Landmines and the Cold War
Introduction <ul><li>The Nadir (or Zenith of Landmine use occurred during the Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of Landm...
What is a landmine? <ul><li>What distinguishes a Landmine from other weapons systems? </li></ul><ul><li>It is a ‘victim’ o...
Why Landmines? <ul><li>Cheap, simple to make in makeshift facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to use, little training requir...
Landmines: Historical Military Utility  <ul><li>Concept in war – ambush, surprise, to gain advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Use...
More history….. <ul><li>Development of gunpowder melds technology to concept </li></ul><ul><li>American Civil War </li></u...
Mines into 20 th  Century <ul><li>WW1 Static Warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Development of the tank </li></ul>
Lenin: People’s War doctrine <ul><li>“ This means that the toilers and oppressed peoples must always be ready to suppress ...
Into the Cold War <ul><li>Most wars Intra-state or ‘Civil Wars’ </li></ul><ul><li>Decolonisation of European Empires </li>...
Post 1945 <ul><li>Into the Cold War and landmine use changes significantly </li></ul><ul><li>Most sinister features: </li>...
Case Study: Cambodia <ul><li>French Indo-China 1868-1954 </li></ul>
SE Asian Conflict 1954-1975 <ul><li>Cambodia invaded by US </li></ul><ul><li>Operation Ripcord 30 th  April 1970 </li></ul>
Year Zero <ul><li>Pol Pot led Khmer Rouge regime 1975-1979 </li></ul><ul><li>Country wide mine laying programme to control...
Impact  <ul><li>Perhaps 10 million mines were deployed in Cambodia </li></ul><ul><li>Human – Physical Injury, trauma, unab...
How did the mines get there? <ul><li>Producer states </li></ul><ul><li>Supplied to Client States and armed groups  </li></...
Therefore….. <ul><li>Landmines and Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) directly affect the  physical, psychosocial and economic well...
The response to landmine contamination   <ul><li>Humanitarian Mine Action since 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Mine Action in Cam...
Humanitarian Mine Action (HMA) <ul><li>100% removal of landmines, UXO and metal content from a contaminated area </li></ul>
HMA saves lives, restores land
HMA methods <ul><li>Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Demarcation </li></ul><ul><li>Mine and UXO clearance </li></ul><ul><li>Stockp...
Use of technology <ul><li>Manual Clearance </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>K-9 </li></ul>
Use of Celebrities….! <ul><li>Her ladyship…. </li></ul><ul><li>And Diana…. </li></ul>
Advocacy- Ottawa Treaty 1997 <ul><li>ICBL wins Nobel Peace prize 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Ottawa Anti-mines treaty signed 19...
Problems? <ul><li>Cheapness and ease of manufacture or improvisation </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid weapons –Cluster bombs </li>...
What is happening now <ul><li>Mine Action continues –  twenty years on since first interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Tools a...
Q an A <ul><li>Can landmines be successfully banned? </li></ul><ul><li>Should landmines be banned? </li></ul><ul><li>Are l...
Thanks for listening
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

2009 April Landmines And Cold War For Rhodes

1,553 views
1,452 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,553
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
40
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • The period of late 20 th C history called the Cold War from 1945 until 1989, saw the most rapid advancements in the destructive power of weaponry ever. In this sense much of the legacy of the Cold war, in terms of NBC (WMD) systems and their delivery means remain with us. Yet one highly destructive weapon system, cheap and easy to deploy, proliferated widely and was used extensively. Landmines.
  • Think booby traps, car alarms, animal pit hunters dug in prehistoric times – it is a CONCEPT, a psychological concept in war, more than just a weapon. (1) Cannot distinguish the target (2) Designed to maim: why? (3)Weapon of terror: Instills fear
  • FMLN El Salvador (ATAP factories). LTTE use children. Deterrence effect. “Sitzkreig”. Covers dead ground, defends ground where manpower is scare or more expensive weapons are not available/affordable. Poor mans weapon.
