Leishmaniasis
Leishmania donovani (complex) (VL)
Leishmania tropica (CL)
Leishmania major (CL)
Leishmania aethiopica (CL)
...
The Parasite
• Phylum

Sarcomastigophora

• Order

Kinetoplastida

• Family

Trypanosomatidae

• Genus

Leishmania
Morphology
Digenetic Life Cycle

• Promasitogte
• Insect
• Motile
• Midgut

• Amastigote
• Mammalian stage
• Non-motile
• ...
Morphology
• Promastigote

• Amastigote
Flagella

Kinetoplast
Golgi
Nucleus
Cytoskeleton
Promastigote
• Amastigotes (*)
of Leishmania
donovani in the
cells of a
spleen. The
individual
amastigotes
measure
approximately 1
µm i...
Amastigote
• Amastigotes of
Leishmania in a
macrophage from
a lymph node of
a dog.
• Leishmania
(LeishmanDonovan or LD
bodies). Lying in
macrophage cells
from liver. Giemsa.
×12000. Enlarged
by 9.6.
• A macrophage
filled with
Leishmania
amastigotes.

1
Life cycle
•

The organism is transmitted by the bite of several
species of blood-feeding sand flies (Phlebotomus)
which c...
1
Mammalian Hosts
•
•
•
•
•
•

Rodents
Gerbils
Hyraxes
Bats
Porcupines
Opossums

•
•
•
•
•
•

Sloths
Primates
Dogs
Foxes
Ant...
Vectors
Phlebotomine Sandflies
6 genera world wide distribution
Phlebotomus & Lutzomia
500 species
Females Haematophagus
M...
1
Clinical Disease
• Visceral
• Fatal (90%
untreated)
• Liver
• Spleen
• Bone marrow

• Cutaneous
• Generally Self- healing
...
Initial Infection
•
•
•
•

Similar in all species
Inoculation of promastigotes
Inflammation & chemotaxis
Receptor mediated...
Parasite Spread
Macrophage lysis & parasite release
Lymphatic spread
Blood spread
Target organs
Skin/lymph nodes/spleen/li...
Visceral Leishmaniasis
•
•
•

1903
1920
1931

William Leishman
Pentavalent antimony
Experimental transmission

Leishmania ...
VL - Clinical Manifestation
Variable - Incubation 3-100+ weeks
Lowgrade fever
Hepato-splenomegaly
Bone marrow hyperplasia
...
• Profile view of a
teenage boy suffering
from visceral
leishmaniasis. The boy
exhibits splenomegaly,
distended abdomen
an...
• A 12-year-old boy
suffering from visceral
leishmaniasis. The
boy exhibits
splenomegaly and
severe muscle
wasting.

2
• Jaundiced hands of
a visceral
leishmaniasis
patient.

2
• Enlarged spleen and
liver in an autopsy of
an infant dying of
visceral leishmaniasis.

2
Post Kala Azar Dermal
Leishmanoid
Normally develops <2 years after
recovery
Recrudescence
Restricted to skin
Rare but vari...
Cutaneous leishmaniasis of
the face. 

2
A cutaneous leishmaniasis
lesion on the arm.

2
INFECTION
Sub-clinical or inapparent infection

Recovery
Immune to reinfection
PKDL

Death
Concurrent infection

2
Diagnosis
Clinical signs & symptoms
Hypergammaglobulinemia
ELISA/Formol gel

Bone marrow biopsy
Spleen or liver biopsy
Cul...
Speciation
•
•
•
•

Similar morphology
Isoenzyme profiles - Zymodemes
Monoclonal antibodies
DNA hybridisation - PCR

