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Fungal Research Trust 20th Anniversary Meeting June 2011 - Dr Geoff Scott
 

Fungal Research Trust 20th Anniversary Meeting June 2011 - Dr Geoff Scott

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Fungal Research Trust Chairman gives a talk entitled "The history and future of the Fungal Research trust" to the 20th Anniversary Meeting of the FRT

Fungal Research Trust Chairman gives a talk entitled "The history and future of the Fungal Research trust" to the 20th Anniversary Meeting of the FRT

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  • The number of distinct IP addresses accessing the website
  • “ Named users” – distinct, registered users that have logged in at least once during the month. Peak in named users in March 2003 occurs prior to the opening up of most areas of the website to open access i.e. not requiring login. This was carried out Autumn 2003. “ Visits/month” – a “visit” is one or more accesses to the website from a single IP address with no break of more than 30 minutes between accesses.
  • Indexing of the site by local search engines (Google, Exalead) produced considerable distortion of the stats from May 08 onwards. This plot shows monthly hits (NOT pages, as have previously been preferred) with local search engine activity removed.
  • The steep rise in pages served in Sep 07 is in large part driven by 83k pages accessed during first use of our local Google indexing software. Number of pages served in May 2008 distorted by indexing of the site by Google (at least 1.1 million hits of 2.7 million hits) and Exalead (655985 hits), with a consequent distortion of the gigabytes served (43.5 Gb ascribed to Exalead against some 3Gb for Google out of 76.2Gb total) Ditto June 2008. Google hits >1.3 million hits, Exalead > 1 million hits. Note distinction between hits and pages – pages used in these stats but no mathematical relationship between the two, other than hits>pages. Local googling pages subsumed within overall Manchester site number of 1.47 million July 2008. Local Google > 0.93 million hits. Exalead not apparent. August 2008. Local Google > 0.70 million hits. Exalead not apparent. September 2008. Local Google > 0.36 million hits. Exalead not apparent. October 2008. Local Google > 0.31 million hits.
  • Values are averages over the most recent six months of reliable statistics The ABPA figure include the value for “allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis”
  • “ Countries” includes entries for Commercial, Network, Unresolved/Unknown, Old style Arpanet, Non-profit Organisation, Information. After the UK, page accesses are dominated by these generic categories, and individual country figures appear low as a result. Only the top 20 countries are visible in the stats. After the UK and generic categories, the dozen or so other countries hold no surprises, with the developed nations taking most of the places.
  • Shows the effect of update emails in 2006 (July, Sep, Nov, Dec), 2007 (Feb, Apr, Jun, Sep, Nov, Dec) and monthly updates thereafter, maxima generally occurring on the day of the update issue. No update for October 06 in the archive but a pronounced, one day surge occurred, akin to the update effect. Peak on May 1 st 07 following April 30 th update. Figures for May 2008 and subsequent months distorted by local search engine (Google, Exalead) indexing of the site.
  • May 2010. Total of 84389 pages for A fumigatus, of which 79448 attributable to one IP address, 85.150.196.231 (Wanadoo), using PageNest. PageNest is a browser which will allow the download of an entire website. Jan 2011. CADRE moved to new server mid-month

Fungal Research Trust 20th Anniversary Meeting June 2011 - Dr Geoff Scott Fungal Research Trust 20th Anniversary Meeting June 2011 - Dr Geoff Scott Presentation Transcript

