Swami vivekananda


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Swami Vivekananda- his Life and work

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Swami vivekananda

  1. 1. <ul><li>SWAMI VIVEKANANDA </li></ul><ul><li>By </li></ul><ul><li>Shrikant Nagnath Gade </li></ul><ul><li>A2-1704, Elita Promenade </li></ul><ul><li>JP Nagar, Bangalore </li></ul><ul><li>@ Good Taste Club 19 th Feb.2012 </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>CONTENTS… </li></ul><ul><li>Birth and early life </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>With Ramakrishna </li></ul><ul><li>Wandering in India </li></ul><ul><li>In West </li></ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul><ul><li>The significance of Swami Vivekanda’s message </li></ul><ul><li>Work </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Message to the youth </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Narendranath Dutta was born in Shimla Pally, Kolkata, West Bengal, India on January 12,1863 as the son of Viswanath Dutta and Bhuvaneswari Devi. </li></ul><ul><li>Even as he was young, he showed a precocious mind and keen memory. </li></ul><ul><li>He practiced meditation from a very early age. </li></ul><ul><li>While at school, he was good at studies, as well as games of various kinds </li></ul><ul><li>He was a leader among his group of friends. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>In1879, Narendra entered the Presidency College, Calcutta for higher studies. </li></ul><ul><li>After one year, he joined the Scottish Church College, Kolkatta and studied philosophy. </li></ul><ul><li>During the course, he studied western logic, western philosophy and history of European nations </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Questions started to arise in young Narendra's mind about God and the presence of God. </li></ul><ul><li>This made him associate with the Brahmo Samaj, an important religious movement of the time, led by Keshab Chandra Sen. </li></ul><ul><li>But the Samaj's congregational prayers and devotional songs could not satisfy Narendra's zeal to realise God. </li></ul><ul><li>He would ask leaders of Brahma Samaj whether they have seen God. He never got a satisfying answer. </li></ul><ul><li>It was during this time that Professor Hastie of Scottish Church College told him about Sri Ramakrishna of Dakshineswar. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Narendra met Ramakrishna for the first time in November 1881. </li></ul><ul><li>He asked Ramakrishna the same old question, whether he had seen God. </li></ul><ul><li>The instantaneous answer from Ramakrishna was, &quot;Yes,I see God, just as I see you here, only in a much intenser sense. &quot;Narendra was astounded and puzzled. </li></ul><ul><li>He could feel the man's words were honest and uttered from depths of experience. </li></ul><ul><li>He started visiting Ramakrishna frequently </li></ul>With Ramakrishna
  7. 7. With Ramakrishna …contd… <ul><li>Sri Ramakrisna paramhamshaishna, Dakshineswar, </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Though Narendra could not accept Ramakrishna and his visions, he could not neglect him. </li></ul><ul><li>It had always been in Narendra's nature to test something thoroughly before he could accept it. </li></ul><ul><li>He tested Ramakrishna to the maximum, but the master was patient, forgiving, humorous, and full of love. </li></ul><ul><li>In time, Narendra accepted Ramakrishna, and while he accepted, his acceptance was whole-hearted </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>While Ramakrishna predominantly taught duality and Bhakti to his other disciples, he taught Narendra the Advaita Vedanta, the philosophy of non-dualism. </li></ul><ul><li>Narendra was trans formed from a restless, puzzled, impatient youth to a mature man who was ready to renounce everything for the sake of God-realization. </li></ul><ul><li>Soon,Ramakrishna's end came in the form of throat cancer in August 1886. </li></ul>
  10. 10. (Sri Ramakrishna’s dead body, (which has been masked)
