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Enhance Community Resilience to Landslide Hazards

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Enhance Community Resilience to Landslide Hazards

Enhance Community Resilience to Landslide Hazards

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    Enhance Community Resilience to Landslide Hazards Enhance Community Resilience to Landslide Hazards Presentation Transcript

    • Enhance Community Resilience to Landslide Hazards Workshop for 3rd International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC Davos 2010 June 2010 Philip W K CHUNG Head of Public Education and Community Advisory Services Unit Geotechnical Engineering Office (GEO) Hong Kong SAR Government Part-time visiting professor of Department of Earth Sciences and Department of Civil Engineering Hong Kong University
    • Contents of the Workshop (1) Introduction Hyogo Framework for Action and the term “Resilience” Topic 1 Landslide hazard - a long term problem in Hong Kong Topic 2 Hong Kong Slope Safety System Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Contents of the Workshop (2) Topic 3 The four key elements in enhancing community resilience to landslide hazards - Proactive public communication and education - Comprehensive information services - Early warning - Effective emergency response Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Contents of the Workshop (3) Topic 4 The solution strategies under a new 5-year strategic plan to enhance community resilience to landslide hazards - Promote understanding of the nature and size of the landslide problem; - Win public trust and confidence and - Maintain public awareness of landslide danger. Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Contents of the Workshop (4) Topic 5 A note on the community based approach Topic 6 Brief discussions on the measures to manage challenges of climate change and major geohazards Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • As put forward by the Chairman of the Organizing Committee of this Conference Dr Ammann Walter : Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 (HFA) - Building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters 2005-2015年兵库行动纲领: 加强国家和社区的抗灾能力 Formulated as a comprehensive, action- oriented response to international concern about the growing impacts of disasters on individuals, communities and national development. UN ISDR Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction HFA identifies 5 specific Priorities for Action 1. Ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and a local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation. 2. Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning. 3. Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels. 4. Reduce the underlying risk factors. 5. Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels. Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • A note on the term “resilience” UN/ISDR Terminology : The capacity of a system, community or society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure. This is determined by the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing itself to increase its capacity for learning from past disasters for better future protection and to improve risk reduction measures. Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • A note on the term “resilience” Prof David Alexander:  Aim for the optimum combination of ability to resist and absorb shocks  Risk = Hazard x Vulnerability x Exposure Resilience  Lies in anticipating changes before they occur Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Topic 1 Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • General landscape of Hong Kong Island
    • Area of Hong Kong = 1100 sq. km >70% are natural terrain with slope angle > 15 degree
    • Building platforms are formed by cutting into the hillside Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Roads are formed by cutting into the hillside Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Buildings and roads are constructed close to steep slopes Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Slopes are found everywhere amidst HK’s urban developments Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • 7 million population 1100 sq km land area (densely populated ~7,000 / sq km) 60% of land on hilly terrain (more and more developments extend into hilly terrain) 60,000 man-made slopes 2,300 mm annual rainfall Slope forming materials are mostly deeply weathered soils Slopes very close to build-up areas A large no. of sub-standard slopes formed before 1977 Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • No. of Fatalities each year 1949 1972 Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Location of landslides (mainly at built up areas or along roads) Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • 1972 landslide at Po Shan Road, Hong Kong Island (67 dead) Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • 1972 landslide at Sau Mau Ping, Kowloon (71 dead) Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • 1976 landslide at Sau Mau Ping, Kowloon (18 dead) Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • 1999 Shek Kip Mei (permanent evacuation of 700 residents in Blocks 35, 36 and 38) Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Topic 2 Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • A video show on the general introduction of the Hong Kong Slope Safety System Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key strategies Overall Landslide Risk in HK Contain the increased HK Slope Safety System risk arising from Set up by GEO new Check new slopes developments Plan land use Upgrade & maintain government slopes Reduce the risk by improving Promote private slope maintenance slope stability Clear squatters on Reduce the risk hilly terrain by Reducing Educate the public landslide to take precaution consequences 1977 Year
