STANFORD TECHNOLOGY CAMPUS IN HONG KONG PROPOSAL GLOBAL URBAN DESIGN COURSE - PACKAGE 1 10 / 02/ 2012
HONG KONG TEAM MEMBERSAndy Li / Stanford, CA / ArchitectureTheodore Lim / Stanford, CA / Urban planning, architectureSam Wright / Stanford, CA / Urban planningJakob Lozej / Ljubljana, SI / EconomyDominik Košak / Ljubljana, SI / Architecture
GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT HONG KONGOfficial name: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of ChinaOfficial languages: Chinese, EnglishArea: land - 1,104 km² (426 sq mi), water - 50 km² (19 sq mi)Population: 7,061,200 (2010), 6,480 km² / 16,576/sq miTime zone: HKT (UTC+8)Currency: Hong Kong dollarHuman development index (HDI): 0.898 (very high)As one of the worlds leading international financial centres, Hong Kong has a major capitalist service economy characterised by lowtaxation and free trade, and the currency, Hong Kong dollar, is the eighth most traded currency in the world. The lack of space caused demandfor denser constructions, which developed the city to a centre for modern architecture and the worlds most vertical city. The dense space alsoled to a highly developed transportation network with public transport travelling rate exceeding 90 percent, the highest in the world. Hong Konghas numerous high international rankings in various aspects. For instance, its economic freedom, financial and economic competitiveness,quality of life, corruption perception, Human Development Index, etc., are all ranked highly.
GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT HONG KONGBRIEF HISTORYArcheological findings date the first human settlements in the area back to more than 30,000 years ago. It was first incorporated into Chinaduring the Qin Dynasty and largely remained under Chinese rule until 1841 during the Qing Dynasty, with a brief interruption at the end of theQin Dynasty, when a Qin official established the kingdom of Nam Yuet, which later fell to the Han Dynasty. Hong Kong became a colony of theBritish Empire after the First Opium War (1839–42). Originally confined to Hong Kong Island, the colonys boundaries were extended in stagesto the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 and then the New Territories in 1898. It was occupied by Japan during the Pacific War, after which the Britishresumed control until 1997, when China resumed sovereignty. The region espoused minimum government intervention under the ethos ofpositive non-interventionism during the colonial era. The time period greatly influenced the current culture of Hong Kong, often described as"East meets West", and the educational system, which used to loosely follow the system in England until reforms implemented in 2009. Hong Kong in 1843 (English colonial area) seen from Kowloon peninsula.
SATELLITE VIEW Satellite view of Hong Kong Island (lower half), Kowloon (center) and New Territories (upper half).
DISTRICTSHONG KONG (Central, East Coast, South Coast)Hong Kong Island is the site of the original British settlement. Most of Hong Kongs highest skyscrapers and the financial centre can be foundhere, including its famous skyline along the northern coastline. Hong Kongs financial centre, shopping. Overall, Hong Kong Island is moremodern and wealthy than the other areas of Hong Kong.KOWLOONThis peninsula jutting south towards Hong Kong Island from the Asian continent is the most populous area in Hong Kong and at one time it wasthe most densely populated place in the world. Today, it offers a chaotic mix of malls, street markets and residential tenements.NEW TERRITORIESNamed by British officials when leased from the Chinese government in 1898, the New Territories contain a curious mix of small farms,villages, industrial installations, mountainous country parks and towns that have populations the size of some cities.LANTAUThe largest of the Outlying Islands, twice the size of Hong Kong Island and famous for its high peaks, wild landscapes, great beaches and theairport, which has a significant role in Hong Kongs economy.OUTLYING ISLANDSWell-known weekend destinations for the locals, the Outlying Islands are most of the islands surrounding Hong Kong Island. They range fromsignificant population centres to rocks poking out of the sea.
