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ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version
 

ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version

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ISTQB Foundation Level

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    ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version ISTQB - Foundation Level - English Version Document Transcript

    • IntFternatioCoundonal SoCertifidationRVerftwareied Tn LevReleasedrsion 201Testingestervel Sy11g Qualifryllabuficationusns Boarrd
    • CertifFoundaVersion 2© InternationaCopyrighThis docCopyrighISTQB isCopyrighthe ISTQCopyrighKlonk, RCopyrighFriedenbCopyrighKlaus OlAll rightsThe auth(ISTQB)have agr1) AnyauthandafterNatio2) Anyothecopy3) Anyits trfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing Qht Noticecument mayht Notice © Ins a registeredht © 2011 theQB WG Founht © 2010 theRahul Verma)ht © 2007 theberg and Erikht © 2005, thlsen, Maarets reserved.hors hereby t. The authorreed to the foindividual orors and theprovided thar submissiononal Board.individual orer derivativeyright ownersISTQB-recoranslation) toeryllabusQualifications Boardbe copied innternationald trademarke authors forndation Levee authors for)e authors fork van Veenehe authors (TPyhäjärvi, Gtransfer the crs (as currentollowing condr training comISTQB areat any advern for officialr group of inwritings if ths of the syllaognized Natioo other partieits entirety,Software Teof the Internr the updatel)r the updater the updatendaal)Thomas MülleGeoff Thompcopyright to tt copyright hditions of usempany may uacknowledgertisement ofaccreditationdividuals mahe authors abus.onal Board ms.Page 2 of 7or extracts mesting Qualificnational Softw2011 (Thom2010 (Thom2007 (Thomer (chair), Reson and Erikthe Internatioolders) and Ie:use this syllaed as the sosuch a trainon of the traay use this sand the ISTmay translate78made, if the scations Boarware Testingas Müller (chas Müller (chas Müller (chex Black, Sigk van Veenenonal SoftwarISTQB (as thabus as the bource and coning course maining matersyllabus as tQB are acke this syllabuQsource is ackrd (hereinafteg Qualificatiohair), Debrahair), Armin Bhair), Dorothygrid Eldh, Dondaal).re Testing Quhe future copbasis for a traopyright ownmay mentionrials to an Ithe basis fornowledged aus and licensInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Marknowledged.er called ISTns Board,FriedenbergBeer, Martiny Graham, Drothy Grahaualificationspyright holdeaining courseers of the syn the syllabuISTQB recoarticles, booas the sourcse the syllabnalestings Boardr-2011QB®), andDebram,Boardr)e if theyllabusus onlygnizedoks, orce andbus (or
    • CertifFoundaVersion 2© InternationaRevisVersionISTQB 2ISTQB 2ISTQB 2ISTQB 2ASQF VISEB V2fied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing Qion HistoD2011 E2010 E2007 02005 02.2 J2.0 2eryllabusQualifications BoardoryDateEffective 1-ApEffective 30-M01-May-200701-July-2005July-200325-Feb-1999pr-2011Mar-20107Page 3 of 7RemarksCertifiedMaintenaNotesCertifiedMaintenaNotesCertifiedMaintenaCertifiedASQF Sy“LehrplanISEB Sof25 Febru78sTester Founance ReleaseTester Founance ReleaseTester Founance ReleaseTester Founyllabus Founn Grundlagenftware Testinary 1999Qdation Levele – see Appedation Levele – see Appedation Leveledation Leveldation Leveln des Softwang FoundatioInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Marl Syllabusendix E – Rel Syllabusendix E – Rel Syllabusl SyllabusVersion 2.2are-testens“on Syllabus Vnalestings Boardr-2011eleaseeleaseV2.0
    • CertifFoundaVersion 2© InternationaTableAcknowlIntroductPurpoThe CLearnThe EAccreLevelHow t1.  Fun1.1 1.11.11.11.11.11.2 1.3 1.4 1.41.41.41.41.41.5 1.6 2.  Tes2.1 2.12.12.12.2 2.22.22.22.22.3 2.32.32.32.32.4 3.  Sta3.1 3.2 3.23.23.23.23.3 4.  Tes4.1 4.2 fied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing Qof Conteedgements..tion to this Sose of this DoCertified Testning ObjectiveExamination .editation........of Detail......this Syllabusndamentals oWhy is Te.1  Softwa.2  Causes.3  Role of.4  Testing.5  How MWhat is TSeven TeFundame4.1  Test Pl4.2  Test An4.3  Test Im4.4  Evalua4.5  Test ClThe PsychCode of Esting ThrougSoftware.1  V-mode.2  Iterative.3  TestingTest Leve2.1  Compo2.2  Integra2.3  System2.4  AcceptTest Type3.1  Testing3.2  Testing3.3  Testing3.4  TestingMaintenanatic TechniquStatic TecReview P2.1  Activitie2.2  Roles a2.3  Types o2.4  SuccesStatic Anast Design TeThe TestCategorieeryllabusQualifications Boardents....................Syllabus........ocument......ter Foundatioes/Cognitive............................................................is Organizeof Testing (Kesting Necesre Systems Cs of Softwaref Testing in Sg and Qualityuch Testingesting? 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.................g (K2)...............................n (Functionalctional Softwe Structure/AChanges: Re(K2).................................d the Test Pr....................mal Review (Ksibilities (K1)(K2)..............or Reviews (Kols (K2) ........K4) ................nt Process (Kesign TechniqPage 4 of 7............................................................Software Tesowledge..............................................................................................................................)...................2) ................velopment, M....................