  11. 11. … (Cont…) <ul><li>After this Narendra and a core group of Ramakrishna's disciples took vows to become monks and renounce everything, and started living in a supposedly haunted house in Baranagore. </li></ul><ul><li>They took alms to satisfy their hunger and their other needs were taken care of by Ramakrishna's richer householder disciples. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Wanderings in India <ul><li>Soon, he wanted to live the life of a wandering monk with rags and a begging bowl and no other possessions. </li></ul><ul><li>On July1890, Vivekananda set out for a long journey, without knowing where the journey would take him. </li></ul><ul><li>The journey that followed took him to the length and breadth of the Indian subcontinent. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>It is said that he was given the name Vivekananda by Maharaja of Khetri for his discernment of things, good and bad. </li></ul><ul><li>He came in close contact with the culture of different regions of India and various classes of people in India. </li></ul><ul><li>He realized the need for a national rejuvenation if India was to survive at all </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>He reached Kanyakumari, on 24 December 1892. </li></ul><ul><li>There, he swam across the sea and started meditating on a lone rock for three days. </li></ul><ul><li>The rock went on to become the Vivekananda memorial at Kanyakumari. </li></ul><ul><li>He had a vision of Sri Ramakrishna who encouraged him to go to the West. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Contd… <ul><li>Helped by his friends at Chennai, Bhaskara Sethupathi, Raja of Ramnad and Maharajas of Mysore and Khetri, Vivekananda set out on his journey to the USA. </li></ul><ul><li>The invitation of the conference was actually given to Bhaskara Sethupathi, Raja of Ramnad to attend the World Parliament of Religions at Chicago. </li></ul><ul><li>But he decided and encouraged Swami Vivekananda,and said he was the right person to participate and represent the views of Hinduism in the Parliament of World Religions. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Contd… <ul><li>In the West Vivekananda was received well at the 1893 World Parliament of Religions in Chicago, where he delivered a series of lectures. </li></ul><ul><li>He also earned wild applause for beginning his address with the famous words, “Sisters and brothers of America” </li></ul><ul><li>Within a few years of the Parliament, he had started Vedantic centres in New York City and London, lectured at major universities and generally kindled western interest in Hinduism. </li></ul>                                               
  17. 18. Contd… <ul><li>When Swami Vivekananda went to USA, a lady asked him to marry her. When Swami asked the lady about what made her ask him such question. The lady replied that she was fascinated by his intellect. She wanted a child of such an intellect. So she asked Swami, whether he could marry her and give a child like him. </li></ul><ul><li>He said to that lady, that since she was attracted only by his intellect, there is no problem. “My dear lady, i understand Your desire. Marrying and bringing a child in to this world and understanding whether it is intelligent or not takes very long time. More over it is not guaranteed. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, to fulfill Your desire immediately, i can suggest a guaranteed way. Take me as your child. You are my mother. Now on Your desire of having a child of my intellect is fulfilled.”The lady was speechless. </li></ul>                                                                This picture possibly taken by Walery photographers, Regent Street, London, October (?), 1895
  18. 19. Contd… <ul><li>Vivekananda on the platform of the parliament </li></ul>
  19. 20. Vivekananda’s speech
  20. 21. Contd… <ul><li>His success was not without controversy, he had a lot of controversy After four years of constant touring, lecturing and retreats in the West, he came back to India in the year 1897. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Back In India <ul><li>In India, he delivered a series of lectures, and this set of lectures known as & “Lectures from Colombo to Almora “ & He founded the Ramakrishna Mission. </li></ul><ul><li>This institution is now one of the largest monastic orders of Hindu society in India. </li></ul><ul><li>However, he had to bear great criticism from other orthodox Hindus for having travelled in the west which they considered to be impure. </li></ul><ul><li>He once again toured the west from January 1899 to December 1900. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Contd… <ul><li>The rest of his life he dedicated to helping humanity; inspiring people into spiritual path by giving lectures and guidance, training disciples for monastic lives, founding the great Institution - the Ramakrishna Mission. </li></ul><ul><li>Since then, the Mission has inspired and continues to inspire people in their spiritual quest and has constantly engaged in humanitarian activities helping millions of people. </li></ul><ul><li>Swami Vivekananda wore out his robust body in the service of humanity. </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Vivekananda's room at belur math </li></ul>