  • Historical roots lie in undermining of castle walls and fortifications (hence the word mine)
  • Response to static trench warfare deadlock, tanks developed, counter system needed to stop tanks mines developed then AP mines developed to stop sappers lifting the AT mines and adapted shells
  • In 1921, Vladimir Illyich Lenin, realizing the effort needed to (a) reorganize the Red Army and people and defeat the Whites in the post-revolutionary Russian Civil War (b) devise a military doctrine that would be able to be the locomotive of world revolution, evolved and published the Doctrine of People’s War. This rejects western, or bourgeois notions of warmaking, including outmoded notions of honour and recognizing non-combatant’s, this was a case of ‘all to arms” - going further even that revolutionary France and the “Levee en Masse”. The people had to be armed, and so Soviet weapon in the incoming years recognized this, resulting in the development of such light portable weapons. (The tenacious defence of both Leningrad and Stalingrad exemplifies the doctrine when millions of civilians not only were forced remain in the cities, but took part in the active defence). The Soviet  PFM-1 scatterablepressure-sensitive blast mine  is also known as the  &amp;quot;butterfly mine&amp;quot;  because of its shape, which unfortunately attracts children who think it is a toy. Millions of these small green mines were scattered from helicopters or launched from artillery throughout the war in Afghanistan. They became so familiar that children began to call them &amp;quot;green parrots&amp;quot;. It has been produced in various shades of brown green, and white. But also in very attractive colors for children, like blue and red. The PFM-1S version of this mine is one of rare designs which include a self-destruct mechanism. It explodes 24 hours after deployment. One &apos;wing&apos; contains liquid explosive. When pressure is applied the explosive is forced into contact with the fuse. The amount of explosive is small, but it can still take a child&apos;s hand off.
  • Thus a notable feature of wars during European decolonization and convergence with ‘proxy’ Cold War conflicts where belligerents became Western or Soviet or Chinese clients was (1) Inter-sate often Low Intensity Conflict (LIC) using Light man portable weapons (for woman and children also) featuring Guerilla or Irregular forces with often very poorly trained combatants. This was not accidental, weapon types such as those produced by the Soviet Bloc - precluded the need for intensive (indeed bourgeois) military training - and created an armed people. So the weapons design and distribution was as much a political act as much as a military one. Some countries even put the AK-47 on their flags!
  • WW2 already left Europe the most heavily mined place on earth yet ‘safe’ by 1948 (relate instances and examples Belgium. Poland, Russia AND Eurostar…..
  • 2009 April Landmines And Cold War For Rhodes

    1. 1. Landmines and the Cold War
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>The Nadir (or Zenith of Landmine use occurred during the Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of Landmines deployed in the ‘Hot’ Conflicts of the Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>Legacy: Challenges to Post-Conflict reconstruction and attrition of human populations </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is a landmine? <ul><li>What distinguishes a Landmine from other weapons systems? </li></ul><ul><li>It is a ‘victim’ or ‘target’ operated trap </li></ul><ul><li>It is Concept in War </li></ul>
    4. 4. Why Landmines? <ul><li>Cheap, simple to make in makeshift facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to use, little training required </li></ul><ul><li>Instill fear in attackers </li></ul><ul><li>Instill confidence in defenders </li></ul><ul><li>Force Multipliers </li></ul>
    5. 5. Landmines: Historical Military Utility <ul><li>Concept in war – ambush, surprise, to gain advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Use in siege warfare: Rochester castle England 1215 (Macbeth) </li></ul><ul><li>Constantinople 1453 </li></ul>
    6. 6. More history….. <ul><li>Development of gunpowder melds technology to concept </li></ul><ul><li>American Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Russo Japanese War </li></ul>
    7. 7. Mines into 20 th Century <ul><li>WW1 Static Warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Development of the tank </li></ul>
    8. 8. Lenin: People’s War doctrine <ul><li>“ This means that the toilers and oppressed peoples must always be ready to suppress their class enemies by military force An exploited class which does not strive to have weapons and which is not capable of using them and mastering the military art would be a servile class” </li></ul>