3
Treatment
Good nursing
Diet
Antibiotics
Pentavalent antimony
Pentamidine
New drugs - New delivery

3
Control
•
•
•
•

Vector control
Reservoir control
Treatment of active cases
Vaccination

3
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Leishmania

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Leishmania

  1. 1. Leishmaniasis Leishmania donovani (complex) (VL) Leishmania tropica (CL) Leishmania major (CL) Leishmania aethiopica (CL) Leishmania mexicana (Complex) (CL) Leishmania brazilliensis (complex) (MCL) Leishmania peruriana
  2. 2. The Parasite • Phylum Sarcomastigophora • Order Kinetoplastida • Family Trypanosomatidae • Genus Leishmania
  3. 3. Morphology Digenetic Life Cycle • Promasitogte • Insect • Motile • Midgut • Amastigote • Mammalian stage • Non-motile • Intracellular
  4. 4. Morphology • Promastigote • Amastigote Flagella Kinetoplast Golgi Nucleus Cytoskeleton
  5. 5. Promastigote
  6. 6. • Amastigotes (*) of Leishmania donovani in the cells of a spleen. The individual amastigotes measure approximately 1 µm in diameter.
  7. 7. Amastigote
  8. 8. • Amastigotes of Leishmania in a macrophage from a lymph node of a dog.
  9. 9. • Leishmania (LeishmanDonovan or LD bodies). Lying in macrophage cells from liver. Giemsa. ×12000. Enlarged by 9.6.
  10. 10. • A macrophage filled with Leishmania amastigotes. 1
  11. 11. Life cycle • The organism is transmitted by the bite of several species of blood-feeding sand flies (Phlebotomus) which carries the promastigote in the anterior gut and pharynx. It gains access to mononuclear phagocytes where it transform into amastogotes and divides until the infected cell ruptures. The released organisms infect other cells. The sandfly acquires the organisms during the blood meal, the amastigotes transform into flagellate promastigotes and multiply in the gut until the anterior gut and pharynx are packed. Dogs and rodents are common reservoirs. 1
  12. 12. 1
  13. 13. Mammalian Hosts • • • • • • Rodents Gerbils Hyraxes Bats Porcupines Opossums • • • • • • Sloths Primates Dogs Foxes Anteaters ..... 1
  14. 14. Vectors Phlebotomine Sandflies 6 genera world wide distribution Phlebotomus & Lutzomia 500 species Females Haematophagus Males sap feeders 1
  15. 15. 1
  16. 16. Clinical Disease • Visceral • Fatal (90% untreated) • Liver • Spleen • Bone marrow • Cutaneous • Generally Self- healing • Skin • Mucous membranes SPECTRUM OF DISEASE 1
  17. 17. Initial Infection • • • • Similar in all species Inoculation of promastigotes Inflammation & chemotaxis Receptor mediated phagocytosis Promastigote Amasitgote Transformation 1
  18. 18. Parasite Spread Macrophage lysis & parasite release Lymphatic spread Blood spread Target organs Skin/lymph nodes/spleen/liver/ bone marrow 1
  19. 19. Visceral Leishmaniasis • • • 1903 1920 1931 William Leishman Pentavalent antimony Experimental transmission Leishmania donovani (Complex) L.d. archibaldi - L.d.chagasi - L.d.donovani - Ld.infantum 1
  20. 20. VL - Clinical Manifestation Variable - Incubation 3-100+ weeks Lowgrade fever Hepato-splenomegaly Bone marrow hyperplasia Anemia, Leucopenia & Cachexia Hypergammaglobulinnemia Epistaxis , Proteinuria, Hematuria 2
  21. 21. • Profile view of a teenage boy suffering from visceral leishmaniasis. The boy exhibits splenomegaly, distended abdomen and severe muscle wasting. 2
  22. 22. • A 12-year-old boy suffering from visceral leishmaniasis. The boy exhibits splenomegaly and severe muscle wasting. 2
  23. 23. • Jaundiced hands of a visceral leishmaniasis patient. 2
  24. 24. • Enlarged spleen and liver in an autopsy of an infant dying of visceral leishmaniasis. 2
  25. 25. Post Kala Azar Dermal Leishmanoid Normally develops <2 years after recovery Recrudescence Restricted to skin Rare but varies geographically 2
  26. 26. Cutaneous leishmaniasis of the face.  2
  27. 27. A cutaneous leishmaniasis lesion on the arm. 2
  28. 28. INFECTION Sub-clinical or inapparent infection Recovery Immune to reinfection PKDL Death Concurrent infection 2
  29. 29. Diagnosis Clinical signs & symptoms Hypergammaglobulinemia ELISA/Formol gel Bone marrow biopsy Spleen or liver biopsy Culture & Histology 2
  30. 30. Speciation • • • • Similar morphology Isoenzyme profiles - Zymodemes Monoclonal antibodies DNA hybridisation - PCR 3
  31. 31. Treatment Good nursing Diet Antibiotics Pentavalent antimony Pentamidine New drugs - New delivery 3
  32. 32. Control • • • • Vector control Reservoir control Treatment of active cases Vaccination 3

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