CLIMATEThe climate of Hong Kong is a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate, just short of being a tropical wet-and-dry climate. In thewinter, the weather is generally cool by local standards, with temperatures hovering between 15°C and 20°C. Spring brings warmer and morehumid weather. Summer weather is hot, humid and unstable. Thunderstorms and brief showers are common, as well as sunny conditions.August has the highest average rainfall of any month. Temperatures usually exceed 30°C during the day, which, coupled with a high humidity,can result in an extreme heat index. Hong Kong is frequently hit by typhoons in summer. Autumn is generally considered as the most pleasantseason. Temperatures are still high (20-27°C) while humidity and rainfall are considerably lower. Climate chart - Hong Kong.
GENERAL SOCIAL REPORTDemographicsHong Kong is one of the most densely populated areas in the world with an overall density of some 6,300 people per square kilometre. Theterm "densely populated, green city" is used to describe the majority of the people living in apartments in high-rise buildings, and most landreserved for open spaces, country parks, and woodland. Hong Kong has one of the world’s lowest birth rates—0.9 per woman of child-bearingage, far below the replacement rate of 2.1. With just 1,032 babies born in 2009 to every 1000 fertile women, it is estimated that 26.8% of thepopulation will be aged 65 or more in 2033, up from 12.1% in 2005. Age structure for year 2010 and 2050 in comparison.
GENERAL SOCIAL REPORTAge structure- 0-14 years: 13.5% (male 482,500; female 452,100)- 15-24 years: 13.1% (male 445,400; female 459,300)- 25-34 years: 15.3% (male 462,000; female 592,000)- 35-44 years: 18.1% (male 547,000; female 698,400)- 45-54 years: 17.5% (male 594,200; female 613,400)- 55-64 years: 10.0% (male 353,500; female 337,400)- 65 and over: 12.5% (male 339,500; female 464,800)Average age is 41,7 years and life expectancy is 82.9 years.EthnicityChinese make up 95% of the population with the other groups floating at around 5%. The majority of Hong Kongers of Chinese descent tracetheir ancestry to various parts of Southern China: the Guangzhou area, Sze Yap, Chaoshan, Fujian and Shanghai. Other ethnicity group areFilipino (2,1 %), Indonesian (0,8 %), Westerners (0,7 %), Indian (0,3 %).CultureThe culture of Hong Kong can best be described as a foundation that began with China, and became more influenced by British colonialism.Despite the 1997 transfer of sovereignty to the Peoples Republic of China, Hong Kong continues to hold an identity of its own.Most Hong Kong ethnic Chinese people naturally lean toward eastern culture, because demographically they are the majority. On varioussocial aspects, the bottom-line Chinese values of "family solidarity", "courtesy" and "saving face" carry significant weight in the culture. Heavyinfluence is derived from Cantonese culture from the neighbouring Chinese province of Guangdong.When not at work, Hongkongers devote much time to leisure. Mahjong is a popular social activity, and family and friends may play for hours atfestivals and on public holidays in homes and mahjong parlours. Outdoor activities such as hiking, barbecues and watersports are also populardue to the local geography.
GENERAL SOCIAL REPORTEducation / occupationThe educational level of the population of Hong Kong has improved appreciably over the past five years. The following table compares theeducational attainment of the population aged 15 and over for 2005 and 2010:Labour Force Participation RateThe size of the total labour force in Hong Kong for 2010 was 3.65 million. This represented 59.7 per cent of the total population aged 15 andover. The distribution of the employed population in Hong Kong by occupation for 2010 was as follows:Main higher education institutions in Hong Kong are The University of Hong Kong (21,500 students), The Hong Kong University of Science andTechnology (8,000 students), Chinese University of Hong Kong (14,300 students), Hong Kong Polytechnic University (28,300 students).