(K2) ...............................................................................................................ution (K1).....porting (K1).............................................................Cycle (K2).....2) ................ent Model) (ent Models (el (K2) ................................................................................................................................Testing) (K2ware CharacteArchitecture (e-testing and........................................rocess (K2)......................K1)...............).......................................K2).......................................................K3)...............ques (K2) ....78............................................................ting..................................................................................................................................................................................................Maintenance........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................K2)..............(K2) .........................................................................................................................................................2) 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(K2)...................2).....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................nalestings Boardr-2011............ 7 ............ 8 ............ 8 ............ 8 ............ 8 ............ 8 ............ 8 ............ 9 ............ 9 .......... 10 .......... 11 .......... 11 .......... 11 .......... 11 .......... 11 .......... 12 .......... 13 .......... 14 .......... 15 .......... 15 .......... 15 .......... 16 .......... 16 .......... 16 .......... 18 .......... 20 .......... 21 .......... 22 .......... 22 .......... 22 .......... 22 .......... 24 .......... 24 .......... 25 .......... 26 .......... 26 .......... 28 .......... 28 ......... 28 .......... 29 .......... 29 .......... 30 .......... 31 .......... 32 .......... 33 .......... 33 .......... 33 .......... 34 .......... 35 .......... 36 .......... 37 .......... 38 .......... 39 
    • CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa4.3 4.34.34.34.34.34.4 4.44.44.44.5 4.6 5.  Tes5.1 5.15.15.2 5.25.25.25.25.25.25.3 5.35.35.35.4 5.5 5.55.55.6 6.  Too6.1 6.16.16.16.16.16.16.16.16.2 6.26.26.3 7.  ReStandBooks8.  ApHistorObjecObjecNovemEntryfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QSpecificat3.1  Equiva3.2  Bounda3.3  Decisio3.4  State T3.5  Use CaStructure-4.1  Statem4.2  Decisio4.3  Other SExperiencChoosingst ManagemTest Orga.1  Test O.2  Tasks oTest Plan2.1  Test Pl2.2  Test Pl2.3  Entry C2.4  Exit Cr2.5  Test Es2.6  Test StTest Prog3.1  Test Pr3.2  Test Re3.3  Test CoConfiguraRisk and T5.1  Project5.2  ProducIncident Mol Support foTypes of T.1  Tool Su.2  Test To.3  Tool Su.4  Tool Su.5  Tool Su.6  Tool Su.7  Tool Su.8  Tool SuEffective U2.1  Potenti2.2  SpeciaIntroducinferences......dards............s...................pendix A – Sry of this Docctives of the Fctives of the Imber 2001)..RequiremeneryllabusQualifications Boardtion-based orlence Partitioary Value Anon Table TesTransition Tease Testing (-based or Whment Testing aon Testing anStructure-basce-based TecTest Technient (K3) ......anization (K2rganization aof the Test Lning and Estanning (K2)anning ActivCriteria (K2) .iteria (K2)....stimation (K2trategy, Testgress Monitorrogress Moneporting (K2ontrol (K2)...ation ManageTesting (K2)t Risks (K2) .ct Risks (K2)Managementor Testing (K2Test Tools (Kupport for Teool Classificaupport for Maupport for Staupport for Teupport for Teupport for Peupport for SpUse of Toolsal Benefits al Consideratng a Tool into............................................................Syllabus Baccument ........Foundation CInternational....................nts for this Qur Black-box Toning (K3) ...nalysis (K3)..sting (K3) .....sting (K3) ....(K2)..............hite-box Tecand Coveragnd Coveragesed Techniquchniques (K2iques (K2)........................2) ..................and IndependLeader and Ttimation (K3)....................vities (K3).............................................2) .................t Approach (Kring and Conitoring (K1)..).......................................ement (K2)...............................................................(K3)............2).................K2)...............esting (K2) ...ation (K2).....anagement oatic Testingest Specificatest Executionerformance apecific Testins: Potential Band Risks ofions for Somo an Organiz............................................................kground...........................Certificate QQualification....................ualification...Page 5 of 7Techniques (....................................................................................................hniques (K4ge (K4) ........e (K4)...........ues (K1)......2).............................................................................dence (K2)..Tester (K1)...).......................................................................................................................K2) 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(K1)................................................................................................................................................rom ISTQB m........................................Q................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................) ..........................................................................................................................................(for all tools................................................................................................................................................................meeting at So........................................InternatioSoftware 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.................................................................................................................................................................ollentuna,......................................nalestings Boardr-2011.......... 40 .......... 40 .......... 40 .......... 40 .......... 41 .......... 41 .......... 42 .......... 42 .......... 42 .......... 42 .......... 43 .......... 44 .......... 45 .......... 47 .......... 47 .......... 47 .......... 49 .......... 49 .......... 49 .......... 49 .......... 49 .......... 50 .......... 50 .......... 51 .......... 51 .......... 51 .......... 51 .......... 52 .......... 53 .......... 53 .......... 53 .......... 55 .......... 57 .......... 58 .......... 58 .......... 58 .......... 59 .......... 59 .......... 59 .......... 60 .......... 60 .......... 60 .......... 62 .......... 62 .......... 62 .......... 64 .......... 65 .......... 65 .......... 65 .......... 67 .......... 67 .......... 67 .......... 67 .......... 67 
