Learning and communicating online: Assessment 2A Producing an online informational resource
Created by: Michael White, Katherine Hard, Howard Wu,
Linh Phan and Mohammed Khalil (Group 2).
Our research will explore how the five themes of music:
How they impact on the cultural attitudes of the listening audience. We'll describe
how the popularity of each type of music is dependent upon the demographics of
the audience market. It will also outline how music can play a role in
advocating and promoting social initiatives through the song lyrics.
The stereotypical country music fan could be described as being from a rural
setting, who wears a cowboy hat, drives a pickup truck and frequents the pub.
However, country music stars today such as Taylor Swift and Keith Urban who
incorporate rock within the country genre reach a far broader audience.
Country music is developed to appeal to the working class regardless of whether or
not those listeners are actually in the working class. Country music is simple
music, with simple lyrics that tell of human stories, of hopes and failings
(Kingsbury, P. 1998). Songs of love and loss are typical of this style of music.
A controversial country song titled ‘The Thunder Rolls’ by Garth Brooks vividly
tells the story of domestic violence, with the original video actually including a
murder scene. Although Brooks' intentions were to promote awareness of the
issue, TV stations banned the video. Even without the lack of television support,
his goal was accomplished. Greater awareness resulted in various fundraisers to
assist battered women’s shelters. (Richards, K. 2012)
Country music originated in the rural Southern America in the 1920’s. Country
music is a mixture of folk, gospel, hillbilly and blues (Kingsbury, P. 1998). The
simple lyrics and harmonies are generally accompanied by string instruments such
as banjo, fiddle or acoustic guitar. The settling immigrants of southern America
brought with them various instruments all contributing to the development of the
R&B/Hip Hop Music:
While R&B and Hip Hop was particularly prominent among African American
youths, this style of music has become increasingly popular across many different
cultures. R&B and Hip Hop predominately connects to youths, but may also
appeal to a more general audience as the style has progressed. Mainstream success
has emerged figures such as Dr.Dre, Eninem and Tupac.
R&B and Hip hop music has been recognised as a strong medium for the troubled
youth to engage an audience and reflect the social, economic and political frailties
of their life. It often accentuates the strength and ability to rise above adversities.
The 1990s was a significant year that led to R&B/Hip hop’s emergence into
mainstream music. Public Enemy introduced singles such as ‘Fight the Power,’
breaking through the commercial barrier and inspiring a long line of other artists
from many cultures (Jones, 1990). Movements have surfaced as a result of the
international R&B/Hip Hop scene with what is known as micro genres (Jones,
1990). An example includes ‘Islamic Eco-Rap’ that was formed to address issues
through disenfranchised voices (Jones, 1990).
R&B/Hip Hop style and culture was formed during the 1970s with the increased
popularity of block parties in New York City (Dyson, 2007). It was traditionally
particular among African American youths residing in low residential areas
(Dyson, 2007). Due to popular reception the style broke into mainstream music
across all cultures.
Pop music is by definition the most popular style of music at any given point in
time. With a wide appeal and accessible to almost any listener, it is safe to say
people who listen to pop music, range in age and lifestyle. Pop music is widely
accepted throughout most demographic groups and lifestyle types.
The cultural attitude of the pop music genre is best seen by the lyrical content of
the songs. As seen in the article 'Songs as a Medium for Embedded Reproductive
Messages' 2013. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.epjournal.net/wp-
content/uploads/EP09390416.pdf. [Accessed 20 August 2013]. We see a study into
the lyrical content of the billboard top 10 throughout 2009. Of the 174 songs that
reached the top ten in 2009 a startling 92% of these where seen to have
reproductive content or sexual references. This along with music video content
often leads to particularly young adolescents experimenting with alcohol,
substance and sexual promiscuity at a far younger age than they otherwise would.
Impact of Music, Music Lyrics, and Music Videos on Children and Youth. 2013.
[Accessed 20 August 2013].
Social initiatives are often seen throughout the history of pop music. At present the
best known initiative is a program called Rock corps. Rock corps is a program
which uses music, along the promise of tickets; to inspire people to volunteer in
their community. With international acts and more than twenty five concerts world
wide the program asks people to volunteer four hours of their time for a
community service in exchange for a free ticket to the concert in their city.
Pop music is identified as the music or musical styles that are accessible to the
widest audiences. Pop music has incorporated many different styles of music over
the years. With the phrase 'pop music' being coined in the 1920's, it all began with
rhythm and blues music. Throughout history it has taken many forms from jazz,
Motown, rock and roll, country and western, punk rock, and today’s more
electronic dance music.
Rap music is broadly portrayed in the mass media as, 'negative', 'deviant' and
'criminal' (Schneider, 2010). It creates negative perceptions, messages and
influences in the public consciousness. The negativity is exacerbated by the
media, politicians and parents groups. It has a huge following amongst African
American young males.
Rap music is a symbolic term. It is often associate itself with race (black), class
(ghetto, slum, poor, violence, uneducated) and gender (male, misogyny). Its music
has been heavily criticised because of songs that deliver messages of violence and
drug use and anti-social behavior. With lyrics, phrases like 'da morning', 'why ya
trippin' and 'what up' began to make its way into mainstream street language. Also
words that are offensive to women like 'Bitch' and 'Ho' also surfaced.
With songs that depict rebellious actions and criminal intent, the advent of
censorship began to take hold. Censorship in the form of a sticker is used when
excessive use of sexual imagery, misogyny, glorification of violence and drug use
are contained in song lyrics. There have been campaigns by politicians to speak
out against these kinds of lyrics, fearing the negative influence on young children.