  24. 25. Death <ul><li>Death On July 4, 1902 at Belur Math near Kolkata, he taught Vedanta philosophy to some pupils in the morning. He had a walk with Swami Premananda, a brother-disciple and gave him instructions concerning the future of the Ramakrishna Math. The same day, Vivekananda left his mortal body at the young age of 39. </li></ul><ul><li>Before his Mahasamadhi he had written to a Western follower: “It may be that I shall find it good to get outside my body, to cast it off like a worn out garment. But I shall not cease to work. I shall inspire men everywhere until the whole world shall know that it is one with God.” </li></ul>Last known photos of Vivekananda. Shillong, 1901
  25. 26. The significance of Swami Vivekananda’s message <ul><li>Why is Swami Vivekananda’s message is appropriate for the new millennium? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the significance of his message? </li></ul><ul><li>Why a message given a hundred years ago becomes useful for the new millennium? </li></ul><ul><li>Let us try to find answers from his life and teachings. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Contd… <ul><li>First, the significance of his message. </li></ul><ul><li>I think, the most significant contribution of Swami Vivekananda is that he made religion as a scientific search to realize the divinity within. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, this inner search is grounded in humanity. </li></ul>
  27. 28. According to Vivekananda <ul><li>The Four Methods to Realize the Divinity Within are </li></ul><ul><li>Karma Yoga : A way to realize one’s own divinity through unselfish actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Bhakti Yoga : A way to realize one’s own divinity through love of God </li></ul><ul><li>Raja Yoga : A way to realize one’s own divinity through self control, and </li></ul><ul><li>Jnana Yoga : A way to realize one’s own divinity through knowledge obtained by reasoning and analysis. </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Karma-yoga, or the yoga of selfless action, seeks to face the problem of ignorance by eradicating the ego. It is the ego, born of ignorance, that binds us to this world through attachment. The ego creates a dreamland of separative existence that disclaims the rights of others. It wants to achieve the impossible, and it desires the undesirable. Karma-yoga says that our egotistic, selfish actions have created walls around us. These walls not only set us apart from others, but they divide us from our true Self within. By performing actions in a selfless manner, we can break down the walls that separate us from the Self. The key message of karma-yoga is: Beat the inexorable law of karma by karma-yoga. Release yourself from the chains of attachment by practicing nonattachment to the results of action. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Karma-yoga believes that the ego is the sole troublemaker. But when transformed through yoga, the same ego becomes a friend and troubleshooter. The follower of karma-yoga faithfully performs his or her actions and renounces their results by making an offering of them into the fire of Self-knowledge. Swami Vivekananda, the great teacher of yoga and Vedanta, teaches us two ways of practicing karma-yoga and nonattachment: </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>One way is for those who do not believe in God or in any outside help. They are left to their own devices; they have simply to work with their own will, with the powers of their mind and discrimination, thinking, “I must be non-attached.” For those who believe in God there is another way, which is much less difficult. They give up the fruits of work unto the Lord; they work but never feel attached to the results. Whatever they see, feel, hear, or do is for Him. Whatever good work we may do, let us not claim any praise or benefit for it. It is the Lord’s; give up the fruits unto Him. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>            </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>Bhakti-yoga is the process of inner purification. The message of bhakti-yoga is that love is the most basic human emotion. In its purest form, love is cosmocentric and divinely inspired. But because of the intervention of the ego, love becomes egocentric, obstructing the free flow of love toward the Divine. Lust, anger, jealousy, and greed are the negative emotions created by the impure ego. Bhakti-yoga asks us to purify and transform our egotistic self-love by pouring holy thoughts into our mind and transferring all our love and emotions to God, knowing that God is the only one who truly loves us. Pouring holy thoughts into the mind is accomplished through prayer, ceremonial worship, chanting of holy words, keeping holy company, and studying holy texts. When such holy thoughts are poured into the mind, all unholy and impure thoughts are naturally washed out. The follower of bhakti-yoga establishes a loving relationship with God and eventually realizes God in everything and everywhere. As Swami Vivekananda says: </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>       We all have to begin as dualists in the religion of love. God is to us a separate Being, and we feel ourselves to be separate beings also. Love then comes between, and man begins to approach God; and God also comes nearer and nearer to man. Man takes up all the various relationships of life—such as father, mother, son, friend, master, lover—and projects them on his ideal of love, on his God. To him God exists as all these. And the last point of his progress is reached when he feels that he has become absolutely merged in the object of his worship. </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Raja-yoga seeks to attain the Divine by igniting the flame of knowledge of the Self within. Since it is ignorance that binds the human soul to the world of dreams and desires, only Self-realization can dispel this ignorance. To attain Self-knowledge, raja-yoga asks the seeker to develop strong will power by the relentless practices of concentration and meditation on the Self, with the support of pranayama, or control of breath, asana, or control of posture, and an uncompromising adherence to austerity and self-control. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>            According to raja-yoga, eradication of the ego through karma-yoga is a long process, and most seekers do not have the patience to endure the sacrifice it calls for; bhakti-yoga requires abiding faith in the love of God, which is not always possible for an average seeker. Raja-yoga contends that the mind is generally too weak and perverted to follow the path of reason, or jnana-yoga (see below). Impurities of the mind are too deeply imbedded and cannot be uprooted simply by reason. Raja-yoga asks the seeker to confront the deep-rooted tendencies and restlessness of the mind by cultivating a single thought reminiscent of the Divine. Swami Vivekananda says: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>When, by analyzing his own mind, a man comes face to face, as it were, with something which is never destroyed, something which is, by its own nature, eternally pure and perfect [the Self], he will no more be miserable, no more be unhappy. All misery comes from fear, from unsatisfied desire. When a man finds that he never dies, he will then have no more fear of death. When he knows he is perfect, he will have no more vain desires. And both these causes being absent, there will be no more misery; there will be perfect bliss, even in this body.[iii] </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>            </li></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><li>Jnana-yoga is the path of knowledge. The darkness of ignorance can only be dispelled by the light of knowledge. Knowledge, according to jnana-yoga, has two aspects: fire and light. The fire of knowledge burns all the impurities of our mind, and simultaneously, knowledge enlightens our inner consciousness. But Self-knowledge does not come by itself. It calls for the practice of discrimination between the real and the unreal, renunciation of all desires—both earthly and heavenly—mastery over the mind and senses, and an intense longing for Self-knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>            </li></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><li>The psychology of jnana-yoga tells us that we cannot generate spirituality by artificial means. The mind does not give up its attachment to worldly pleasures unless it has tasted something greater and higher. The Self is revealed in the mirror of the mind that has become purified through self-control and austerity. The method of jnana-yoga is to persuade the seeker that his or her sole identity is the Self. By hearing about the Self, reading about the Self, thinking about the Self, and meditating on the Self, the mind gradually realizes that the Self is the only reality in this universe and that all else is unreal. </li></ul><ul><li>         </li></ul>