    • CertifFoundaVersion 2© InternationaBackg9.  ApLevelLevelLevelLevel10.  AFound10.10.10.10.11.  A12.  AReleaRelea13. fied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing Qground and Hpendix B – L1: Rememb2: Understa3: Apply (K34: Analyze (Appendix C –dation Syllab.1.1  Genera.1.2  Curren.1.3  Learnin.1.4  OverallAppendix D –Appendix E –ase 2010 ......ase 2011 ......Index...........eryllabusQualifications BoardHistory of theLearning Objeer (K1) ........nd (K2) .......3).................(K4) .............– Rules Appbus...............al Rules.......t Content ....ng Objectivesl Structure...– Notice to T– Release N............................................................e Foundationectives/Cogn................................................................................plied to the IS............................................................s ......................................Training Provotes.........................................................................Page 6 of 7n Certificate initive Level o................................................................................STQB...............................................................................................................viders ..........................................................................................78n Software Tof Knowledge............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................QTesting ........e..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................InternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Mar...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................nalestings Boardr-2011.......... 68 .......... 69 .......... 69 .......... 69 .......... 69 .......... 69 .......... 71 .......... 71 .......... 71 .......... 71 .......... 71 .......... 71 .......... 73 .......... 74 .......... 74 .......... 74 .......... 76 
    • CertifFoundaVersion 2© InternationaAcknoInternatioThomasArmin BeSchaefethe curreInternatioThomasreview teTuula PäVeenendInternatioThomasteam thaPetterssInternatioThomasGeoff Thsuggestified Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing Qowledgeonal SoftwarMüller (chaieer, Rex Blar, Stephanieent version oonal SoftwarMüller (chaieam (Rex Blaääkkönen, Mdaal) and allonal SoftwarMüller (chaianks the revieon, and Wononal SoftwarMüller (chaihompson andons.eryllabusQualifications Boardmentsre Testing Qur), Debra Frick, Julie GarUlrich, Erikof the syllabure Testing Qur), Rahul Veack, Mette BMeile PosthumNational Boare Testing Qur), Dorothy Gew team (Hanil Kwon) andre Testing Qur), Rex Blackd Erik van Veualificationsedenberg. Trdiner, Judyvan Veenens.ualificationsrma, Martin KBruhn-Pedersma, Hans Scards for theirualificationsGraham, Debans Schaeferd all the Natiualificationsk, Sigrid Eldheenendaal anPage 7 of 7Board WorkThe core teamMcKay, Tuuldaal) and allBoard WorkKlonk and Arson, Debra Fchaefer, Stepr suggestionsBoard Workbra Friedenbr, Stephanieonal BoardsBoard Workh, Dorothy Gnd the review78ing Group Fom thanks thela PääkköneNational Boing Group Formin Beer. TFriedenberg,phanie Ulrichs.ing Group Foerg, and ErikUlrich, Meilefor their suging Group FoGraham, Klauw team and aQoundation Lereview teamen, Eric Riouoards for theoundation LeThe core teamKlaus Olsen, Pete Williamoundation Lek van Veenee Posthuma,ggestions.oundation Leus Olsen, Maall National BInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Marevel (Editionm (Dan Almogdu Cosquiersuggestionsevel (Editionm thanks then, Judy McKams, Erik vanevel (Editionndaal. The cAndersevel (Editionaaret PyhäjärBoards for thnalestings Boardr-20112011):g,r Hansfor2010):ay,2007):core2005):rvi,eir
    • CertifFoundaVersion 2© InternationaIntrodPurpoThis syllaLevel. ThBoards flanguagefor accreInformatThe CThe Foupeople inacceptanfor anyomanagerconsultatesting qLearniLearningo K1: ro K2: uo K3: ao K4: aFurther dAll termsexplicitlyThe EThe FouexaminasyllabusThe formExams mexaminarequisiteAccredAn ISTQsyllabusperformsis alloweFurther gfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing Qductionose of thisabus forms the Internatiofor them to ae. Training peditation. Thion on the hiCertified Tndation Leven roles suchnce testers ane who wantrs, softwareants. Holdersqualification.ing Objecg objectives arememberunderstandapplyanalyzedetails and es listed undey mentionedExaminationdation Leveation question. All sectionsmat of the examay be takenation center oe for the examditationQB National B. Training pros the accredied to have anguidance foreryllabusQualifications Boardn to thiss Documethe basis foronal Softwareccredit the trproviders wille syllabus wstory and baTester Foel qualificatioas testers, teand softwarets a basic undevelopmenof the Founctives/Coare indicatedexamples of lr “Terms” jusin the learninonel Certificatens may requs of the syllabamination isn as part of aor in a publicm.Board may aoviders shoutation. An acn ISTQB exatraining provs Syllabentthe Internatie Testing Quraining providdetermine awill help candackground ofundationon is aimed