    • The following three elements in the HK Slope Safety System not directly related to the community based approach will be described very briefly in the following few slides: Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Land use planning is a cost- effective means to mitigate potential impacts of natural hazards GEO provides input in the early planning stage to identify geotechnical constraints on land developments Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Scale of mitigation measures could be substantially reduced by special provisions (e.g.) :  Designating part of the land as non- building areas  Change of the foundation layout to avoid difficult areas  Change of the proposed land use (from residential to open playground) Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • In 1990, 22,000 cu. metres of debris released from a natural slope. The landslide extended to a length of over 1 km. Tuen Mun Area 19 originally proposed for residential development Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Tuen Mun Foothills Bypass and a golf driving range were finally developed Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • The site was proposed for small house development The costs of required mitigation measures far out-weighted the economic benefits of such small development The project was dropped Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Residential building Major road School Upgrade substandard high risk government slopes Hospital Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Government Slopes upgrading expenditure under 5-year Accelerated LPM Programme (1995-2000) and 10-year Extended LPM Programme (2000-2010) 1400 1200 ~US$125 million per year 993 1000 921 966 932 940 889 882 894 890 HK$ Million 868 831 800  upgrade 250 government 772 man-made slopes 681 600  safety screen 300 private 400 slopes 393 195 200 107 63 71 69 81 72 56 62 63 63 75 69 62 64 69 37 37 46 0 Financial 1977/78 1979/80 1981/82 1983/84 1985/86 1987/88 1989/90 1991/92 1993/94 1995/96 1997/98 1999/2000 2001/02 2003/04 2005/06 2007/08 2009/10 Year Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Annual maintenance expenditure of 40,000 government slopes is about HK$600 million (~US$ 77 million) Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Squatter structures in hilly areas are particularly vulnerable to landslide hazards Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Works approach is normally not practical because: - Works cannot be done without first demolishing the structure to provide access - Severe problems with construction safety and subsequent maintenance Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Before After Non-Development Clearance Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • About 75,000 squatters have been cleared Great contribution to the reduction of overall landslide risk in Hong Kong Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Topic 3 - Proactive public communication & education - Comprehensive information services - Early warning - Effective emergency response Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • 4 key elements in enhancing community resilience to landslide hazards Proactive public Comprehensive Communication and information service Education 發放全面資訊 主動與公眾溝通及教育 Effective emergency Early warning Response 及早預警 有效緊急應變 Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 1 : Public Communication and Education Public education plays two key roles in enhancing slope safety :  to reduce the probability of landslides by reminding the owners to regularly maintain their slopes;  to reduce the consequences of landslides by promoting personal precautionary measures during heavy rain Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • What exactly are we doing? Roving exhibitions (schools and local shopping centres) Fiesta or major exhibition (with special theme) TV and radio API (i.e. advertisement) Seminars Talks (target groups & public) Promotional Community services with NGOs materials Unauthorized hillside cultivation Educational materials for students and teachers
    • Key element 1 : Public Communication and Education Venue for roving exhibitions in the past - Schools - Universities - Public housing estates - Private housing estates - Popular commercial shopping centres - Central Library - Our Office Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 1 : Public Communication and Education School Talks Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 1 : Public Communication and Education Fiesta Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 1 : Public Communication and Education TV and Radio API (Advertisement) 1995 - Thriller 1997 - Tender love 1998 - Target group 2000 - Computer and care approach animation 2001 - Direct 2003 - 3 humour / 2007 - warning sign 2009 – Specific topic instructional approach suspense stories with physical model on illegal dumping Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 1 : Public Communication and Education Common topics for seminars/talks:  Landslip Warning and Personal precautionary measures  Slope maintenance  Landslide risk in HK  Introduction to slope safety in HK  Introduction to geology in HK  Landscaping of Slopes Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 1 : Public Communication and Education Organize a one year project on “Saving Living – Reducing Natural Disaster” Events / Activities Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 1 : Public Communication and Education Organize a one year project on “Saving Living – Reducing Natural Disaster” Dr David Roger of World Meteorological Organisation Mr Andrew Maskrey, Head of Disaster Reduction Unit of UNDP Ms Madeleen Helmer, Head of the Red Cross/Red crescent Centre on Climate Change and Disaster Preparation Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 1 : Public Communication and Education Promulgate 2 major messages to morning walkers :  Landslip Warning Signal  No illegal cultivation along hillside Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 1 : Public Communication and Education Educational material prepared for the New Senior Secondary Geography and Chemistry curriculum The “Teaching Support Materials Kit” consists of 14 booklets, 4 posters, 3 CDs and other supplementary information sheets. Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 1 : Public Communication and Education Joint Community Service with Hong Kong Red Cross Main Theme : maintain good health – body and slope Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 1 : Public Communication and Education Stamp chops and stamp pane Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 1 : Public Communication and Education Organize competitions to suit different ages Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 1 : Public Communication and Education About US$ 200 million was spent each year to maintain and upgrade government man-made slopes. Expenditure on public education is around US$ 0.25 million each year. Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 2 : Early Warning The provision of timely and effective information, through identified institutions, that allows individuals exposed to a hazard to take action to avoid or reduce their risk and prepare for effective response. UN/ISDR Terminology Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 2 : Early Warning Framework Risk Monitoring & Dissemination & Response Knowledge warning service Communication Capability • Systematically • Develop • Communicate • Build national collect data hazard risk and and undertake monitoring and information community risk early warning and early response assessments services warnings capabilities Source: Platform for the Promotion of Early Warning (PPEW) Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 2 : Early Warning Risk Knowledge • Systematically collect data and undertake risk assessments Continuous automatic rainfall data collection from 86 GEO raingauges and 24 HKO raingauges Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 2 : Early Warning Risk Knowledge • Systematically collect data and undertake risk assessments Correlation of landslide frequency with 24 hr maximum rolling rainfall for different types of slopes Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 2 : Early Warning Risk Knowledge • Systematically collect data and undertake risk assessments Each cell measures 1.2 km x 1.5 km Total 681 cells on land in the 40x40 Grid Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 2 : Early Warning Risk Knowledge • Systematically collect data and undertake risk assessments Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Monitoring & Key element 2 : Early Warning warning service • Develop hazard The Geotechnical Engineering Office (GEO) and the monitoring and early warning Hong Kong Observatory (HKO) jointly operate the services Landslip Warning System to alert the public to the landslide danger during periods of heavy rainfall and typhoon. The Landslip Warning is issued when it is predicted that numerous landslides will occur. Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Monitoring & Key element 2 : Early Warning warning service • Develop The criterion for the issue of the Landslip Warning hazard monitoring and is related to the size of the area receiving heavy early warning rainfall, the rainfall intensity and the number of services slopes within the affected area. The latest weather information available, including short-term rainfall forecast, is also considered. The criteria for the issue and cancellation of the Landslip Warning are reviewed regularly to take account of the gradual improvement in slope safety with time. Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 2 : Early Warning Dissemination & Communication • Communicate When the Landslip Warning is issued, local radio and risk information television stations are notified and broadcast the and early Warning to the public at regular intervals, together warnings with advice on the precautions that should be taken by the general public. The Hong Kong Slope Safety Website (http://hkss.cedd.gov.hk) also publishes the warning message and the number of landslide incidents reported to the GEO at regular intervals. Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 2 : Early Warning Dissemination & Communication • Communicate risk information Important and early Messages warnings When the Landslip Warning is in force, the public should stay away from slopes and watch out for signs of landslide danger. The Home Affairs Department opens temporary shelters for the public including anyone whose dwelling is endangered by unstable slopes or boulders. Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 2 : Early Warning Dissemination & Communication • Communicate risk information Important and early Messages warnings Members of the public are advised to cancel non-essential appointments and to stay at home or in a safe shelter. Motorists are advised to avoid driving in hilly areas or along roads with landslip warning signs. Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 2 : Early Warning Dissemination & Communication Important Messages • Communicate risk information and early warnings Warning Signs for Natural Terrain Hazards Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 2 : Early Warning Dissemination & Communication • Communicate risk information and early Neither weather forecasting nor landslide warnings prediction can be regarded as an exact science. There will inevitably be occasions when the Landslip Warning is in force and not many landslides occur. Equally, if heavy rain develops suddenly and unexpectedly, landslides could occur before the Landslip Warning is issued. Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 2 : Early Warning Response Capability • Build national and community Are people prepared and ready to react to response warnings? capabilities Conduct annual Public Opinion Survey Are response plans up to date and tested? Are local capacities and knowledge made use of? More work can be done on this aspect. Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 2 : Early Warning Response Capability • Build national and community More than 90% landslide fatalities in last 20 response years occurred when Landslip Warning was in capabilities force. This fact shows that Landslip Warning is reliable and effective and general public should not take it light-hearted. Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Public Awareness of Landslide Risk in HK 1997 1998 1999 2000 90% 88% 88% 2001 2002 2003 2004 84% 83% 87% 2005 2006 2007 2008 85% 82% 81% 83% 81% 83% 80% 77% 80% 78% 78% 76% 76% 73% 73% 75% 75% 73% 71% 70% 71% 72% 71% 70% 70% 70% 70% 66% 63% 62% 62% 59% 60% 56% 50% 40% Concerned with Understanding of the Aware of Owners’ Slope Safety Importance of Slope Responsibility Maintenance
