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Kilimanjaro – The Icon of Africa (SF)
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Kilimanjaro – The Icon of Africa (SF)



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  • 1. Kilimanjaro – The Icon of Africa
  • 2. How significant is Climate Change in the Understanding of Vulnerability & Resilience Among Pastoralist & Farmers In Kilimanjaro Region Tanzania
    • Five Part Presentation
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Commuities & Their Livelihoods
    • 3 Changing Livelihoods
    • The Future With The Past
    • 5 Conclusion
  • 3. Introduction
    • Two acute crisis – “ climate change” and “ the financial crunch ” In a post Copenhagen world .
    • Despite all facts, figures they tell us little of the complex human & physical interaction
    • The disappearing snows of Kilimanjaro, symbolizes that climate variability and “change” is a reality.
    • The cacophonic ideology of CC has undermined valuable lessons about livelihoods and alternatives development.
  • 4. Is There Evidence of Major Past Climate Changes In Kilimanjaro?
    • Anomalies in Kilimanjaro Region. The dormant volcanic mountain is the highest peak in Africa is very new feature compared to the adjacent Pare Mountains.
    • Two significant scientific works specifically on Kili. In 2002 Thompson et , al , reports on three periods of abrupt CC including the First Dark Age (- 4000 years BP) – clues to the greatest historically recorded drought in tropical Africa.
    • During last 150 years great variations in snow and rain. If trends continue the snow will disappear between 2015 /2020.
    • The French Institute for Research in Africa & the Geography Dept /UDS has more perspectives & human dimensions
    • Basically what were the major factors that impacted on the livelihood of communities?
    • In the highlands - great physical and cultural diversity. Even the Wachagga people had more than 30 small states based on ridge location rather than on ethnicity.
    • In the lowland plains or “nkiya” the situation was different. In mid 19th century nomadic people, notably the Maasai appeared and there emerged another major livelihood group based on animals.
    • Remarkably, wildlife & livestock co- existed for decades.
    • HOWEVER no single factor not even climate change can totally explain the livelihood patterns and the vulnerability experienced my people.
  • 6. The Nature of Livelihoods
    • Maximum use of local resources in all livelihoods:
    • Livelihoods were transformed by the dynamic nature of social, economic and cultural processes.
    • The vulnerability to disasters directly attributed to CC and indirectly by flaws in socio-economic intervention requires the attention of Governments and CSOs.
    • Asking relevant questions is more critical now rather than glib political answers.
    • So cool brought white settlers who grew coffee. .
    • As a League of Nation restrictions on indigenous people taken and allowed to grow coffee.
    • In Moshi District the Wachagga took to arabica coffee in their well cared garden plots. A blend of tradition and modernity
    • In 1899 coffee exports 50 tons, rose 1,575 by 1912, .
  • 8. Independence &Changing Patterns
    • Coffee production was 27,000 in 1961 about 47,000 tons in 1971,000 tons, peaked to 67,000 tons in 1981.
    • At Kilimanjaro had several distinct advantages: coffee was a good export crop; other products, sugar cane, maize, rice, fruits and vegetables. For the landless but educationed there were jobs.
    • There was livelihood diversification rather being enslaved by a subsistence economy.
    • The pastoralists of the semi arid plains were less rushed to make radical changes in their livelihoods.
  • 9. 3.3 The Decline of Coffee & First Major Shifts in the Livelihood
    • A combination of factors led to major changes in agriculture especially in the relatively scarce fertile and well watered areas.
    • Disillusioned by the skewed and slow pace and externally led national development a radical creed of self reliance and nationalization was proclaimed in 1967.
    • By the mid 1970’s most cooperatives even the KNCU were abolished. The services once enjoyed by coffee growers declined, erratic payment for cultivators led to a loss of interest even in coffee because of the bureaucracy and poor management.
    • Many peasants uprooted coffee. By the early 2000’s Kilimanjaro was producing only about 5,000 tons.
    • It preferable to cultivate for the internal market and to grow vegetables. The returns came in within months, red tape was absent .
  • 10. Focus on improving the masses
    • As part of a Regional Planning exercise in Tanzania, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) was requested to focus in the Kilimanjaro Region. Several activities, including the Kilimanjaro Agricultural Development Programme (KADP 1974-1993).
    • It 1974 rice formally introduced as a cash/food crop in the Lower Moshi Irrigation Project. As a formal irrigation project it differed from the traditional in many respects: more efficient use of water, fertilizers and improved seeds, (from IRRI - Philippines), The small allocated plots were small but returns were considerably greater than growing other grains.
    • The multiplier effect impressive: milling, transport, marketing and trading, supply of goods and services. Basically one did not have to be a farmer to earn a living.(URT 2007)
  • 11. Some Success
    • A seven category assessment between the LMADP and the Kapunga Rice Irrigation Project (KRIP), a State Farm provides several useful lessons.
    • The LMADP focused on smallholders;
    • stressed local ownership,
    • defined rights over water;
    • high local participation in decision making (many positive ramifications),
    • assistance was for a reasonable period
    • The input package was comprehensive.
    • All this resulted in improved quality of life for thousands.
  • 12. 3.4 The More Recent Present and Clues About The Future
    • Pre 1900
    • Nearly 90% primary livelihoods
    • Limited Trade
    • Very dependant on Natural Resources (NR)
    • Blend of tradition & change
    • By 2000
    • Nearly 2/3 not in primary livelihoods
    • Trading extensive now an occupation
    • Threat of expropriations of NR
    • Blend of tradition & modern
  • 13. Unmistakable Evidence For Predicting Some Disasters
    • Policy interventions without a human face that dramatically appease some at the expense of the majority.
    • Socio-economic trends that increase vulnerability of livelihoods eg Pastoralists.
    • A liability triggered in cases by climate variations are aggravated by exclusion, poor governance are disasters.
  • 14. Conclusion
    • Respect of the interests & rights of traditional resources: land, water, & vegetation leads to true resilience..
    • How significant is CC in understanding the vulnerability & resilience among pastoralist and farmers in Kilimanjaro – Tz?
    • A liability triggered in cases by climate variations are aggravated by exclusion, poor governance are disasters.
    • Disasters reduction, including poverty reduction is a of choice and creativity
  • 15. You could use imagination creatively ……
    • Have you heard of climate change?