aest analysts,developers.nderstandingnt managers,dation Certifognitive Ld for each selearning objest below chapng objectivesexaminationire the use obus are exammultiple choan accreditedexam). Comccredit trainiuld obtain accccredited couamination asviders is givePage 8 of 7usonal Softwaralifications Bders and to dappropriate teidates in thef the syllabusLevel inat anyone inv, test engineeThis Foundaof softwarebusiness anficate will beevel of Kction in this sectives are gpter headings.n will be baseof material baminable.oice.d training coumpletion of ang providerscreditation gurse is recogpart of the cen in Append78re Testing QBoard (ISTQBderive examieaching methir preparatios can be founSoftwarevolved in softers, test consation Level qtesting, suchnalysts, IT dirable to go onKnowledgesyllabus andiven in Appegs shall be reed on this syased on moreurse or takenan accrediteds whose couruidelines frognized as conourse.dix D.Qualification aB) provides ination questhods and pron for the exand in Appende Testingtware testingsultants, testqualification ih as project mrectors and mn to a highered classified asendix B.emembered (yllabus. Answe than one sn independend training course material fm the boardnforming to tInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Marat the Foundat to the Natiotions in theiroduce courseamination.dix A.g. This includt managers,is also appromanagers, qmanagemenr-level softwas follows:(K1), even ifwers toection of thisntly (e.g., at aurse is not afollows thisor body thathis syllabus,nalestings Boardr-2011ationonallocalewaredesuseropriateualitytarenotsanpre-tand
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    • CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa1.2TermsDebuggiBackgrA commThis is pTest actichoosingcriteria, ractivities(includinBoth dynand willdevelopmTesting co Findo Gaino Provo PrevThe thoutest basidocumendefects aDifferenttesting (emany faiacceptangain conbe to assstakeholtesting thoperatioavailabilDebuggiDebuggiSubsequresponsiThe procfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QWhat isng, requiremroundon perceptiopart of testingivities exist bg test conditireporting ons after a testg source codnamic testingprovide informent and tescan have theing defectsning confidenviding informventing defecught processs via test dents (e.g., reqappearing int viewpointse.g., componilures as posnce testing, tnfidence thatsess the quaders of the rhat no new dnal testing, tity.ng and testinng is the devuent re-testinibility for thescess of testineryllabusQualifications Boards Testinment, review,on of testing ig, but not all obefore and afons, designithe testing pphase has bde) and condg and static termation that csting processe following obnce about theation for decctss and activitiesign) can hequirements) athe code.in testing taknent, integratssible so thatthe main objeit has met thality of the sorisk of releasdefects havehe main objeng are differevelopment acng by a testese activities ing and the teg? (K2)test case, teis that it onlyof the testingfter test execng and execprocess andbeen completducting staticesting can bcan be usedses.bjectives:e level of quacision-makinges involved inelp to preventand the identke different otion and systt defects in thective may bhe requiremeoftware (withing the systebeen introduective may bent. Dynamicctivity that finr ensures thais usually tesesting activitiePage 13 ofesting, test oy consists ofg activities.cution. Thescuting test casystem undeted. Testingc analysis.e used as ato improve balitygn designing tt defects fromtification andobjectives intotem testing),he software abe to confirments. In someno intentionem at a givenuced during de to assess sc testing cannds, analyzeat the fix doesters test andes are expla78objectiverunning testsse activities inses, checkiner test, and fialso includesmeans for acboth the systtests early inm being introd resolution oo account. Fthe main obare identifiedthat the syse cases the mof fixing defen time. Maintdevelopmensystem charashow failures and removes indeed resd developersined in SectiQs, i.e., execunclude plannng results, evinalizing or cs reviewing dchieving simtem being testhe life cycleoduced into cof issues alsoFor example,bjective mayd and can betem works amain objectivects), to givetenance testit of the chanacteristics sues that are caves the causesolve the fails debug.on 1.4.InternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Ma30 minututing the softwning and contvaluating exitcompleting cldocumentsmilar objectivested and thee (verifying tcode. Reviewo help to previn developmbe to causee fixed. Ins expected,ve of testinge informationing often inclnges. Duringuch as reliabaused by defe of the failurure. Thenalestings Boardar-2011tesware.trol,tosurees,ehews ofventmentastomayn toludesbility orfects.re.
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    • CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa1.4.3Test impcombininexecutioTest impo Finao Deveharno Creao Verifo Verifo Execplano Loggundeo Como Repoa dewaso Repeexecof aintrodefe1.4.4EvaluatinobjectiveEvaluatino Checo Asseo Writi1.4.5Test clostestwaresoftwareachievedfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QTest Impplementationng the test caon, the enviroplementationalizing, implemeloping andnesses and wating test suitfying that thefying and upcuting test prned sequencging the outcer test, test tomparing actuaorting discreefect in the coexecuted)eating test acution of a tecorrected tesoduced in uncects (regressiEvaluatinng exit criteres. This shoung exit critercking test logessing if moring a test sumTest Clossure activitiee, facts and ne system is red, or a mainteeryllabusQualifications Boardplementatiand executioases in a paronment is setand executiomenting