  38. 39. <ul><li>    As the seeker in the path of jnana-yoga progresses toward the Self, he or she begins to taste the bliss of the Self and gain faith in its reality. Self-knowledge, according to jnana-yoga, is true liberation. As Shankaracharya, the foremost proponent of nondualistic Vedanta, describes in his “Six Stanzas on Nirvana”: </li></ul><ul><li>Death or fear have I none, nor any distinction of caste; </li></ul><ul><li>Neither father nor mother, nor even a birth, have I; </li></ul><ul><li>Neither friend nor comrade, neither disciple nor guru: </li></ul><ul><li>I am Eternal Bliss and Awareness – I am Siva! I am Siva!* </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>I have no form or fancy: the All-pervading am I; </li></ul><ul><li>Everywhere I exist, and yet am beyond the senses; </li></ul><ul><li>Neither salvation am I, nor anything to be known; </li></ul><ul><li>I am Eternal Bliss and Awareness – I am Siva! I am Siva! [iv] </li></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><li>Each seeker is called upon to decide which yoga best corresponds to his or her natural disposition. Karma-yoga is advised for the active, bhakti-yoga for the devotional, raja-yoga for the strong-willed, and jnana-yoga for the rational. Traditionally, the seeker may ask for the guidance of an illumined teacher already perfect in yoga; an enlightened teacher will be able to advise which path a seeker is to follow and prescribe specific practices suitable to his or her natural disposition. </li></ul><ul><li>            Swami Vivekananda emphasized that any seeker may become established in one of the four paths or harmonize them in everyday practice. The goal of all four yogas is freedom from the assumed bondage of the mind and realization of our true identity—the ever pure, immortal Self, which is non-different from the universal Self, or the Ultimate Reality. Sri Ramakrishna, the prophet of nineteenth-century India, says, “The mind of the yogi is always fixed on God, always absorbed in the Self.”[v] </li></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><li>            Yoga must be practiced vigorously and fearlessly. Swami Vivekananda advises:  </li></ul><ul><li>[The] various yogas do not conflict with each other; each of them leads us to the same goal and makes us perfect; only each has to be strenuously practiced. The whole secret is in practicing. First you have to hear, then think, and then practice. This is true of every yoga. You have first to hear about it and understand what it is; and many things which you do not understand will be made clear to you by constantly hearing and thinking. It is hard to understand everything at once. The explanation of everything is after all in your self. No one is ever really taught by another; each of us has to teach himself. The external teacher offers only the suggestion, which arouses the internal teacher, who helps us to understand things. Then things will be made clearer to us by our own power of perception and thought, and we shall realize them in our own souls; and that realization will grow into intense power of will.[vi] </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  41. 42. <ul><li>Be not afraid of anything. You will do marvelous work. The moment you fear, you are nobody. It is fear that is the great cause of misery in the world. It is fear that is the greatest of all superstitions. It is fear that is the cause of our woes, and it is fearlessness that brings heaven even in a moment. Therefore, “Arise, awake, and stop not till the goal is reached.”[vii] </li></ul>
  42. 43. Works <ul><li>His books (compiled from lectures given around the world) on the four Yogas (Raja Yoga, Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Jnana Yoga) are very influential and still seen as fundamental texts for anyone interested in the Hindu practice of Yoga. </li></ul><ul><li>He had composed many songs including his favorite Kali the Mother. </li></ul><ul><li>He used humor for his teachings and was also an excellent cook. </li></ul>
  43. 44. Vivekananda’s contributions to World Culture <ul><li>Making an objective assessment of Swami Vivekananda’s contributions to world culture, the eminent British historian A L Bashamstated that “in centuries to come, he will be remembered as one of the main moulders of the modern world…” Some of the main contributions that Swamiji made to the modern world are mentioned below: 1. New Understanding of Religion: </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most significant contributions of Swami Vivekananda to the modern world is his interpretation of religion as a universal experience of transcendent Reality, common to all humanity. Swamiji met the challenge of modern science by showing that religion is as scientific as science itself; religion is the ‘science of consciousness’. As such, religion and science are not contradictory to each other but are complementary. </li></ul>