  • 20 th Anniversary Meeting of the Fungal Research Trust The history and future of the Fungal Research Trust Dr Geoff Scott Chairman, FRT June 2011 London, UK
  • Fungal Research Trust activities Aspergillus website sponsor Direct research support Laboratory support Clinical support Scientific publication Education Training postgraduate students Support of fungal conference Travel grants for conference Publication support (books, leaflets) Patient support
  • Fungal Research Trust activities
    • Aspergillus website sponsor
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  • Aspergillus Website Statistics 2000-2004 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000 Jan-00 Jul-00 Jan-01 Jul-01 Jan-02 Jul-02 Jan-03 Jul-03 Jan-04 Number of pages served per month .
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  • Enquiries from 115-125 countries each month
  • Fungal Research Trust activities
    • Direct research support
    • Mostly troublesome
      • Skin and nail infections
      • Mucous membranes
    Fungal infections in man
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  • Trichophyton rubrum
  • Ringworm
  • Kerion Trichophyton soudanense
  • Malassezia furfur Tinea versicolor
  • Oral Candidiasis BUT What if it is invasive?
    • Ubiquitous
    • Many many genera
    • Important benefit for man
    • Also responsible for crop spoilage etc
    Fungi in the environment
  • The wonderful world of fungi!
  • Coprinus spp. Nagy Laszlo
  • Ch. 1 Ch. 2 Ch. 3 Ch. 4 Ch. 5 Ch. 6 Ch. 7 Ch. 8 3,043 b 0.01 0.5 Sequence gap Physical gap (linked) Physical gap (unlinked) 0.3 rRNA 1.9 4.4 6.4 Mb 2.0 4.2 6.2 Mb 2.7 2.3 5.0 Mb 2.7 2.1 4.8 Mb 2.4 2.0 4.4 Mb 1.8 1.8 4.1 Mb 2.5 0.6 3.4 Mb 1.3 2.0 3.3 Mb Mitochondrion 29,202 b Presumed centromere Telomere (Mb) 5.7 4.6 3.5 Aspergillus chromosomal map Machida et al Nature 2005; 438:1157
    • We are all exposed!
    • Failure of host defence is very important:
    • cancer, transplantation and AIDS
    • diabetes mellitus and antibiotics
    • Curious rare susceptibility
    • Asthma
    • Toxins
    • Fungi may be restricted to certain parts of the world
    • Treatment is often very difficult and may fail
    Invasive fungal infections in man
    • Invasive candidosis
    Invasive fungal infections in man
  • Candida endocarditis A 30-year old drug addict with kidney failure due to amyloid Blood cultures repeatedly positive with Candida parapsilosis Treatment: fluconazole and fluorocytosine orally 3-4 Months Despite treatment, blood cultures still positive! organism sensitive to fluconazole Trans-oesophageal echocardiogram: Vegetation in right atrium associated with tip of catheter used for dialysis Plan cardiac surgery to remove: successful
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  • Candida parapsilosis
  • The kidney transplant recipient with obstruction to flow of urine 22 nd March: peritoneal dialysis: few pus cells, 3 colonies Candida sp Renal transplant 26 th March Good kidney function but.. Obstruction to outflow
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  • Candida albicans !
  • Systemic candidosis
    • 24 year-old man with Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
      • Chemotherapy led to remission
    • + 5 months: Admitted for further chemotherapy
    • day 13 post chemo: Fever, prostration, toxicity
    • No neutrophils for 56 days!
  • +6 months
  • +18 months
  • necrosis
  • +2 years Still: fever, night sweats, failure to thrive, tired, unable to work…. The failure of treatment of invasive candidosis!
  • People with AIDS are also susceptible to fungal infections, especially yeasts Cryptococcus neoformans Histoplasmosis Candidosis
    • Invasive filamentous fungi
    Invasive fungal infections in man
  • Aspergillus spp.
    • Aspergillus fungi can
    • colonise cavities like sinuses and lung cavities
    • cause allergy: like asthma
    • enter through the lungs (or skin) and invade
  • Pepper and spices may be full of Aspergillus spp.!
  • Aspergilloma in an old tuberculosis cavity
  • Becky! Aspergillosis and aspergillomas in cystic fibrosis
  • Watch the video of Becky's story on Channel 4 at www.channel4.com/news/ground-breaking -op-offers-hope-to-cystic-fibrosis-sufferers
  • A 54 y old lady with acute myeloid leukaemia Chemotherapy in January February: tender swelling over right maxillary sinus
  • Aspergillosis of the sinuses: Aspergillus flavus
  • Mycotic lung Sequestrum Aspergillus fumigatus
