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TYUBEE-Assessment of vulnerability of rural households to climate hazards-ID1645-IDRC2014_b

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5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice 24-28 August 2014 in Davos, Switzerland

5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice 24-28 August 2014 in Davos, Switzerland


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  • 1. Please add your logo here Assessment of Vulnerability of Rural Households to Climate Hazards in Mountainous Area of Kwande Local Government 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Area, Benue State, Nigeria Bernard Tarza Tyubee1 and Iankaa Aguse2 1Department of Geography, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria. 2Trinity Secondary School, Dagba-Adagi, Adagi, Nigeria.
  • 2. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Outline of Presentation  Rational of the Study  Study objectives  Methods  Results  Conclusion  Added value for the Post 2015 Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction  References
  • 3. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 1. Rational of the Study  On the night of October 17th, 2010, thunderous landslide occurred, in eight locations, in mountainous area of Kwande LGA, Benue State, Nigeria (Figure 1).  The accompanied sound was heard several kilometers away causing panic and anxiety in the region.  The thunderous sound was erroneously reported in the media, the following day (18/10/2010), as “earthquake” or “volcanic eruption” which further heighten panic and anxiety in the region.  Several thousand tons of debris comprising soil, rocks and mud were brought and deposited down slope  Several arable farms and tree crops were destroyed and 1 person was declared missing during the disaster.  The event of October 17th, 2010:  Showed how vulnerable the area is to climatic hazards  Underscored the need to assess the level of vulnerability of households living in the area to climate hazards for the purpose of climate change adaptation.
  • 4. Figure 1a: Landslide in Woikyor, Kwande LGA (B in 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Figure 2) – Upper slope
  • 5. Figure 1b: Landslide in Woikyor, Kwande LGA (B in 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Figure 2) – Lower slope
  • 6. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Figure 2: Kwande LGA, Benue State, Nigeria Location, Facts and Figures Kwande Local Government Area (LGA), is one of the 23 LGAs in Benue State, Nigeria. Location: Latitudes 6o 30ᴵ and 7o 03ᴵ N and Longitudes 9o and 9o 40ᴵ E (Figure 2). Total area: 2, 300km2 Population: 180, 327 people (1991) and 248, 642 people (2006). It shares boundaries with Katsina Ala LGA, Benue State, in the north; Ushongo LGA, Benue State, in the Northwest; Taraba and Cross River States in the east and south and Republic of Cameroon in the Southeast.  Relief: Highland and hilly terrain, especially along the boundary with Cross River State and Republic of Cameroon where the elevation is above 1,000m above mean sea level. Climate: Annual rainfall varies from 1200 – 1800mm and the mean annual temperature ranges from 23oC – 27oC. Vegetation: Savannah and Forest
  • 7. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 2. Objectives of the Study  To investigate the major climate hazards  To analyze variation in the level of vulnerability of households to climate hazards  To assess adaptation strategies of households to climate hazards
  • 8. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 3. Methods 3.1 Objective 1: To investigate the Major Climatic Hazards  Climate hazards, in this study, include both climate-related and climate-induced events that threatened life, property and ecology which supports the livelihoods of households, and also vary among households.  These include landslide/mudslide, flooding, rock fall, erosion, high temperature, drought, storms and cold spells. Extreme rainfall is excluded because there is no marked spatial variation in the area.  Data were collected on the frequency of occurrence and cost of damage to property of the hazards.  Frequency of occurrence of climate hazard events was categorized into five classes namely:  Yearly  2-3 years  4-5 years  above 5 years (occasional)  Never experienced
  • 9.  The aggregate mean damage per event (Naira) was categorized into 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org five classes namely:  < 100, 000  100, 000 – 200,000  200, 000 – 400, 000  400, 000 – 600, 000  >600, 000  Data on the major climate hazards were collected using focus group discussion (FGD). The FGD comprised all household heads that are at least 50 years of age and have lived in the area for at least 30 years (1981 – 2010).  The number of household heads selected for the FGD were 10 each in Bawaan,Woikyor and Womondo zones (Figure 2) respectively.  Data were analysed using tabulation.
  • 10. 3.2 Objective 2: To analyze variation in the level of vulnerability of rural households to climate hazards Definition of Vulnerability  In the study, vulnerability is defined, from the perspective of climate change adaptation, as the degree to which a system is susceptible to, and unable to cope with, the adverse effects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes. Vulnerability (V) is a function of exposure (E), sensitivity (S) and adaptive capacity (AC) (Parry et al., 2007) Vulnerability Factors  Nine vulnerability factors were used in the study comprising:  Slope and distance to river (E);  Household size, household income, occupation of household heads 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org and sources of household water supply (S); and  Health care centers, roads and schools (AD).
  • 11. Sampling of Households  Households used in the study are those living in the areas of Kwande LGA with a minimum elevation of 630m above sea level. These comprised Bawaan (A), Woikyor (B) and Womondo (C) areas referred to as zones (Figure 2). “Wo” means mountain in the local dialect.  During a reconnaissance survey, a total of 101 households were identified 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org in the three zones comprising:  25 households in Bawaan (A),  38 households in Woikyor (B)  35 households in Womondo (C)  A table of random numbers was used to select 50 households for the study using the surnames of household heads . These comprised:  14 households in Bawaan,  19 households in Woikyor  17 households in Womondo Procedure of Vulnerability Assessment:  The following procedure was adopted in the vulnerability assessment
