Pathology
Section I: General Pathology and Basic Techniques
	 1.	Introduction of Pathology...................................
Companion for 2nd MBBSxii
Microbiology
Section I: General microbiology
	 1.	Introduction and Bacterial Taxonomy..............
Contents xiii
	39.	Mycobacterium Ii: Atypical Mycobacteria.................................................... 134
	40.	My...
Companion for 2nd MBBSxiv
	76.	urinary tract infections......................................................................
Contents xv
Section II: Drugs acting on Autonomic nervous system
	 7.	Cholinergic system and drugs...........................
Companion for 2nd MBBSxvi
	38.	Antiarrhythmic drugs..........................................................................
Contents xvii
Foremsic Medicine and Toxicology
Section I: Forensic Medicine
	 1.	Introduction................................
Companion for 2nd MBBSxviii
Community Medicine
	 1.	Man and Medicine: Towards Health for All.................................
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9789351521150

  1. 1. Pathology Section I: General Pathology and Basic Techniques 1. Introduction of Pathology..............................................................................17 2. Techniques for the Study of Pathology.........................................................17 3. Cell Injury and Cellular Adaptation................................................................17 4. Immunopathology Including Amyloidosis...................................................... 21 5. Hemodynamic Disorders..............................................................................23 6. Inflammation and Healing.............................................................................27 7. Infectious and Parasitic Diseases.................................................................32 8. Neoplasia......................................................................................................33 9. Environmental and Nutritional Diseases....................................................... 37 10. Genetic and Pediatric Diseases....................................................................37 11. Basic Diagnostic Cytology............................................................................38 Section II: Hematology and lymphoreticular tissues 12. Introduction to Hematopoietic System and Disorders of Erythroid Series........................................................................39 13. Disorders of Platelets, Bleeding Disorders and Basic Transfusion Medicine .........................................................................43 14. Disorders of Leukocytes and Lymphoreticular Tissues................................. 45 Section III: Systemic pathology 15. The Blood Vessels and Lymphatics..............................................................50 16. The Heart......................................................................................................51 17. The Respiratory System...............................................................................54 18. The Eye, Ent and Neck...............................................................................58 19. The Oral Cavity and Salivary Glands............................................................58 20. The Gastrointestinal Tract.............................................................................59 21. The Liver, Biliary Tract and Exocrine Pancreas............................................ 63 22. The Kidney and Lower Urinary Tract............................................................67 23. The Male Reproductive System and Prostate.............................................. 70 24. The Female Genital Tract.............................................................................71 25. The Breast....................................................................................................74 26. The Skin........................................................................................................76 27. The Endocrine System.................................................................................77 28. The Musculoskeletal System........................................................................79 29. Soft Tissue Tumors.......................................................................................81 30. The Nervous System....................................................................................81 Section IV: Clinical pathology Contents
  2. 2. Companion for 2nd MBBSxii Microbiology Section I: General microbiology 1. Introduction and Bacterial Taxonomy..........................................................101 2. Morphology and Physiology of Bacteria.....................................................101 3. Sterilization and Disinfection.......................................................................104 4. Culture Media.............................................................................................107 5. Culture Methods.........................................................................................108 6. Identification of Bacteria.............................................................................108 7. Bacterial Genetics.......................................................................................109 Section II: Immunology 8. Infection...................................................................................................... 110 9. Immunity......................................................................................................111 10. Antigens...................................................................................................... 112 11. Antibodies—Immunoglobulins.................................................................... 113 12. Antigen-Antibody Reactions....................................................................... 114 13. Complement System.................................................................................. 116 14. Structure and Function of the Immune System.......................................... 116 15. Immune Response...................................................................................... 117 16. Hypersensitivity........................................................................................... 118 17. Immunodeficiency Diseases....................................................................... 119 18. Autoimmunity..............................................................................................120 19. Immunology of Transplantation and Malignancy........................................ 120 20. Immunohematology....................................................................................120 Section III: Bacteriology 21. Staphylococcus...........................................................................................120 22. Streptococcus.............................................................................................122 23. Pneumococcus...........................................................................................123 24. Neisseria.....................................................................................................124 25. Corynebacterium........................................................................................125 26. Bacillus.......................................................................................................125 27. Anaerobic Bacteria I: Clostridium...............................................................126 28. Anaerobic Bacteria Ii: Nonsporing Anaerobes............................................ 