GENERAL CONSTRUCTION REPORTThere are over 7,650 skyscrapers in Hong Kong, which puts the city at the top of world rankings. The high density and tall skyline of HongKongs urban area is due to a lack of available sprawl space, with the average distance from the harbour front to the steep hills of Hong KongIsland at 1.3 km, much of it reclaimed land. This lack of space causes demand for dense, high-rise offices and housing. Thirty-six of theworlds 100 tallest residential buildings are in Hong Kong which makes it one of the most vertical city in the world. Hong Kong has become acentre for modern architecture as older buildings are cleared away to make space for newer, larger buildings.Land is in short supply in Hong Kong, and land reclamation has been conducted there since centuries. The first land reclamation can betraced back to the early Western Han Dynasty (206 BCE – 9 CE), when beaches were reclaimed into fields for salt production. Major landreclamation projects have been conducted since the mid-19th century.There are many development plans in place, including the construction of new government buildings, waterfront redevelopment in Central,and a series of projects in West Kowloon. More high-rise development is set to take place on the other side of Victoria Harbour in Kowloon, asthe 1998 closure of the nearby Kai Tak Airport lifted strict height restrictions. Reclaimed land in Hong Kong (yellow).
GENERAL CONSTRUCTION REPORTThe development of tall building construction has recently introduced a few innovations, which allow buildings to be constructed in lower costusing improved analysis technique and by using construction-led principles of design. The costs could be minimized by lowering constructiontime, which decrease labour time on site and prefabrication of elements off-site.In Hong Kong, there is a trend of constructing composite structures. They are typically structures that use concrete core, steel compositefloors and steel concrete composite perimeter frame. This is a reflection of the marcet conditions in HK which provide a number of advantagessuch as benefit on the speed for erecting floors and perimeter frames of steelwork construction, the use use of mature and highly efficientclimbform and jumpform construction techniques for reinforced concrete cores, the effective balance between the demand on skilled(steelwork) and less skilled (reinforced concrete) labour...Construction is the second largest industrial economic activity in Hong Kong. At the same time of building for Hong Kong’s prosperity anddevelopment, the industry has generated huge amount of construction and demolition (C&D) materials. The handling and disposal of thesevoluminous materials has become a severe environmental and social issue. In the past, the inert portion of C&D materials such as rock,concrete and soil has been used as fill in reclamation and earth filling projects. The recent public sentiment against reclamation projects hascaused many planned reclamation projects to be delayed and reduced in size. Reclamation is no longer regarded a sustainable and reliableoption for accommodating C&D materials. New strategy is needed for C&D materials management to alleviate the demand for reclamationsites. Hong Kong is not alone in facing disposal problem for C&D materials. Many overseas countries, like Australia, Germany, Netherlands,Japan and Korea, have gone a long way to develop and implement recycling technique to process inert C&D materials into usefulconstruction ingredients.
SELECTED SITES01_Kai Tak Airport, Kowloon02_West Kowloon, Kowloon03_Austin, Kowloon04_Fo Tan, New Territories05_Tuen Mun, New territories
GENERAL INFORMATIONHISTORICAL BACKGROUND-Named after two businessmen, the Kai Tak Airport was originally an attempt by Sir Ho Kai and Mr. Au Tak to reclaim land in Kowloon Bay for aresidential housing scheme.-The suitability of using this land as an airfield was then recognized and the first recorded flight from Kai Tak took place on Lunar New YearsDay in 1925.-Despite several programs to expand the airport, Kai Tak was closed in favor of the new Hong Kong International Airport.-In October 1998, the Government drafted a new plan for the old airport site. After a large number of objections, the reclamation was scaleddown to 166 hectares in June 1999.-Two blueprints, one in 2002 and another in 2006, have been proposed to the government based on "overriding public interest" Kai Tak Airport: Now and Then - 1947 (left), present (right) 01_KAI TAK AIRPORT
