA 10
    • JoDRA Types of Projects• Desalination• Wastewater Reuse• Aquifer Storage and Recovery JoDRA 11
    • JoDRAJoDRA
    • JoDRAIs Current Desalination Sustainable ? Development Potential Perspective: • Out of 71 large cities without local access to new freshwater source, 42 are coastal • 39% of the world population (2,400 million inhabitants) live at a distance of less than 100 km from the sea. Current production of seawater only corresponds to the demand of 60 million inhabitants • Desalination is no longer a marginal water resource as some countries such as Qatar and Kuwait rely 100% on desalinated water for domestic and industry JoDRA 13
    • JoDRA Forces Behind the Development Potential of Desalination• Desalination has advantages over conventional resources/civil engineering projects• Desalination, along with demand management, are expected to be the only recourse for regions with overdrafted aquifers JoDRA 14
    • JoDRA Major Constraints to the Development of Desalination• Cost of product € 0.5/m3• Use of fossil fuel 1 litre/m3• Energy consumption 3kwh/m3• Environmental land/air and marine JoDRA 15
    • JoDRAHistorical Trends in Water Costs 1.8 1.6 Water cost, US$/cubic meter 1.4 1.2 Water cost from 1 Desalination Water cost 0.8 from re-use 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Year JoDRA 16
    • JoDRA True Cost of Desalinated WaterCost must be qualified:• Water quality & temperature• Intake arrangement• Energy cost• Project size and location• Financing details and amortization period• Specific details of water purchase deal• Competitive bidding JoDRA 17
    • JoDRA Energy & DesalinationDesalination Processes • Thermal – needs thermal and electrical • Membranes – needs electrical energy onlyBoth are energy intensive, accounting up to 50 % of the operating cost JoDRA 18
    • JoDRA Minimum Energy RequiredMinimum energy is that needed to get fresh water from saline water • Does not depend on the process • Increases as salinity increases Separating pure water from saline water of 36,000 ppm at 25oC needs 0.71 kwh/m3 JoDRA 19
    • JoDRAEnergy Consumption in Large Desalination ProcessesProcess Thermal Electrical Total energy energy energy kWh/m³ kWh/m³ kWh/m³MSF 7.5 - 12 2.5 – 3.5 10 – 15.5MED 4-7 1.5 - 2 5.5 - 9SWRO - 3-6 3-6BWRO - 0.5 - 2.5 0.5 - 2.5 JoDRA 20
    • JoDRA Renewable Energy Potential• RE systems have proven to be reliable, and are the technologies of the future• RE has great potential in the MENA and Africa Current trend in fossil fuel cost increase and developments in solar collectors may make the solar desalination a feasible option in another ten years JoDRA 21
    • JoDRAMain Environmental Concerns ? JoDRA
    • JoDRAImpact Mitigation MeasuresJoDRA
    • JoDRA Impact Mitigation NeedsJoDRA
    • JoDRA Innovations in Desalination• Energy savings as well as recovery• Aquifer Storage• Addressing Seasonal Water/Power Variations• Integration into Water Management Systems• Zero Liquid Discharge• Renewable Energy• Nuclear Desalination JoDRA 25
    • JoDRA Wastewater as a SourceIt is technically and economically possible to produce potable water from wastewater JoDRA 27
    • JoDRA Saline Water and Waste WaterSaline water and waste water meetin the treatment process where thecommon denominators aremembranes and technologiesassociated with them JoDRA 28
    • JoDRA Wastewater Membrane Treatment TechnologiesTo produce potable water, wastewaterundergoes:• Micro-filtration or Ultra-filtration,• Reverse Osmosis, and• UV treatment JoDRA 29
    • JoDRA Wastewater UtilizationWastewater should be treated forenvironmental reasons, and also to beutilized as a resource:• Readily, for domestic, industry & agriculture uses• disposed in flowing bodies, for use downstream• stored in aquifers, either for later use, or to mitigate seawater intrusion JoDRA 30
    • JoDRA Why Strategic Storage?• Security of supply• Optimization of plant design, better match of power and water JoDRA 31
    • JoDRAWhy Aquifer Storage & Recovery• Proven technology• Provides good recovery• Improves quality of treated wastewater• Lower costs, reported costs of the three types in USA to store 1.5 billion gallons: Storage method Cost*, US$ in millions Above ground tank 450 Reservoir 250 ASR 40 * Cost does not include land cost JoDRA 32
    • JoDRA Aquifer Storage and Integrated Management of The ResourceIf treated wastewater is stored in aquifers,• its use extended beyond reuse in irrigation and availing additional water to meet domestic and industrial needs• it can also be used to protect aquifers from seawater intrusion, hence making more water available.If desalinated water is stored in aquifers,• it can lead to better integration of power and water during the production phase, and lead to lower production costs• alleviates fear of over-capacity if desalination plants and networks rehabilitation are undertaken simultaneously as water produced is stored in aquifers for future use. JoDRA 33
    • JoDRAIntegrated Management of Water Wastewater Reuse Wastewater Reuse was a policy solution that has also become a technology solution JoDRA 34
    • JoDRAIntegrated Management of Water Desalination Desalination was a technology solution that has also become a policy solution JoDRA 35
    • JoDRA Water Resource Cost Trends After Alfred Stikker, GWI, October 2006 7 Marginal water 6 withdrawal 5Cost $/m3 Freshwater 4 treatment 3 Reuse 2 1 Desalination 0 1990 2000 2010 2020 Year JoDRA 36
    • JoDRA Final Word on NCWRMMain Paradigm NCWRM is a policy issue Technology is here to support it let’s use it wisely JoDRA 37
    • JoDRA Thank YouJoDRA 38