127 29. Enterobacteriaceae I: Coliform—Proteus................................................... 128 30. Enterobacteriaceae Ii: Shigella...................................................................128 31. Enterobacteriaceae Iii: Salmonella.............................................................129 32. Vibrio...........................................................................................................130 33. Pseudomonas.............................................................................................131 34. Yersinia, Pasteurella and Francisella..........................................................131 35. Haemophilus...............................................................................................131 36. Bordetella....................................................................................................132 37. Brucella.......................................................................................................132 38. Mycobacterium I: Tuberculosis...................................................................133
  3. 3. Contents xiii 39. Mycobacterium Ii: Atypical Mycobacteria.................................................... 134 40. Mycobacterium Iii: M. Leprae.....................................................................134 41. Spirochetes.................................................................................................134 42. Mycoplasma................................................................................................136 43. Actinomycetes............................................................................................136 44. Miscellaneous Bacteria...............................................................................137 45. Rickettsiaceae............................................................................................137 46. Chlamydiae.................................................................................................138 Section IV: Virology 47. General Properties of Viruses.....................................................................138 48. Virus—Host Interactions: Viral Infections.................................................... 140 49. Bacteriophage.............................................................................................141 50. Poxvirus......................................................................................................141 51. Herpesvirus.................................................................................................141 52. Adenovirus..................................................................................................143 53. Picornavirus................................................................................................143 54. Orthomyxovirus...........................................................................................144 55. Paramyxovirus............................................................................................145 56. Arbovirus.....................................................................................................146 57. Rhabdovirus................................................................................................147 58. Hepatitis viruses.........................................................................................148 59. Miscellaneous viruses................................................................................149 60. Oncogenic viruses......................................................................................150 61. Human Immunodeficiency Virus: AIDS.......................................................151 Section V: Medical mycology 62. General aspects.........................................................................................152 63. Superficial and Subcutaneous Mycoses.....................................................153 64. Systemic and Opportunistic Mycoses.........................................................155 Section VI: Applied microbiology 65. Normal Microbial Flora of the Human Body................................................ 157 66. Bacteriology of Water, Milk and Air.............................................................158 67. Laboratory Control of Antimicrobial Therapy.............................................. 158 68. Immunoprophylaxis.....................................................................................158 69. healthcare associated infection.................................................................159 70. biomedical waste management.................................................................159 71. emerging infectious diseases....................................................................159 72. recent advances in diagnostic microbiology............................................. 160 Section VII: Clinical Microbiology 73. Bloodstream infections...............................................................................160 74. Respiratory tract infections........................................................................160 75. Meningitis....................................................................................................160
  4. 4. Companion for 2nd MBBSxiv 76. urinary tract infections...............................................................................161 77. sexually transmitted infections..................................................................161 78. diarrhea and food poisoning.....................................................................161 79. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections...................................................................162 80. Pyrexia of Unknown Origin.........................................................................162 81. zoonoses....................................................................................................162 Parasitology 1. General Introduction: Parasitology.............................................................165 2. Protozoa.....................................................................................................165 3. Amoebae....................................................................................................166 4. Intestinal, Oral and Genital Flagellates.......................................................167 5. Hemoflagellates..........................................................................................168 6. Malaria and Babesia...................................................................................168 7. Coccidia......................................................................................................170 8. Microspora..................................................................................................170 9. Pneumocystis jirovecii................................................................................170 10. Balantidium coli...........................................................................................171 11. Helminths: General Features......................................................................171 12. Cestodes: Tapeworms................................................................................171 13. Trematodes: Flukes....................................................................................172 14. Nematodes: General Features...................................................................173 15. Trichinella Spiralis.......................................................................................173 16. Trichuris Trichiura.......................................................................................174 17. Strongyloides Stercoralis............................................................................174 18. Hookworm...................................................................................................174 19. Enterobius Vermicularis..............................................................................175 20. Ascaris Lubricoides.....................................................................................175 21. Filarial Worm...............................................................................................176 22. Dracunculus Medinensis.............................................................................177 23. Miscellaneous Nematodes..........................................................................177 24. Diagnostic Methods in Parasitology............................................................177 Pharmacology Section I: General pharmacological principles 1. Introduction, Routes of drug administration............................................... 193 2. Pharmacokinetics: Membrane transport, absorption and distribution of drugs.......................................................... 194 3. Pharmacokinetics: metabolism and Excretion of Drugs, Kinetics of Elimination.....................................................................195 4. Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of Drug Action, Receptor Pharmacology.............................................................................196 5. Aspects of pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Development......................................................................................197 6. Adverse drug effects..................................................................................198
  5. 5. Contents xv Section II: Drugs acting on Autonomic nervous system 7. Cholinergic system and drugs...................................................................198 8. Anticholinergic drugs and drugs acting on autonomic ganglia................. 200 9. Adrenergic system and drugs....................................................................201 10. Antiadrenergic drugs (Adrenergic receptor antagonists) and drugs for glaucoma...................................................................................................203 Section III: Autacoids and Related Drugs 11. Histamine and antihistaminics....................................................................205 12. 5 Hydroxytryptamine, its antagonists and drug therapy of migraine......... 206 13. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and platelet activating factor...................... 206 14. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and Antipyretics—Analgesics ....... 207 15. antirheumatoid and antigout drugs............................................................208 Section IV: Respiratory system drugs 16. Drugs for cough and Bronchial asthma.....................................................209 Section V: Hormones and related drugs 17. Anterior Pituitary Hormones........................................................................ 211 18. Thyroid Hormones and Thyroid Inhibitors...................................................212 19. Insulin, Oral Hypoglycemic Drugs and Glucagon....................................... 213 20. Corticosteroids ...........................................................................................216 21. Androgens and Drugs for Erectile Dysfunction........................................... 217 22. Estrogens, Progestins and Contraceptives................................................. 218 23. Oxytocin and Drugs Acting on Uterus.........................................................220 24. Drugs Affecting Calcium Balance................................................................221 Section VI: Drugs acting on peripheral (Somatic) nervous system 25. Skeletal muscle relaxants..........................................................................222 26. Local anesthetics........................................................................................223 Section VII: Drugs acting on Central nervous system 27. General anesthetics....................................................................................224 28. Ethyl and methyl alcohol.............................................................................226 29. Sedative—Hypnotics..................................................................................227 30. Antiepileptic drugs......................................................................................228 31. Antiparkinsonian drugs...............................................................................229 32. Drugs used in Mental illness: Antipsychotic and antimaniac drugs........... 230 33. Drugs used in mental illness: Antidepressant and Antianxiety drugs........ 231 34. Opioid analgesics and antagonists.............................................................232 35. CNS Stimulants and cognition enhancers................................................. 234 Section VIII: Cardiovascular drugs 36. Drugs affecting Renin-Angiotensin system and plasma kinins................. 234 37. Cardiac glycosides.and drugs for heart failure........................................ 235
  6. 6. Companion for 2nd MBBSxvi 38. Antiarrhythmic drugs..................................................................................237 39. Antianginal and other anti-ischemic drugs................................................. 238 40. Antihypertensive drugs...............................................................................240 Section IX: Drugs acting on kidney 41. Diuretics......................................................................................................242 42. Antidiuretics................................................................................................244 Section X: Drugs Affecting Blood and Blood Formation 43. Hematinics and Erythropoietin....................................................................245 44. Drugs affecting coagulation, bleeding and thrombosis............................. 246 45. Hypolipidemic drugs and plasma expanders............................................. 249 Section XI: GastroIntestinal drugs 46. Drugs for peptic ulcer.................................................................................249 47. drugs for Emesis, reflux and digestive disorders..................................... 251 48. Drugs for constipation and diarrhea .........................................................252 Section XII: Antimicrobial drugs 49. Antimicrobial Drugs: General Considerations............................................. 253 50. Sulfonamides, Co-trimoxazole and Quinolones.......................................... 254 51. Beta-lactam Antibiotics...............................................................................256 52. Tetracyclines and Chloramphenicol............................................................259 53. Aminoglycoside Antibiotics.........................................................................260 54. Macrolide, Lincosamide, Glycopeptide and other Antibacterial Antibiotics; Urinary Antiseptics............................................... 