    • Key element 3 : Comprehensive information service Existing services are briefly illustrated. More new initiatives are covered under Topic 4 Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 3 : Comprehensive information service Videos Hong Kong Slope Safety Website A book on hundreds years of landslides in HK Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 3 : Comprehensive information service Press conference Manuals Cartoon books Leaflets Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 3 : Comprehensive information service Member of public might not possess the required information, knowledge or expertise in slope improvement or maintenance works, to encourage community participation on slope safety matters. To assist private slope owners to better understand the technical requirements, a “Community Advisory Unit” (CAU) has been set up in the GEO of the Government to assist private slope owners to discharge their slope maintenance responsibility through direct community outreach advisory and information services. Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 3 : Comprehensive information service Meet the owners corporations Slope safety seminar Advice on slope maintenance works Advice to owners who Meet-the-public receive a DH Order outreach activities Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 4 : Effective emergency Response Mission of GEO emergency services:  Maintaining a 24-hour service to provide advice to Government departments on danger due to landslides  Assisting rescue and works departments to protect life and property and restore suspended public service as soon as possible Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 4 : Effective emergency Response Service targets  Government Departments, mainly Fire Services, Police and Works Departments (e.g. Highways, Drainage, Water Supplies, Building, Lands, etc)  General Public Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 4 : Effective emergency Response Give professional advice on :  Road closure  Building closure  Evacuation  Emergency slope works  Rescue work Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 4 : Effective emergency Response Landslide Emergency Phases 1. Rescue Phase remove immediate danger, protect life & property, rescue work safely carried out. 2. Restoration Phase maintain stability of slopes and restore essential public services (transport and utilities) Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 4 : Effective emergency Response Service Hours (24 hours all year around)  Mobilisation of Emergency Control Centre (ECC) When Landslip Warning or Tropical Cyclone Signal No. 8 (or above) is in force  ECC is manned by an emergency team (about 13 members) and where necessary, the Team Controller will dispatch professional staff to landslide sites. GEO has 13 teams on the roster and each team works for an 8-hour shift. Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Integrated Landslide Information System (ILIS) Via “Lotus Notes” Professional staff responsible ECC staff to different districts Landslide data management (ILIS)
    • Key element 4 : Effective emergency Response 2008 June Rainstorms Landslides Reported to GEO Total no. of reported 350 landslide : 326 Landslip Warning No. of landslides 300 In force 35 hours 土木工程拓展署 250 200 150 Landslip Warning In force 20 hours 土力工程處 100 Emergency Control Centre was in 50 operation for over 140 hours and over 200 team members participated 0 7/6 8/6 9/6 10/6 11/6 12/6 13/6 14/6 15/6 16/6 Geotechnical Enhance Community Resilience Date Engineering Office, CEDD to Landslide Hazards
    • Key element 4 : Effective emergency Response Training  Pre-wet season briefing to all staff  Pre-wet season emergency drill for each team  Communication Drill with other Bureau and Departments  Experienced staff coach new staff with no prior landslide inspection experience Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Key element 4 : Effective emergency Response A video show on the GEO emergency service Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Summary Since the Slope Safety System was set up 30 years ago, significant improvement on slope safety in Hong Kong has been achieved by this approach. In particular, we have successfully achieved two major results. Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Summary  The overall landslide risk to the community arising from the pre-1977 man-made slopes had been reduced to about 25% compared with the risk level in 1977. 1977 2000 2010 Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Summary  The fatalities have been reduced to a level which is as low as reasonably practicable. Acknowledging the fact that landslide risk can never be zero. Landslip Fatalities in Hong Kong 160 No. of Fatalities in the year 140 Establishment of GEO and implementation 120 of the HK Slope 100 Safety System Fatalities 80 increasing Fatalities 60 decreasing 40 20 0 1949 1951 1953 1955 1957 1959 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Summary Our Strategies and approaches to reduce landslide disasters meet most of the “Ten essentials for making cities Resilient” suggested in the UN ISDR campaign – “My city is getting ready”. Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Summary Incidentally, we noted that one of the USGS 2008 publications, The Landslide Handbook, lists out 18 items on We have been implementing 17 items in the past 15 years ! Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Topic 4 Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    •  Outcome of the SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat) analysis carried out in 2009 for GEO Major Threat Serious landslides with multiple fatalities Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Solution Strategies  Promote understanding of landslide problem  Win public trust and confidence  Maintain public awareness of landslide danger Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Strategy 1 - Foster good public understanding  4 initiatives of landslide hazards Strategy 2 - Promote public response to  3 initiatives landslip warnings Strategy 3 - Enlist public support in times of  3 initiatives serious landslides Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Example of an initiative under Strategy 1 Promulgate slope safety messages through cyber networking platforms and related technology GEO Plurk a social journal for your life Webinars Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Success Criteria  The level of public awareness of landslide hazards in HK as revealed by independent annual opinion survey > 70%  Satisfaction level of the slope safety in HK > baseline % as conducted in 2010 Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Success Criteria  Confidence on Government’s effort in reducing HK landslide hazards > baseline % as conducted in 2010  Survey from focus groups (e.g teachers) and Media review after serious landslide events (general satisfaction as revealed from the results) Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Topic 5 Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • “Prevention policy is too important to be left to Governments alone. To succeed, it must also engage civil society, the private sector and the media” Kofi A Annan Nobel Peace Prize 2001 Ex UN Secretary General Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    •  Government alone cannot solve the whole slope safety problem. Community involvement is essential.  Community involvement and participation are essential to bring about substantial risk reduction.  GEO undertakes ongoing community-based activities on slope safety as one of the key strategies to reduce the landslide risk in Hong Kong. Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Expected benefits from the Community-based approach  Maintain public awareness of landslide risk  Ensure that slope owners take responsibility for slope safety  Promote public response in slope safety  Provide information and training Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • The role of Public Education Effectiveness in Reduce public reducing in closing the gap expectation landslide risk Promote Public Education personal precautionary measures Expectation from Promote slope the community maintenance Gap Technological Government services advancement and and efforts continuous improvement of landslip warning Time Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • The role of Public Education in slowing down the falling trend of public awareness There is a general trend of decreasing public awareness in uneventful years without serious landslides Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Topic 6 Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • “Climate change is expected to cause severe and more frequent natural hazards. As our cities and coasts grow more vulnerable, these hazards can lead to disasters that are far worse that those we have ever seen to date.” Ban Ki-moon Secretary-General of the United Nations Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • The measures are documented in the new GEO 5-year Strategic Plan Understand the Take stock of findings of studies on climate change impacts of climate change and Identify major geohazards & understand identify relevant the impacts of climate change major geohazards Enhance emergency preparedness for extreme events Manage Review and revise standards and guidelines challenges of Develop strategies to enhance the robustness and resilience of climate and measures for upgrading/mitigation works change and managing the risk major arising from the Strengthen land-use planning of new geohazards major geohazards developments to avoid major geohazards Review local and international good practices in sustainable construction Promote sustainable Recommend sustainable construction construction practices in geotechnical works practices in geotechnical works Promote recommended practices Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Concluding Remarks Our Slope Safety System and associated strategic plans are evolutionary and revolutionary attempts to enhance community resilience to landslide hazards Landslide hazards cannot be avoided. However, landslide disasters can! Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Concluding Remarks Despite the success in past 30 years, the Government and community should not be complacent. Everyone should always maintain vigilant and plays his/her part diligently to maintain the highest standards of slope safety Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Concluding Remarks Constant vigilance is the key to safety, and without this vigilance, disaster will continue to take Hong Kong (and your country) by surprise! Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Enhance Community Resilience to Landslide Hazards 謝謝 Thank You Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government
    • Av. Annual rainfall = 2300 mm Av. Reported no. of landslides = 300 per year Enhance Community Resilience Geotechnical Engineering Office to Landslide Hazards Hong Kong SAR Government