andprioritizing tewriting automtes from thee test environdating bi-direrocedures eicecome of testools and testal results withpancies as inode, in specictivities as aest that previost and/or exechanged areion testing)ng Exit Cria is the activuld be done fia has the fogs against thre tests are nmmary reporsure Activs collect datanumbers. Teseleased, a teenance releaon and Exon is the actrticular ordert up and theon has the foprioritizing test proceduremated test scrtest procedunment has beectional tracether manuallexecution antwareh expected rncidents andfied test dataa result of actously failed iecution of tesas of the sofriteria andvity where tefor each testllowing majohe exit criterianeeded or if trt for stakehovities (K1)a from compst closure acest project isase has beenPage 16 ofxecution (ivity where ter and includintests are runollowing majotest cases (ines, creating triptsures for efficieen set up coeability betwly or by usingnd recordingresultsd analyzing tha, in the testtion taken fon order to costs in order tftware or thaReportingest executionlevel (see Sor tasks:a specified inthe exit criterolderspleted test acctivities occurcompleted (on completed78K1)est procedurng any othern.or tasks:ncluding thetest data andent test execorrectlyeen the testg test executthe identitieshem in orderdocument, or each discreonfirm a fix (cto ensure that defect fixing (K1)is assessedSection 2.2).n test planninria specifiedctivities to cor at project mor cancelled.Qres or scriptsinformationidentificationd, optionally,cutionbasis and tetion tools, acs and versior to establishor a mistakeepancy, for econfirmationat defects hag did not uncd against thengshould be chnsolidate expmilestones su), a milestonInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Mas are specifieneeded for tn of test datapreparing teest casesccording to thns of the sofh their causein the way thexample, re-testing), exeve not beencover otherdefinedhangedperience,uch as whene has beennalestings Boardar-2011ed bytesta)estheftware(e.g.,he testecutiona
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    • CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa1.5TermsError gueBackgrThe mindsoftwareresponsian indepcarried oA certainat findingdevelopebe defineo Testo Testo Testteamo TestcertiPeople aby manameets itsIdentifyinauthor. Ain the mapessimisexperienIf errors,testers aduring reThe testedefects,defect insave timCommununwanterelationsfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QThe Psessing, indeprounddset to be use. With the rigibility to a tespendent viewout at any levn degree of ing defects anders can efficied as shownts designed bts designed bts designed bm) or test spets designed bfication by aand projectsagement ands objectives.ng failures duAs a result, teanagement osm, a criticalnce on whichdefects or faand the analyeviews as weer and test leprogress annformation cae and moneynication probed news abouships betweeeryllabusQualifications Boardsychologpendencesed while tesght mindset dster is typicaw by trained avel of testingndependencd failures. Indently find man here from loby the persoby another pby a person(ecialists (e.g.by a person(n external boare driven byother stakehTherefore, ituring testingesting is ofteof product riseye, attentioto base erroailures are coysts, designeell as in testineader need gd risks in a can help themy later, and rblems may ocut defects. Hen testers andgy of Tessting and revdevelopers ally done to hand professio.ce (avoiding tdependenceany defects iow to high:n(s) who wroerson(s) (e.gs) from a diff., usability ors) from a diffody)y objectives.holders, for et is importanmay be percen seen as asks. Lookingon to detail, gor guessing.ommunicateers and deveng.good interperconstructive wm improve thereduce risks.ccur, particuowever, therd others:Page 18 ofsting (Kviewing is diffare able to teelp focus effonal testing rthe author bie is not, howen their own cote the softwg., from the dferent organir performancferent organi. People tendexample, to ft to clearly sceived as cridestructive afor failures igood commud in a constrlopers can brsonal skillsway. For theeir skills. Defe.larly if testerre are severa782)ferent from thest their ownfort and provresources. Inas) often maever, a replaccode. Severaware under tedevelopmentizational grouce test speciaization or comd to align thefind defects otate the objeticism againsactivity, evenn a system runication withructive way,be avoided. Tto communicauthor of thects found as are seen oal ways to imQhat used whicode, but seide additionandependent takes the testecement for faal levels of inst (low levelt team)up (e.g., an ialists)mpany (i.e.,eir plans withor to confirmectives of tesst the producn though it isrequires curioh developmebad feelingsThis applies tcate factual ie software ond fixed durionly as messmprove commInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Ma25 minutile developineparation of tal benefits, sutesting may ber more effecamiliarity, anndependenceof independindependentoutsourcingthe objectivm that softwarting.ct and againss very construosity, professent peers, anbetween theto defects founformation aor document,ing testing wengers ofmunication annalestings Boardar-2011tesgthisuch asbectivende canence)t testores setrest theuctivesionaldeundaboutwillnd