262 55. Antitubercular Drugs...................................................................................263 56. Antileprotic Drugs.......................................................................................265 57. Antifungal Drugs.........................................................................................266 58. Antiviral Drugs............................................................................................267 59. Antimalarial Drugs......................................................................................268 60. Antiamebic and other Antiprotozoal Drugs................................................. 269 61. Antihelminthic Drugs...................................................................................270 Section XIII: Chemotherapy of Neoplastic Diseases 62. Anticancer drugs .......................................................................................272 Section XIV: Miscellaneous drugs 63. Immunosuppressants and Gene therapy.................................................. 273 64. Drugs Acting on Skin and Mucous Membranes.......................................... 274 65. Antiseptics, Disinfectants and Ectoparasiticides......................................... 274 66. Chelating Agents.........................................................................................275 67. Vitamins......................................................................................................276 68. Vaccines and Sera......................................................................................276
  7. 7. Contents xvii Foremsic Medicine and Toxicology Section I: Forensic Medicine 1. Introduction.................................................................................................288 2. Legal Procedure.........................................................................................288 3. Medical Law and Ethics..............................................................................290 4. Identification................................................................................................294 5. Medicolegal Autopsy...................................................................................296 6. Death and its Cause...................................................................................298 7. Postmortem Changes.................................................................................298 8. Mechanical Injuries.....................................................................................301 9. Regional Injuries.........................................................................................304 10. Medicolegal Aspects of Wounds.................................................................305 11. Thermal Deaths..........................................................................................306 12. Starvation....................................................................................................307 13. Mechanical Asphyxia..................................................................................307 14. Impotence and Sterility...............................................................................310 15. Virginity, Pregnancy and Delivery............................................................... 311 16. Abortion......................................................................................................312 17. Sexual Offences..........................................................................................313 18. Infant Deaths..............................................................................................314 19. Blood Stains................................................................................................316 20. Artefacts......................................................................................................316 21. Forensic Science Laboratory......................................................................316 22. Forensic Psychiatry....................................................................................317 Section II: Toxicology 23. General Consideration................................................................................319 24. Agricultural Poisons....................................................................................321 25. Corrosive Poisons.......................................................................................322 26. Metallic Poisons..........................................................................................322 27. Inorganic Irritant Poisons............................................................................323 28. Organic Irritant Poisons..............................................................................323 29. Cns Depressants.......................................................................................324 30. Psychotropic Drugs.....................................................................................325 31. Deliriant Poisons.........................................................................................325 32. Drug Dependence.......................................................................................326 33. Spinal Poisons............................................................................................326 34. Cardiac Poisons..........................................................................................327 35. Asphyxiants................................................................................................327 36. Miscellaneous Poisons...............................................................................327 37. Food Poisoning...........................................................................................327 38. Appendix.....................................................................................................328
  8. 8. Companion for 2nd MBBSxviii Community Medicine 1. Man and Medicine: Towards Health for All.................................................. 336 2. Concept of Health and Disease..................................................................336 3. Principles of Epidemiologic Methods..........................................................340 4. Screening for Disease................................................................................346 5. Epidemiology of Communicable Diseases................................................. 347 6. Epidemiology of Chronic Non-communicable Diseases and Conditions.... 358 7. Nutrition and Health....................................................................................361 8. Social Science and Health..........................................................................365 9. Environment and Health.............................................................................367 10. Occupational Health...................................................................................372 11. Genetics and Health...................................................................................375 12. Health Information and Basic Medical Statistics......................................... 376 13. Communication for Health Education.........................................................378

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