TRANSPORTATION REPORTVARIETY OF TRANSIT OPTIONS-MTR (Mass Transit Railway)-Choi Hung Station - Kwun Tong Line-Bus-KMB (Kowloon Motor Bus), City Bus, & NWFB (New World First Bus)-Bus stops at Choi Hung Station & around exterior of property-GMB (Green Minibus)-Minibuses spread throughout area-Ferry-Kowloon City Ferry Pier-New World First Ferry Company-Kowloon City - North Point (Hong Kong Island)AMOUNT OF TIME TO TRAVEL-Hong Kong Business District-By Car: ~15 mins-By Public Transit: ~40 mins-Airport-By Car: ~40 mins-By Public Transit: ~1 hour 01_KAI TAK AIRPORT
TRANSPORTATION Transportation by car and bus is further aided by existing roads, nearby highways, and an underground tunnel running directly under the airport. 01_KAI TAK AIRPORT
CONSTRUCTION REPORTSITE CHARACTERICTICS-Reclaimed land, ~10 meters above sea level-South, West, East sides bounded by Victoria Harbour, 6-storey high buildings to the North-2006 blueprint: "a basket of small measures designed to answer a bevy of concerns raised by the public" (various program proposals)and extension of several "green corridors" from the main central park into the surrounding neighbourhoods of Kowloon City, KowloonBay and Ma Tau Kok.-Infracture is already established-Kai Tak tunnel crosses underneath-Highway is encircles the area; traffic noise-Business and residental zones nearby (below)ASCERTAINMENTS-Infracture is already established, needs to be extended-Some of the facilities could be retorffited-Project should acquire own street, bike-lane system due to relative large distances-Well accesible site; undisturbed construction flow-2006 blueprint should be taken into consideration during projects planning 01_KAI TAK AIRPORT
GENERAL INFORMATIONLocated in the Yau Tsim Mong District, West Kowloon is an area where much thegovernment hopes to expand into. -A new Cultural Center is being planned near thesite. See the concept rendering at right. The building is situated between a balance of commercial skyscrapers and smaller apartment buildings. In addition, there are many patches of open green space nearby. See photo to the left. The photo below is a view of Hong Kong with the cultural center and other buildings projected into the site. 02_WEST KOWLOON
TRANSPORTATION REPORTVARIETY OF TRANSIT OPTIONS-MTR (Mass Transit Railway) -Kowloon Station - Tung Chung Line & Airport Express -Austin Station - West Rail Line-Bus -KMB (Kowloon Motor Bus)-Bus stops at Kowloon Station & Austin Station -GMB (Green Minibus)-Minibuses spread throughout area-Ferry -Tsim Sha Tsui Ferry Pier-Star Ferry Company-Tsim Sha Tsui (Kowloon) - Central Ferry Pier (Hong Kong Island)-Tsim Sha Tsui (Kowloon) - Wan Chai Ferry Pier (Hong Kong Island)AMOUNT OF TIME TO TRAVEL-Hong Kong Business District -By Car: ~10 mins -By Public Transit: ~10 mins-Airport -By Car: ~30 mins -By Public Transit: ~35 mins 02_WEST KOWLOON
CONSTRUCTION REPORTSITE CHARACTERICTICS-reclaimed land, just above sea level- facing the Admiralty on the other side of the harbour- S - Victoria Harbour, W - peninsula, E - commercial and residental area, N - business centre- 2011 blueprint: West Kowloon Cultural District: Cultural facilities, creative learning spaces, resident company centres- infracture is already established- Western harbour crossing: traffic jams- Austin road is man existent road- New Yau Ma Tei typhoon shelter nearby; possible floods- traffic noiseASCERTAINMENTS- infracture is already established, needs to be extended- well-accesible site; undisturbed construction flow- possible on-water extension- 2011 blueprint should be taken into consideration during projects planning 02_WEST KOWLOON
TRANSPORTATION REPORTVARIETY OF TRANSIT OPTIONS-MTR (Mass Transit Railway) -Kowloon Station - Tung Chung Line & Airport Express -Austin Station - West Rail Line-Bus -KMB (Kowloon Motor Bus)-Bus stops at Kowloon Station & Austin Station-Bus stops at residential and commercial hubs -GMB (Green Minibus)-Minibuses spread throughout area-Ferry -Tsim Sha Tsui Ferry Pier-Star Ferry Company-Tsim Sha Tsui (Kowloon) - Central Ferry Pier (Hong Kong Island)-Tsim Sha Tsui (Kowloon) - Wan Chai Ferry Pier (Hong Kong Island)AMOUNT OF TIME TO TRAVEL-Hong Kong Business District -By Car: ~10 mins -By Public Transit: ~20 mins-Airport -By Car: ~30 mins -By Public Transit: ~45 mins 03_AUSTIN