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    • CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa1.6Involvemcode of einappropfollowingPUBLICCLIENTof their cPRODUCand systJUDGMEjudgmenMANAGethical aPROFESconsisteCOLLEApromoteSELF - CprofessioRefere1.1.5 Bl1.2 Beiz1.3 Beiz1.4 Hetz1.4.5 Bl1.5 Blacfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QCode oment in softwethics is necpriate use. Reg code of eth- Certified soAND EMPLOclient and emCT - Certifiedtems they tesENT- CertifientEMENT - Ceapproach to tSSION - Cernt with the pAGUES - CercooperationCertified softwon and shallencesack, 2001, Kzer, 1990, Blazer, 1990, Hezel, 1988ack, 2001, Cck, 2001, HeteryllabusQualifications Boardof Ethicsare testing eessary, amoecognizing thics:oftware testeOYER - Certmployer, consd software test) meet theed software tertified softwahe managemrtified softwarublic interestrtified softwan with softwaware testerspromote anKaner, 2002ack, 2001, Metzel, 1988, MCraig, 2002tzel, 1988senables indivong other reahe ACM anders shall acttified softwarsistent with thesters shall ehighest profetesters shallare test manment of softwre testers shtare testers shre developershall participethical approMyers, 1979Myers, 1979Page 20 ofviduals to leaasons to ensud IEEE codeconsistentlyre testers shahe public inteensure that thessional stanmaintain intenagers and leware testingall advancehall be fair torspate in lifelonoach to the p78rn confidentiure that the iof ethics forwith the puball act in a meresthe deliverabndards possiegrity and indeaders shallthe integrityand supportng learning rpractice of thQal and privilenformation isengineers, thblic interestmanner that isles they provbledependencesubscribe toand reputatiotive of their cregarding thee professionInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Ma10 minuteged informas not put tohe ISTQB sts in the bestvide (on the pin their profeand promoton of the procolleagues, ae practice ofnnalestings Boardar-2011tesation. Aates theinterestsproductsessionale anofessionandtheir
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    • CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationause, althintegratioAcceptao A COo Acceo AcceTypical fUser accTypicallyOperatioThe acceo Testo Disao Usero Maino Datao PerioContracContractcustom-dcontract.to, suchAlpha aDevelopcustomeis perforfield-testOrganizatesting fofied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing Qhough it is noon test may cnce testing mOTS softwareptance testieptance testiforms of acceceptance tey verifies theonal (accepteptance of thting of backuaster recoverr managementenance tasa load and modic checksct and regulat acceptancedeveloped so. Regulationas governmend beta (orers of markeers in their mamed at the dting, is perforations may uor systems theryllabusQualifications Boardot necessarilycome after thmay occur ate product maing of the usaing of a neweptance testiestingfitness for utance) testinhe system byup/restoreryentsksmigration taskof security vation accepte testing is peoftware. Accacceptanceent, legal orfield) testinget, or COTS,arket beforedeveloping orrmed by custuse other termhat are testey the final levhe acceptanct various timeay be acceptability of a cofunctional ening include thse of the sysngy the systemksulnerabilitiestance testinerformed agaceptance critetesting is pesafety regulagsoftware oftethe softwarerganization’stomers or poms as well, sd before andPage 27 ofvel of testingce test for aes in the lifetance testedomponent mnhancementhe following:stem by busiadministratosngainst a contraeria should berformed agaations.en want to ge product is ps site but nototential custosuch as factod after being78. For exampsystem.cycle, for exawhen it is inay be done dt may come bness users.ors, includingact’s acceptabe defined whainst any reguet feedbackput up for saby the deveomers at theiory acceptancmoved to aQle, a large-scample:nstalled or intduring compbefore systemg:ance criteriahen the partiulations thatfrom potentiale commercialoping team.r own locatioce testing ancustomer’s sInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Macale systemtegratedonent testingm testingfor producinies agree to tmust be adhal or existingally. Alpha teBeta testingons.nd site accepsite.nalestings Boardar-2011ggtheheredgestingg, orptance
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    • CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa9126). Nuses bla2.3.3Structuraused aftethroughCoveragpercentato test thChapterAt all tesbe usedtesting mStructuratesting le2.3.4After a ddefect hadefect) isRegressdiscovereither inperformebased onTests shtesting.Regressstructuraregressiofied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QNon-functionaack-box test dTesting oal (white-boxer specificatiassessmentge is the exteage of the itehose items th4.st levels, butto measuremay be basedal testing appevels (e.g., toTesting Rdefect is deteas been succs a developmsion testing isr any defectsthe softwareed when then the risk ofhould be repesion testing mal testing. Reon testing iseryllabusQualifications Boardal testing condesign technof Softwarx) testing mayon-based teof coverageent that a struems being cohat were missespecially inthe code covd on the archproaches cano business mRelated toected and fixecessfully remment activity,s the repeates introduced oe being testesoftware, ornot finding deatable if themay be perfoegression tesa strong cannsiders the eniques to accre Structuy be performchniques, ine of a type ofucture has beovered. If covsed to increan componentverage of elehitecture of thn also be apmodels or meo Changesed, the softwmoved. This inot a testinged testing ofor uncoveredd, or in anothits environmefects in softey are to be urmed at all test suites are rndidate for auPage 29 ofxternal behacomplish thature/Architemed at all testorder to helpstructure.een exerciseverage is notase coveraget testing andements, suchhe system, splied at systeenu structures: Re-testiware should bis called cong activity.an already ted as a resulther related oment, is chanftware that wused for confest levels, anrun many timutomation.78avior of the sot.ecture (Strt levels. Strup measure thed by a test s100%, thene. Coveragecomponenth as statemesuch as a calem, system ies).ng and Rebe re-tested tfirmation. Deested prograof the changor unrelated sged. The extas working pfirmation testnd includes fmes and geneQoftware andructural Tctural technihe thoroughnsuite, expresmore tests mtechniques aintegration teents or decisilling hierarchintegration oegressionto confirm thebugging (locam, after modge(s). Thesesoftware comtent of regrespreviously.ting and to aunctional, noerally evolveInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Main most caseesting) (Kiques are beness of testinsed as amay be desigare coveredesting, toolsons. Structuhy.r acceptanceTesting (hat the originacating and fixdification, todefects maymponent. It isssion testingssist regresson-functionale slowly, sonalestings Boardar-2011esK2)stnggnedincanraleK2)alxing ay besg issionand
    • CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa2.4TermsImpact aBackgrOnce desystem,planningmade beoperatiosystem.ModificaemergenupgradeexposedMaintenatests of ttesting) imaintainMaintenaarchivingIn additioparts of trisk of thchangesDeterminused to hdeterminMaintenadomain kRefere2.1.3 CM2.2 Hetz2.2.4 Co2.3.1 Be2.3.2 Bl2.3.3 Be2.3.4 He2.4 Blacfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QMainteanalysis, mairoundeployed, a soits configurag of releasesetween plannnal system, aations includency changess, planned ud or discovereance testingthe new enviis also needened.ance testingg if long dataon to testingthe system the change, ths, maintenancning how thehelp decide hne the regresance testingknowledge aencesMMI, Craig, 2zel, 1988opeland, 200eizer, 1990, Back, 2001, ISeizer, 1990, Cetzel, 1988, Ick, 2001, CraeryllabusQualifications Boardnance Tntenance tesoftware systeation data, orin advance ined releasesand is triggee planned en, and changepgrade of Coed vulnerabifor migrationronment as wed when datafor the retirea-retention pewhat has behat have nothe size of thece testing me existing syshow much ression test suican be difficare not availa2002, Hetzel04, Myers, 19Black, 2001,SO 9126Copeland, 20IEEE STD 82aig, 2002, HeTesting (stingem is often inits environmis crucial forand hot fixered by modifnhancement ces of environommercial-Olities of the on (e.g., fromwell as of thea from anothement of a syeriods are reeen changedt been change existing sysay be done astem may beegression tesite.cult if specificable.l, 1988, IEEE979Copeland, 2004, Hetzel,29-1998etzel, 1988, IPage 30 of(K2)n service for yment are oftensuccessful mes. Maintenanfications, migchanges (e.gnment, such aOff-The-Shelfoperating sysone platforme changed soher applicatioystem may inquired., maintenancged. The scostem and to tat any or all taffected bysting to do. Tcations are oE 1220720041988IEEE STD 8278years or decn corrected,maintenancence testing isgration, or reg., release-baas planned of software, orstem.m to another)oftware. Migon will be mignclude the tece testing incope of maintethe size of thtest levels anchanges is cThe impact aout of date or29-1998Qades. Duringchanged ore testing. A ds done on antirement of thased), correcoperating sysr patches toshould incluration testinggrated into thesting of datacludes regreenance testinhe change. Dnd for any orcalled impactnalysis mayr missing, orInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Ma15 minutg this time thextended. Thistinction hasn existinghe softwarective andstem or datacorrect newlude operationg (conversionhe system bea migration ossion testingng is related tDepending onr all test typet analysis, anbe used totesters withnalestings Boardar-2011tesehes to beorbaseynalneingrg toto then thes.nd is
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    • CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa3.3TermsCompileBackgrThe objeStatic andynamicfind in dyanalysissuch asThe valuo Earlyo Earlyas ao Ideno Deteo Impro PrevTypical do Refeo Incoo Variao Unreo Misso Oveo Progo Secuo SyntStatic anprogramcode to canalysisto allowCompileRefere3.2 IEEE3.2.2 Gi3.2.4 Gi3.3 vanfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QStatic Ar, complexityroundective of statinalysis is perc testing doesynamic testintools analyzHTML and Xue of static any detection oy warning abhigh completification of decting depenroved maintavention of dedefects discoerencing a vansistent inteables that areachable (desing and errorly complicatgramming staurity vulnerabtax violationsnalysis toolsming standaconfigurationtools may pthe most effers may offerencesE 1028ilb, 1993, vanilb, 1993, IEEVeenendaaleryllabusQualifications BoardAnalysisy, control flowic analysis isrformed withos execute theng. As with reze program cXML.nalysis is:of defects pribout suspicioexity measurdefects not edencies andainability of cfects, if lessoovered by staariable with arfaces betwere not used oead) codeoneous logicted constructandards violabilitiess of code andare typicallyards) before an managemeroduce a largective use ofsome suppon VeenendaaEE 1028l, 2004s by Toow, data flow,s to find defeout actually ee software coeviews, staticcode (e.g., coor to test exeous aspects oreeasily found binconsistenccode and desons are learnatic analysisan undefinedeen modulesor are improp(potentially itsationsd software mused by devand during cent tools, andge number of the tool.ort for static aal, 2004Page 36 ofols (K2)static analyscts in softwaexecuting theode. Static ac analysis finontrol flow anecutionof the code oby dynamic tcies in softwsignned in develotools included values and componperly declarednfinite loopsmodelsvelopers (cheomponent and by designeof warning meanalysis, incl78sisare source coe software benalysis can lnds defects rnd data flow)or design by ttestingware models sopmente:nentsd)ecking againnd integratiors during sofessages, whluding the caQode and softweing examinelocate defectrather than fa), as well as gthe calculatiosuch as linksst predefinedn testing or wftware modelich need to balculation of mInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Ma20 minutware modelsed by the toots that are haailures. Staticgenerated ouon of metricssd rules orwhen checkiling. Staticbe well-manametrics.nalestings Boardar-2011tess.ol;ard tocutputs, suchng-inaged