Rap music was developed as a black secular response to society issues. Similar to
spiritual music, like gospel and blues, it has deep connections to African American
religious traditions (predominately in North America). Its earliest form was
performed on street corners in the boroughs of New York City (mainly Brooklyn
and the Bronx). It gained national popularity when rap group Run DMC released,
'Walk this Way'.
The Rock music trends among the existing fans used to depict the instrumental
rock music with guitar as a main part of the song. In 1951, Cleveland, Ohio disc
jockey, Alan Freed began playing the rhythm and blues music for multi-racial
audience. It was also used by African-American who were brought as slaves to US
as a means of communication in the fields to fool the plantation owners.
Rock music has also embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social
movements, leading to major sub-cultures including mods and rockers in the UK
and hippie counterculture that spread out from Francisco in 1960s. Rock music
has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to
race, sex and drug use. Rock music is often seen as expression of youth revolt
against adult consumerism and conformity.
Different sub-genres of rock were adopted by and became central to the identity of
a large number of sub-cultures. In 1950s and 1960s, respectively British youths
adopted TeDDY Boy and Rockers subcultures, which revolved around US rock
and roll. Rock music inherited the folk tradition of protest song, making political
statements on subjects such as war, religion, poverty, civil rights, justice and the
Rock music is a genre of popular music that originated as ‘rock and roll’ in the
United States in the 1950s and developed into range of different styles in the 1960s
and later particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States. It has its roots
in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, itself heavily influenced by rhythm and blues and
country music. Rock music also drew strongly on a number of other genres such
and folk and incorporated influences from jazz, classical and other musical
Music is considered a universal language that is listened to and appreciated all over
the world. It reaches to all types of demographics, and over time, it has generated
all different types of music - rock, pop, hip hop/R&B, country and rap. The
popularity of each music theme depends on which group of listeners is drawn to
the cultural attitudes and social movements prevailing at one point in time. Music
plays an integral part in providing a platform for any artists to raise social
This online informational resource was produced for our Learning and
communicating online studies assessment. The research contained in this
presentation was assembled using only credible and reliable sources based on our
evaluation of the following, author and author’s identification. The author’s
credentials and qualifications. The author’s source of material (what they had
based their work on). The comprehensiveness of the author’s content. The
information reviewed contained seals or stamps of approval, deeming it reliable.
Other factors that influenced our information’s credibility were the date of
publication, presence of contact information on the source and the ability to verify
the claims elsewhere.
Please be sure to view our reference list.
Ashbridge, M., Tanner, J. & Wortley, S., “Listening to Rap: Cultures of Crime, Cultures of
Resistance”, Social Forces 88(2) 693-722, December 209.
Dyson, E. 2007. Know What I Mean? : Reflections on Hip-Hop, Basic Civitas Books, p. 6.
Impact of Music, Music Lyrics, and Music Videos on Children and Youth. 2013. [ONLINE]
Available at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/124/5/1488.full. [Accessed 20 August
Jones, I V. (1990). MAINSTREAM RAP; Cutting-edge sound tops pop in a year of controversy;
Video's child take beat to new streets. USA Today (Gannett Company). p. 1.A.
Kingsbury, Paul. 1998. The encyclopedia of Country music. Oxford university press, p. 8 - 13.
Richards, Kevin. 2012 Top 10 Garth Brooks songs. February 11, 2012 Song: 'The Thunder
Rolls' From Album titled 'No Fences' (1990) http://tasteofcountry.com/garth-brooks-songs/
[Accessed 14 August 2013].
Schneider, C., 2010, Culture, Rap Music, "Bitch", and the Development of the Censorship
Frame, p. 37-51
'Songs as a Medium for Embedded Reproductive Messages' 2013. . [ONLINE] Available at:
http://www.epjournal.net/wp-content/uploads/EP09390416.pdf. [Accessed 20 August 2013].
Images may be subject to copyright.
Image 1: Banner music front page, 2013. [ONLINE] Available at: http://webtechpost.com/wp-
content/uploads/2013/03/Music-Wallpaper-31.jpg [Accessed 11 September 2013]
Image 2: Keith Urban, 2013. [ONLINE] Available at:
walker-country-music-week/&docid=rxhZrGb- [Accessed 03 September 2013]
Image 3: Country, 2013. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.chicagonow.com/a-city-
Image 4: Woman with gun, 2013. [ONLINE] Available at:
start=0&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0,i:83&tx=89&ty=54 [Accessed 03 September 2013]
Image 5: Guitar and banjo, 2013. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.exciting-chicago-
vacation.com/chicago-country-music-festival.html [Accessed 05 September 2013]
Image 6: Grafitti painted lady, 2009. [ONLINE] Available at:
http://say4me.blogspot.com.au/2009/02/new-hip-hop-rnb-singles.html [Accessed 11 September
Image 7: Black and white photo of three men, 2013. [ONLINE] Available at:
yUrHy91TdI/s400/tumblr_m9pknydLRk1qds0eto1_500.jpg [Accessed 11 September 2013]
Image 8: Music awards concert, 2013. [ONLINE] Available at:
Image 9: Cold play concert, 2013 . [ONLINE] Available at: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-
[Accessed 04 September 2013].
Image 10: Robin Thicke and model. [ONLINE] Available at:
http://wp.clicrbs.com.br/atlpop/files/2013/07/robin-thicke-blurred-lines_05.png. [Accessed 03
Image 11: Guy Sebastian, 2013. [ONLINE] Available at:
http://www.optusrockcorps.com.au/sites/default/files/GUYHEAD.png. [Accessed 03 September
Image 12: Explicit content label [ONLINE] Available at:
[Accessed 04 September 2013].
Image 13: Run DMC, 2013. [ONLINE] Available at:
nUsnaOsfriAfU84HIBA&ved=0CJgBEIke&biw=1280&bih=822 [Accessed 04 September