Kilimanjaro – The Icon of Africa (SF)


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Kilimanjaro – The Icon of Africa (SF)

  1. 1. Kilimanjaro – The Icon of Africa
  2. 2. How significant is Climate Change in the Understanding of Vulnerability & Resilience Among Pastoralist & Farmers In Kilimanjaro Region Tanzania <ul><li>Five Part Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>1 Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>2 Commuities & Their Livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>3 Changing Livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>The Future With The Past </li></ul><ul><li>5 Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Two acute crisis – “ climate change” and “ the financial crunch ” In a post Copenhagen world . </li></ul><ul><li>Despite all facts, figures they tell us little of the complex human & physical interaction </li></ul><ul><li>The disappearing snows of Kilimanjaro, symbolizes that climate variability and “change” is a reality. </li></ul><ul><li>The cacophonic ideology of CC has undermined valuable lessons about livelihoods and alternatives development. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Is There Evidence of Major Past Climate Changes In Kilimanjaro? <ul><li>Anomalies in Kilimanjaro Region. The dormant volcanic mountain is the highest peak in Africa is very new feature compared to the adjacent Pare Mountains. </li></ul><ul><li>Two significant scientific works specifically on Kili. In 2002 Thompson et , al , reports on three periods of abrupt CC including the First Dark Age (- 4000 years BP) – clues to the greatest historically recorded drought in tropical Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>During last 150 years great variations in snow and rain. If trends continue the snow will disappear between 2015 /2020. </li></ul><ul><li>The French Institute for Research in Africa & the Geography Dept /UDS has more perspectives & human dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Basically what were the major factors that impacted on the livelihood of communities? </li></ul>
  5. 5. 2. COMMUNITIES AND THEIR LIVELIHOODS <ul><li>In the highlands - great physical and cultural diversity. Even the Wachagga people had more than 30 small states based on ridge location rather than on ethnicity. </li></ul><ul><li>In the lowland plains or “nkiya” the situation was different. In mid 19th century nomadic people, notably the Maasai appeared and there emerged another major livelihood group based on animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Remarkably, wildlife & livestock co- existed for decades. </li></ul><ul><li>HOWEVER no single factor not even climate change can totally explain the livelihood patterns and the vulnerability experienced my people. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Nature of Livelihoods <ul><li>Maximum use of local resources in all livelihoods: </li></ul><ul><li>Livelihoods were transformed by the dynamic nature of social, economic and cultural processes. </li></ul><ul><li>The vulnerability to disasters directly attributed to CC and indirectly by flaws in socio-economic intervention requires the attention of Governments and CSOs. </li></ul><ul><li>Asking relevant questions is more critical now rather than glib political answers. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 3.0 CHANGING PATTERNS OF LIVELIHOOD Colonial Era <ul><li>So cool brought white settlers who grew coffee. . </li></ul><ul><li>As a League of Nation restrictions on indigenous people taken and allowed to grow coffee. </li></ul><ul><li>In Moshi District the Wachagga took to arabica coffee in their well cared garden plots. A blend of tradition and modernity </li></ul><ul><li>In 1899 coffee exports 50 tons, rose 1,575 by 1912, . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Independence &Changing Patterns <ul><li>Coffee production was 27,000 in 1961 about 47,000 tons in 1971,000 tons, peaked to 67,000 tons in 1981. </li></ul><ul><li>At Kilimanjaro had several distinct advantages: coffee was a good export crop; other products, sugar cane, maize, rice, fruits and vegetables. For the landless but educationed there were jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>There was livelihood diversification rather being enslaved by a subsistence economy. </li></ul><ul><li>The pastoralists of the semi arid plains were less rushed to make radical changes in their livelihoods. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 3.3 The Decline of Coffee & First Major Shifts in the Livelihood <ul><li>A combination of factors led to major changes in agriculture especially in the relatively scarce fertile and well watered areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Disillusioned by the skewed and slow pace and externally led national development a radical creed of self reliance and nationalization was proclaimed in 1967. </li></ul><ul><li>By the mid 1970’s most cooperatives even the KNCU were abolished. The services once enjoyed by coffee growers declined, erratic payment for cultivators led to a loss of interest even in coffee because of the bureaucracy and poor management. </li></ul><ul><li>Many peasants uprooted coffee. By the early 2000’s Kilimanjaro was producing only about 5,000 tons. </li></ul><ul><li>It preferable to cultivate for the internal market and to grow vegetables. The returns came in within months, red tape was absent . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Focus on improving the masses <ul><li>As part of a Regional Planning exercise in Tanzania, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) was requested to focus in the Kilimanjaro Region. Several activities, including the Kilimanjaro Agricultural Development Programme (KADP 1974-1993). </li></ul><ul><li>It 1974 rice formally introduced as a cash/food crop in the Lower Moshi Irrigation Project. As a formal irrigation project it differed from the traditional in many respects: more efficient use of water, fertilizers and improved seeds, (from IRRI - Philippines), The small allocated plots were small but returns were considerably greater than growing other grains. </li></ul><ul><li>The multiplier effect impressive: milling, transport, marketing and trading, supply of goods and services. Basically one did not have to be a farmer to earn a living.(URT 2007) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Some Success <ul><li>A seven category assessment between the LMADP and the Kapunga Rice Irrigation Project (KRIP), a State Farm provides several useful lessons. </li></ul><ul><li>The LMADP focused on smallholders; </li></ul><ul><li>stressed local ownership, </li></ul><ul><li>defined rights over water; </li></ul><ul><li>high local participation in decision making (many positive ramifications), </li></ul><ul><li>assistance was for a reasonable period </li></ul><ul><li>The input package was comprehensive. </li></ul><ul><li>All this resulted in improved quality of life for thousands. </li></ul>
  12. 12. 3.4 The More Recent Present and Clues About The Future <ul><li>Pre 1900 </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 90% primary livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Very dependant on Natural Resources (NR) </li></ul><ul><li>Blend of tradition & change </li></ul><ul><li>By 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 2/3 not in primary livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>Trading extensive now an occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Threat of expropriations of NR </li></ul><ul><li>Blend of tradition & modern </li></ul>
  13. 13. Unmistakable Evidence For Predicting Some Disasters <ul><li>Policy interventions without a human face that dramatically appease some at the expense of the majority. </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-economic trends that increase vulnerability of livelihoods eg Pastoralists. </li></ul><ul><li>A liability triggered in cases by climate variations are aggravated by exclusion, poor governance are disasters. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Conclusion <ul><li>Respect of the interests & rights of traditional resources: land, water, & vegetation leads to true resilience.. </li></ul><ul><li>How significant is CC in understanding the vulnerability & resilience among pastoralist and farmers in Kilimanjaro – Tz? </li></ul><ul><li>A liability triggered in cases by climate variations are aggravated by exclusion, poor governance are disasters. </li></ul><ul><li>Disasters reduction, including poverty reduction is a of choice and creativity </li></ul>
  15. 15. You could use imagination creatively …… <ul><li>Have you heard of climate change? </li></ul>