  44. 45. Vivekananda’s contributions to World Culture <ul><li>This universal conception frees religion from the hold of superstitions, dogmatism, priestcraft and intolerance, and makes religion the highest and noblest pursuit – the pursuit of supreme Freedom, supreme Knowledge, supreme Happiness. </li></ul>
  45. 46. Vivekananda’s contributions to World Culture <ul><li>2. New View of Man: </li></ul><ul><li>Vivekananda’s concept of ‘potential divinity of the soul’ gives a new, ennobling concept of man. The present age is the age of humanism which holds that man should be the chief concern and centre of all activities and thinking. Through science and technology man has attained great prosperity and power, and modern methods of communication and travel have converted human society into a ‘global village’. But the degradation of man has also been going on apace, as witnessed by the enormous increase in broken homes, immorality, violence, crime, etc. in modern society. Vivekananda’s concept of potential divinity of the soul prevents this degradation, divinizes human relationships, and makes life meaningful and worth living. Swamiji has laid the foundation for ‘spiritual humanism’, which is manifesting itself through several neo-humanistic movements and the current interest in meditation, Zen etc all over the world. </li></ul>
  46. 47. Vivekananda’s contributions to World Culture <ul><li>3. New Principle of Morality and Ethics: </li></ul><ul><li>The prevalent morality, in both individual life and social life, is mostly based on fear – fear of the police, fear of public ridicule, fear of God’s punishment, fear of Karma, and so on. The current theories of ethics also do not explain why a person should be moral and be good to others. Vivekananda has given a new theory of ethics and new principle of morality based on the intrinsic purity and oneness of the Atman. We should be pure because purity is our real nature, our true divine Self or Atman. Similarly, we should love and serve our neighbours because we are all one in the Supreme Spirit known as Paramatman or Brahman. </li></ul>
  47. 48. Vivekananda’s contributions to World Culture <ul><li>4. Bridge between the East and the West: Another great contribution of Swami Vivekananda was to build a bridge between Indian culture and Western culture. He did it by interpreting Hindu scriptures and philosophy and the Hindu way of life and institutions to the Western people in an idiom which they could understand. He made the Western people realize that they had to learn much from Indian spirituality for their own well-being. He showed that, in spite of her poverty and backwardness, India had a great contribution to make to world culture. In this way he was instrumental in ending India’s cultural isolation from the rest of the world. He was India’s first great cultural ambassador to the West. </li></ul>
  48. 49. Vivekananda’s contributions to World Culture <ul><li>On the other hand, Swamiji’s interpretation of ancient Hindu scriptures, philosophy, institutions, etc prepared the mind of Indians to accept and apply in practical life two best elements of Western culture, namely science and technology and humanism. Swamiji has taught Indians how to master Western science and technology and at the same time develop spiritually. Swamiji has also taught Indians how to adapt Western humanism (especially the ideas of individual freedom, social equality and justice and respect for women) to Indian ethos. </li></ul>
  49. 50. Swamiji’s Contributions to India <ul><li>In spite of her innumerable linguistic, ethnic, historical and regional diversities, India has had from time immemorial a strong sense of cultural unity. It was, however, Swami Vivekananda who revealed the true foundations of this culture and thus clearly defined and strengthened the sense of unity as a nation. </li></ul><ul><li>Swamiji gave Indians proper understanding of their country’s great spiritual heritage and thus gave them pride in their past. Furthermore, he pointed out to Indians the drawbacks of Western culture and the need for India’s contribution to overcome these drawbacks. In this way Swamiji made India a nation with a global mission. </li></ul>