    9. 9. Into the Cold War <ul><li>Most wars Intra-state or ‘Civil Wars’ </li></ul><ul><li>Decolonisation of European Empires </li></ul><ul><li>Cold War – fought by proxy </li></ul><ul><li>Light man portable weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Poorly trained combatants </li></ul>
    10. 10. Post 1945 <ul><li>Into the Cold War and landmine use changes significantly </li></ul><ul><li>Most sinister features: </li></ul><ul><li>Terror use against civilian populations </li></ul><ul><li>Long term economic warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary - Population displacement </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent - Ethnic cleansing </li></ul>
    11. 11. Case Study: Cambodia <ul><li>French Indo-China 1868-1954 </li></ul>
    12. 12. SE Asian Conflict 1954-1975 <ul><li>Cambodia invaded by US </li></ul><ul><li>Operation Ripcord 30 th April 1970 </li></ul>
    13. 13. Year Zero <ul><li>Pol Pot led Khmer Rouge regime 1975-1979 </li></ul><ul><li>Country wide mine laying programme to control and terrorise the population </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnamese invade in 1979, conflict with NCR until 1991, more mine laying over twelve year period </li></ul>
    14. 14. Impact <ul><li>Perhaps 10 million mines were deployed in Cambodia </li></ul><ul><li>Human – Physical Injury, trauma, unable to work, loss of esteem, refugees (IDPs) </li></ul><ul><li>Economic – livestock destroyed, land unproductive </li></ul><ul><li>Critical infrastructure destroyed or rendered inaccessible to repair or maintain </li></ul>
    15. 15. How did the mines get there? <ul><li>Producer states </li></ul><ul><li>Supplied to Client States and armed groups </li></ul><ul><li>As Trade (and Aid) </li></ul><ul><li>Used as sweeteners in arms deals </li></ul><ul><li>Technology transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Improvisation </li></ul><ul><li>Local production </li></ul><ul><li>All results in - Deployment </li></ul>
    16. 16. Therefore….. <ul><li>Landmines and Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) directly affect the physical, psychosocial and economic well being of individuals, families and communities living in conflict and former conflict areas </li></ul>
    17. 17. The response to landmine contamination <ul><li>Humanitarian Mine Action since 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Mine Action in Cambodia commences under UNTAC in 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>More than 64 countries world wide undertake Mine Action, most resulting from Cold War </li></ul>
    18. 18. Humanitarian Mine Action (HMA) <ul><li>100% removal of landmines, UXO and metal content from a contaminated area </li></ul>
    19. 19. HMA saves lives, restores land
    20. 20. HMA methods <ul><li>Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Demarcation </li></ul><ul><li>Mine and UXO clearance </li></ul><ul><li>Stockpile demolition </li></ul><ul><li>Mines awareness education </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy </li></ul>
    21. 21. Use of technology <ul><li>Manual Clearance </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>K-9 </li></ul>
    22. 22. Use of Celebrities….! <ul><li>Her ladyship…. </li></ul><ul><li>And Diana…. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Advocacy- Ottawa Treaty 1997 <ul><li>ICBL wins Nobel Peace prize 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Ottawa Anti-mines treaty signed 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Not signed by US, PRC, Russian Federation and others including Israel, Finland and Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>Landmines used by two signatory countries after ratification –one being Cambodia </li></ul>
    24. 24. Problems? <ul><li>Cheapness and ease of manufacture or improvisation </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid weapons –Cluster bombs </li></ul><ul><li>New designations of landmines </li></ul><ul><li>Technology ahead of legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Non-signatory countries as manufacturers, users and suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Funding </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Political will </li></ul>
    25. 25. What is happening now <ul><li>Mine Action continues – twenty years on since first interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Tools and interventions for treatment of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Long term impact of mine contamination </li></ul><ul><li>New Tools to enhance effectiveness of HMA interventions. (PCIA UNDP). </li></ul><ul><li>Reshaping of Policy for interventions and HMA </li></ul><ul><li>Reshaping the body of knowledge around HMA </li></ul><ul><li>Moving HMA closer to Development action </li></ul>
    26. 26. Q an A <ul><li>Can landmines be successfully banned? </li></ul><ul><li>Should landmines be banned? </li></ul><ul><li>Are landmines effective weapons ? </li></ul>
    27. 27. Thanks for listening

    ×