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    • Invasive moulds
    Invasive fungal infections in man
  • 34 year old man with Aplastic anaemia Secondary to acute hepatitis C virus infection 2 months: Aspergillus in the lungs 4 months’ face pain
  • Mucormycosis
  • A 25 year old Thai man comes from Thailand with a rash
  • Penicillium marneffei In AIDS
  • Loss of vision 50y old Afro-Caribbean lady Longstanding poorly controlled diabetes mellitus Poor vision because of the diabetes Gradual worsening vision in one eye Scanning: lesion on the optic nerve Biopsy……
  • Scedosporum apiospermum = Pseudallescheria boydii
  • Intra-abdominal cancer? A 55y old man from the Middle East Diabetic for years, poor control Gradual onset of abdominal discomfort and poor bowel function: 3-6 months Fevers especially after eating A mass in his abdomen! ALIEN?
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  • Sabouraud’s dextrose agar Buff to gray waxy mycelium Flat or folded colonies Basidiobolus ranarum
  • A 61 year old man with Acute myeloid leukaemia Chemotherapy On day….. +4 retention of urine and bacterial infection +6 no white cells, developed fever +38 painful toe +44 developed a rash
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  • Acremonium sp
  • Acremonium sp
    • A gradually increasing problem
    • associated with modern medicine
    • Themes
    • Complicated organisms and biology
    • Diabetes mellitus and antibiotics
    • Immunosuppression
    • More active interventions especially chemotherapy
    • Diagnosis and
    • Treatment are very difficult and often unsuccessful
    • Fear of antifungal resistance emerges
    The wonderful world of fungi infecting man! More research is needed!
  • Direct research support University institutions Aberystwyth, Belfast, Glasgow, London (Imperial and Birkbeck), Manchester, Szeged, Vellore Kew Gardens Links with European learned societies
  • Major discoveries Supported research for ~145 peer-reviewed publications UK survey of fungal species Genomic sequencing Aspergillus Knocking out genes of Aspergillus and Candida Toxic products of Aspergillus Fungal infections in diabetic feet Immune defenses in chronic aspergillosis Virulence in Candida glabrata Studies on environmental Cryptococcus spp Environmental fungi in homes of immunosuppressed patients Fungi in pillows Fungal sensitivity in asthma and allergy *Exploration of old and new antifungal agents* Antifungal resistance: prevalence and scientific basis Novel treatment of fungal nails Coprinus genus exploration Clinical-mycological eye infections Support setting up mycology laboratory in tropics Pneumocystis jirovecii prevalence
  • Direct clinical fungal lab support Defining antifungal resistance Establishing methods and norms European collaboration on sensitivity testing National service for antifungal testing Establishing need for drug level monitoring Assisted establishment of mycology labs abroad Teaching and training Many young scientists post-graduate degrees: MSc PhD MD Many travelling scholarships awarded
  • Conferences
    • Many Meetings supported
    • eg Advances against Aspergillosis IV Rome 2010
      • Patient focussed meeting for distribution via the web
  • Sponsors
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  • Fungal infections are not going to go away Continuing need for primary research and support for and training of young clinical scientists (Reduction in centres with scientific fungal expertise) Fungal research Trust The future
  • New Directions Major new fund-raising initiative Aim: £150,000 post doctoral scientist to explore susceptibility issues pathogenesis (variable response to Aspergillus ) resistance to antifungals -Invite interest from research centres to propose projects -An international collaborating centre
  • Here’s to a bright future for The next 20 years of the
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  • Aspergillus Website Statistics 2010-11 Search Strings used in locating the website Average number of accesses per month Aspergillus 2886 Aspergillus fumigatus 548 ABPA 320 Aspergillosis 189 Aspergillus oryzae 158 Aspergillus fungus 126 Aspergillus infection 91 Aspergillus website 88 Aspergillus treatment 84 Aspergillosis support 83 Aspergilis 81 What is aspergillus 77 Aspergilloma 65 Aspergillus allergy 36 Other strings 6312
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  • 19 year old with Aspergillus in his foot from an inherited immune deficiency