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    • CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa5.3(K2)TermsDefect d5.3.1The purpto be mocriteria, sscheduleo Percprepo Perco Testo Defeo Testo Subjo Dateo Testnext5.3.2Test repo Whao AnalactiotestiThe outlStd 829-Metrics so Theo Theo The5.3.3Test congatheredcycle actExampleo Mako Re-po Chao Settidevefied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QTest Prensity, failurTest Propose of test monitored maysuch as covee and budgetcentage of wopared)centage of wot case execuect informatiot coverage ofjective confides of test mileting costs, int testTest Reporting is conat happenedlyzed informaons, such asng, outstandine of a test-1998).should be coadequacy ofadequacy ofeffectivenesTest Conntrol described and reportetivity or task.es of test conking decisionsprioritizing tenging the tesing an entryeloper beforeeryllabusQualifications Boardrogressre rate, test cgress Monmonitoring isy be collectederage. Metrict. Common tork done in tork done in ttion (e.g., nuon (e.g., defef requiremendence of testestonescluding the cporting (K2cerned withduring a peration and mean assessmding risks, ansummary repollected durinf the test objf the test appss of the testintrol (K2)es any guidined. Actions m.ntrol actionss based on insts when anst schedule dcriterion reque accepting tMonitorcontrol, test mnitoring (Ks to provide fd manually ocs may also btest metrics itest case pretest environmumber of testect density, dnts, risks or cters in the prcost compare2)summarizingriod of testingetrics to suppment of defecd the level oport is givenng and at theectives for thproaches taking with respng or correctimay cover aninclude:nformation fridentified risdue to availauiring fixes tohem into a bPage 51 ofring andmonitoring, teK1)feedback andr automaticabe used to anclude:eparation (orment preparat cases run/ndefects foundcoderoducted to the beng informationg, such as daport recommts remainingof confidencein ‘Standardend of a teshat test levelkenpect to the obive actions tany test activitrom test monsk occurs (e.ability or unavo have beenbuild78Controest summaryd visibility abally and mayssess progrepercentageationnot run, and td and fixed, fnefit of findinn about the teates when exendations ang, the econome in the testedd for Softwarest level in ordbjectivesaken as a resty and may anitoringg., softwarevailability of are-tested (cQly reportbout test activbe used to mess against tof planned tetest cases pafailure rate, ag the next deesting endeaxit criteria wend decisionsmic benefit ofd softwaree Test Documder to assesssult of informaffect any othdelivered lata test environonfirmation tInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Ma20 minutvities. Informmeasure exitthe plannedest casesassed/failed)and re-test reefect or to ruavor, includinere metabout futuref continuedmentation’ (Is:mation and mher softwarete)nmenttested) by analestings Boardar-2011tesmationt)esults)n theng:eEEEmetricslife
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    • CertifFoundaVersion 2© Internationa7.StandISTQB G[CMMI] Cand ProdSee Sec[IEEE StSee Sec[IEEE 10See Sec[IEEE 12See Sec[ISO 912See SecBooks[Beizer,BostonSee Sec[Black, 2YorkSee Sec[BuwaldaReadingSee Sec[CopelanHouse: NSee Sec[Craig, 2House: NSee Sec[FewsterReadingSee Sec[Gilb, 19ReadingSee Sec[Hetzel,See Sec[Kaner, 2John WilSee Secfied Testeation Level Sy2011al Software Testing QReferendardsGlossary of TChrissis, M.Bduct Improvection 2.1td 829-1998]ctions 2.3, 2.4028] IEEE Stction 3.22207] IEEE 1ction 2.126] ISO/IEC 9ction 2.3s1990] Beizerctions 1.2, 1.32001] Black,ctions 1.1, 1.2a, 2001] Buw, MAction 6.2nd, 2004] CoNorwood, MActions 2.2, 2.32002] Craig, RNorwood, MActions 1.4.5, 2r, 1999] Few, MActions 6.2, 6.393]: Gilb, To, MActions 3.2.2, 31988] Hetzections 1.3, 1.42002] Kaner,ley & Sons: Nctions 1.1, 4.5eryllabusQualifications BoardncesTerms used iB., Konrad, Mement, AddisIEEE Std 824, 4.1, 5.2, 5td 1028™ (2012207/ISO/IE9126-1:2001r, B. (1990) S3, 2.3, 4.2, 4R. (2001) Ma2, 1.4, 1.5, 2walda, H. et aopeland, L. (2A3, 4.2, 4.3, 4Rick D. and JA2.1.3, 2.4, 4.ster, M. and3om and Grah3.2.4l, W. (1988)4, 1.5, 2.1, 2, C., Bach, JNew York5, 5.2n Software TM. and Shrumson Wesley:29™ (1998)5.3, 5.5, 5.6008) IEEE SEC 12207-201, Software ESoftware Tes4.3, 4.4, 4.6anaging the2.3, 2.4, 5.1,al. (2001) Int2004) A Prac4.4, 4.6Jaskiel, Stef1, 5.2.5, 5.3Graham, D.am, DorothyComplete G2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 4. and PettticoPage 65 ofTesting Versim, S. (2004)Reading, MAIEEE Standatandard for S008, SoftwareEngineering –sting TechniqTesting Proc5.2, 5.3, 5.5,tegrated Tesctitioner’s Gufan P. (2002), 5.4(1999) Softwy (1993) SoftGuide to Softw4.1, 5.1, 5.3ord, B. (200278ion 2.1CMMI, GuidAard for SoftwSoftware Reve life cycle p– Software Pques (2nd edcess (3rd edi, 5.6t Design anduide to Softw) Systematicware Test Auware Inspecware Testing2) Lessons LQelines for Proware Test Docviews and Aurocesses,Product Qualdition), Van Nition), John Wd Automationware Test DesSoftware Teutomation, Ation, Addisong, QED: WelleLearned in SoInternatioSoftware TeQualifications31-Maocess Integrcumentationudits,ity,Nostrand ReWiley & Sonsn, Addison Wsign, Artechesting, ArtechAddison Wesln Wesley:esley, MAoftware Testinalestings Boardar-2011ration,inhold:s: NewWesley:hley:ing,
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