  50. 51. Swamiji’s Contributions to India <ul><li>Sense of unity, pride in the past, sense of mission – these were the factors which gave real strength and purpose to India’s nationalist movement. Several eminent leaders of India’s freedom movement have acknowledged their indebtedness to Swamiji. Free India’s first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehruwrote: “Rooted in the past, full of pride in India’s prestige, </li></ul><ul><li>Vivekananda was yet modern in his approach to life’s problems, and was a kind of bridge between the past of India and her present … he came as a tonic to the depressed and demoralized Hindu mind and gave it self-reliance and some roots in the past.” </li></ul><ul><li>Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose wrote: “Swamiji harmonized the East and the West, religion and science, past and present. And that is why he is great. Our countrymen have gained unprecedented self-respect, self-reliance and self-assertion from his teachings.” </li></ul>
  51. 52. Swamiji’s Contributions to India <ul><li>Swamiji’s most unique contribution to the creation of new India was to open the minds of Indians to their duty to the downtrodden masses. Long before the ideas of Karl Marx were known in India, Swamiji spoke about the role of the labouring classes in the production of the country’s wealth. Swamiji was the first religious leader in India to speak for the masses, formulate a definite philosophy of service, and organize large-scale social service. </li></ul>
  52. 53. Swamiji’s Contributions to Hinduism <ul><li>1. Identity: </li></ul><ul><li>It was Swami Vivekananda who gave to Hinduism as a whole a clear-cut identity, a distinct profile. Before Swamiji came Hinduism was a loose confederation of many different sects. Swamiji was the first religious leader to speak about the common bases of Hinduism and the common ground of all sects. He was the first person, as guided by his Master Sri Ramakrishna, to accept all Hindu doctrines and the views of all Hindu philosophers and sects as different aspects of one total view of Reality and way of life known as Hinduism. Speaking about Swamiji’s role in giving Hinduism its distinct identity, Sister Niveditawrote: “… it may be said that when he began to speak it was of ‘the religious ideas of the Hindus’, but when he ended, Hinduism had been created.” </li></ul>
  53. 54. Swamiji’s Contributions to Hinduism <ul><li>2. Unification: </li></ul><ul><li>Before Swamiji came, there was a lot of quarrel and competition among the various sects of Hinduism. Similarly, the protagonists of different systems and schools of philosophy were claiming their views to be the only true and valid ones. By applying Sri Ramakrishna’s doctrine of Harmony (Samanvaya) Swamiji brought about an overall unification of Hinduism on the basis of the principle of unity in diversity. Speaking about Swamiji’s role in this field K M Pannikar, the eminent historian and diplomat, wrote: “This new Shankaracharya may well be claimed to be a unifier of Hindu ideology.” </li></ul>
  54. 55. Swamiji’s Contributions to Hinduism <ul><li>3. Defence: </li></ul><ul><li>Another important service rendered by Swamiji was to raise his voice in defence of Hinduism. In fact, this was one of the main types of work he did in the West. Christian missionary propaganda had given a wrong understanding of Hinduism and India in Western minds. Swamiji had to face a lot of opposition in his attempts to defend Hinduism. </li></ul>
  55. 56. Swamiji’s Contributions to Hinduism <ul><li>4. Meeting the Challenges: </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of the 19th century, India in general, and Hinduism in particular, faced grave challenges from Western materialistic life, the ideas of Western free society, and the proselytizing activities of Christians. Vivekananda met these challenges by integrating the best elements of Western culture in Hindu culture. </li></ul>
  56. 57. Swamiji’s Contributions to Hinduism <ul><li>5. New Ideal of Monasticism: </li></ul><ul><li>A major contribution of Vivekananda to Hinduism is the rejuvenation and modernization of monasticism. In this new monastic ideal, followed in the Ramakrishna Order, the ancient principles of renunciation and God realization are combined with service to God in man (Shiva jnane jiva seva). Vivekananda elevated social service to the status of divine service. </li></ul>
  57. 58. Swamiji’s Contributions to Hinduism <ul><li>6. Refurbishing of Hindu Philosophy and Religious Doctrines: </li></ul><ul><li>Vivekananda did not merely interpret ancient Hindu scriptures and philosophical ideas in terms of modern thought. He also added several illuminating original concepts based on his own transcendental experiences and vision of the future. This, however, needs a detailed study of Hindu philosophy which cannot be attempted here. </li></ul>