CONSTRUCTION REPORTSITE CHARACTERICTICS- reclaimed land, just above sea level- S - business centre, W - typhoon shelter, highway, N E - residental area- infracture is already established- highway intersection = traffic noise- New Yau Ma Tei typhoon shelter nearby; possible floodsASCERTAINMENTS- infracture is already established, needs to be extended- existent road system- well-accesible site; undisturbed construction flow- high-rises on the north are shading the site 03_AUSTIN
GENERAL INFORMATIONFo Tan is a suburb of Sha Tin District, Hong Kong that lacks the "Monday"architecture of its nearby cities. It was developed as a light industrial area,but this activity has declined markedly in recent years. As office buildingsclosed, artist studios have opened to take their place. Today, there is avibrant underground independent artist community that could complementthe technology campus. There are residential areas in the eastern andwestern outskirts of the suburb and along the mass transit railway line. 04_FO TAN
TRANSPORTATION REPORTVARIETY OF TRANSIT OPTIONS-MTR (Mass Transit Railway) -University Station - East Rail Line-Bus -KMB (Kowloon Motor Bus) & GMB (Green Minibus)-Bus stops at University Station & around propertyAMOUNT OF TIME TO TRAVEL-Hong Kong Business District -By Car: ~25 mins -By Public Transit: ~45 mins-Airport -By Car: ~40 mins -By Public Transit: ~1.5 hours 04_FO TAN
CONSTRUCTION REPORTSITE CHARACTERICTICS- hilly terrain; cca. 150 m above the populated zone, 200 m above sea level- hardly accesible site; just one road which leads to the top of the hill and is connected with highway (3 km) and Fo Tan local road- currently occupied with forest- isolated from the city- no surrounding buildings nearby; no shading from built elements- no traffic noiseASCERTAINMENTS- forest should be cut down in order to get space for construction site- hard terrain to build on, should be leveled first- a completely new infrastructure should be established- major intervetions can have negative environmental effects (changing microclimate and ecosystem)- isolated site can face construction delays and difficulties, but can also assure construction progress undisturbed (no traffic, no surroundingbuildings, no infrastructure) 04_FO TAN
GENERAL INFORMATIONTuen Mun is a town near the mouth of Tuen Mun River and CastlePeak Bay in the New Territories, Hong Kong. While the NewTerritories is generally known to be more detached from mainstreamHongKong, there is now a substantial amount of facilities including:A magistrates courtA registration officeSeveral sports complexA multi-story central library supplemented by two othersA theatrical and concert venue 05_TUEN MUN
TRANSPORTATION REPORTVARIETY OF TRANSIT OPTIONS-MTR (Mass Transit Railway) -Tuen Mun Station - West Rail Line -Siu Hong Station - West Rail Line-Light Rail -Shek Pai Station -San Wai Station-Bus -KMB (Kowloon Motor Bus), GMB (Green Minibus), & MTR Buses-Bus stops at Light Rail StationsAMOUNT OF TIME TO TRAVEL-Hong Kong Business District -By Car: ~40 mins -By Public Transit: ~1 hour-Airport -By Car: ~40 mins -By Public Transit: ~1.5 hours 05_TUEN MUN
CONSTRUCTION REPORTSITE CHARACTERICTICS- dynamic terrain- terrain is slowly dropping toward the north (residental area)- currently occupied with forest- mountains on the west are causing more rainfall- accesible from existent road, railway and highway nearby (cca. 500 m)- isolated (Yuen Long - 8 km, Hong Kong island - 25 km, Airport - 11 km)- no surrounding buildings in close range; no shading from built elements- low traffic noiseASCERTAINMENTS- forest should be cut down in order to get space for construction site- medium-difficult terrain to build on, should be leveled at first, design of the project can be dictated by topohraphy- a new infrastructure should be established but based upon existent one- major intervetions can have negative environmental effects (changing microclimate and ecosystem)- nearby railway, highway and water canal could increase construction productivity and accelerate it 05_TUEN MUN