  58. 59. <ul><li>SEE GOD IN ALL </li></ul><ul><li>This is the gist of all worship - to be pure and to do good to others. He who sees Siva in the poor, in the weak, and in the diseased, really worships Siva, and if he sees Siva only in the image, his worship is but preliminary. He who has served and helped one poor man seeing Siva in him, without thinking of his cast, creed, or race, or anything, with him Siva is more pleased than with the man who sees Him only in temples. </li></ul><ul><li>GOD IS WITHIN YOU   It is impossible to find God outside of ourselves. Our own souls contribute all of the divinity that is outside of us. We are the greatest temple. The objectification is only a faint imitation of what we see within ourselves. </li></ul>UNIVERSAL TEACHINGS
  59. 60. UNIVERSAL TEACHINGS..Contd.. <ul><li>PERSEVERE IN YOUR SEARCH FOR GOD </li></ul><ul><li>To succeed, you must have tremendous perseverance, tremendous will. & “I will drink the ocean” , says the persevering soul, & “at my will mountains will crumble up.“ </li></ul><ul><li>Have that sort of energy, that sort of will, work hard, and you will reach the goal . </li></ul><ul><li>TRUST COMPLETELY IN GOD Stand up for God; let the world go. </li></ul><ul><li>LOVE OF GOD IS ESSENTIAL Giving up all other thoughts, with the whole mind day and night worship God. Thus being worshipped day and night, He reveals himself and makes His worshippers feel His presence. </li></ul>
  60. 61. Message for youth <ul><li>Societies should be moulded upon truth and truth has not to adjust itself to society </li></ul><ul><li>Whatever you think, you will be, you think yourself weak, weak you will be. You think yourself strong, strong you will be </li></ul><ul><li>Do you love your country? Then come and struggle for higher and better things </li></ul>
  61. 62. (cont…) <ul><li>Each nation has a main current in life; in India it is religion. Make it strong and the waters on either side must move along with it. Blessed are they whose bodies get destroyed in the service of others. </li></ul>
  62. 64. My Experience <ul><li>Kanyakumari is situated at the fag end of the southern coasts of India. During his visit to India, Swami Vivekanand stayed here and meditated for consecutive three days and three nights on a rock which is about 500 meters away from land. </li></ul><ul><li>To reach to the rock motorboats are hired. A motorboat takes about 150 people to the rock in one go. The motorboat takes you to the Sant Tiruvalluar's rock also which is situated nearby the Vivekanand rock. You purchase tickets and wait for your turn. </li></ul><ul><li>There are Vivekanand Mandapam, Vivekanand Memorial, Kanyakumari Devi temple and many other temples, stalls on the rock. The construction of the memorial was started in 1964 which was completed finally in 1970 by the efforts of Eknath Ranade. </li></ul>
  63. 65. My Experience <ul><li>There is a &quot;Shreepad Shila&quot; on which there are holy footprints of devi Kanyakumari. On the same rock is &quot;Vivekanand Mandpam&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>In this mandpam all the pillars are made of granite weighing 13 tonnes. In the center there is a six feet tall statue of swami Vivekanand made of bronze. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important is &quot;Dhyan Mandapam&quot;. It is a dark room in which there is a large enlightened &quot;Om&quot; in front and people meditate here. </li></ul><ul><li>The whole atmosphere is made spiritual by the chanting of &quot;Om&quot;. Sitting here for a few minutes highly energizes you. </li></ul>
  64. 66. My Experience <ul><li>There are many stalls also where you can purchase a lot of memorable objects and literature related to swami Vivekanand. </li></ul><ul><li>A little away from this rock there is another rock where a very large statue of &quot;Sant Tiruvalluvar&quot; is located. Standing at the foot of the statue you can not look up to the head without tilting yourself up to sixty degree. </li></ul><ul><li>Sant Tiruvalluvar was a great poet and philosopher of tamil. His teachings are still respected by tamilians. </li></ul><ul><li>Standing at the rock, looking around the Indian ocean is really a very pleasant experience. The waves of ocean striking to the rock generates a very sweet music. </li></ul>
  65. 67. My Experience <ul><li>The whole atmosphere is so tempting that you don't want to get back. Windmills at the bank, sailors in search of fishes, ships and gentle breeze decorates the whole scenario excellently. </li></ul><ul><li>You must visit Vivekanand Rock at least once to feel the pleasure and to have the blessings of devi Kanyakumari. </li></ul>
  66. 74. <ul><li>Thank You </li></ul>