  • 12.  The nine vulnerability factors were first mapped on a 1- 7 vulnerability scale ranging 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org from: 1 - very resilient 2 - resilient 3 - at risk 4 - vulnerable 5 - significantly vulnerable 6 - very vulnerable, and 7 - extremely vulnerable  In order to obtain approximate linearity of response for each factor, different response classes were then defined corresponding to different scoring of the factors raw values into the 1 – 7 scale (Villa and McLeod, 2002).  For the E and S factors, 7 and 1 reflect the maximum and minimum incidence or effects while for AD factors, 7 and 1 reflect the minimum and maximum incidence or effects. This is because V is directly related to E and S and inversely related to AD.  The design of the response classes was based on studies by Kaly et al (1999) and Tyubee et al (2010) and were checked for quality control during reconnaissance survey.  All the nine factors were not weighted because they were presumed to have equal contribution to household’s vulnerability in the study.  Data were collected using field measurement and questionnaire  Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and aggregation method.
  • 13. 3.3 Objective 3: To assess Adaptation Strategies of 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Households to the Climate Hazards  The major adaptation strategies identified in the study area were:  Change in agriculture system  Relocation down slope  Change in major livelihood source  Relocation up slope  Data on adaptation strategies to the climate hazards among the 50 households were collected using questionnaire.  Data were analyzed using tabulation
  • 14. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 4. Results 4.1 Major Climate Hazards Major Climatic hazards based on frequency of occurrence  In Bawaan, Erosion is the most frequent event, occurring yearly, whereas landslide/mudslide, flooding and rock fall occurred every 2-3 years. Drought had never been experienced in the zone for the past 30 years (1981 – 2010).  Erosion and flooding are most frequent events in Woikyor occurring every year while landslide/mudslide and rock fall occurred every 4-5 years. Drought had never been experienced in the zone.  In Womondo, flooding and erosion occurred yearly. Landslide/mudslide and storms occurred every 2-3 years while drought had not been experienced in the zone.
  • 15. Major Climatic hazards based on the cost of damage  Landslide/mudslide is the major hazards in the three zones with mean cost of damage exceeding 600, 000.00, followed by flooding (Bawaan and Womondo) with 400, 000.00 – 600,000.00 and flooding, rock fall and erosion (Woikyor) with cost of damage of 200, 000.00 – 400, 000. 00 per event.  However, erosion has no cost of damage to households 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org property in the three zones.
  • 16. 4.2 Variation in the level of vulnerability of 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org households to climate hazards  The result showed that Adaptive Capacity factors are the most vulnerable factors, with mean vulnerability score (VS) of 6.2 (very vulnerable), followed by Sensitivity factors with VS of 5.6(Significantly vulnerable) and least by Exposure factors with VS of 4.9 (Vulnerable) respectively (Table 1).  Health care centers, schools and roads have the highest vulnerability score of 6.2 (very vulnerable) while household size has the least vulnerability score of 4.2 (vulnerable)  4 households (8%) have VS of above 6, 45 households (90%) have VS of 5.0-5.9 and only 1 households (2%) have VS less than 5.0. The mean VS of the 50 households is 5.3 (significantly vulnerable) (Figure 3).  Households vulnerability levels vary among the zones from Woikyor (VS = 5.6), Womondo (VS = 5.4) and Bawaan (VS = 4.8) respectively with regional mean VS of households of 5.3 (Table 2).
  • 17. Table 1: Vulnerability Scores of the factors 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org
  • 18. Figure 3: Variation in the level of households 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org vulnerability
  • 19. Table 2: Variation in the level of households 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org vulnerability among the three zones
  • 20. Causes and triggers of vulnerability in the study area  Remoteness: Limit provision of infrastructure and services  Inaccessibility: Limit movement of people, goods and services  Population increase – Increase in population density from 78 persons/km2 in 1991 to 108 persons/km2 in 2006: This reduces area for cultivation, increased pressure on available resources and the fragile ecosystem  Major sources of livelihoods - Farming, hunting, lumbering, fuel wood harvesting: Livelihood sources that are highly vulnerable to climate change impacts  Unsustainable methods of resource exploitation - Slope wise cultivation, no reserve forest: These aggravate the occurrence of climate hazards events  Territorial issues – The surrounding fertile plains and undulating lands belong to other States and Cameroon Republic: These reduce area for cultivation and increase the pressure of cultivated land. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org
  • 21. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 4.3 Adaptation Strategies The result of adaptation strategies by households against climate hazards events has shown that:  A total of 22 households (44%) have identified change in agricultural system as major adaptation strategy  14 households (28%) accepted relocation down slope  10 households (20%) indicated change in the major livelihood source  4 households (8%) opted for relocation upslope.
  • 22. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org 5. Conclusion The major conclusions of the study  Flooding and erosion are the major climate hazard events occurring every year  Landslide/mudslide is the major climate event with mean cost of damage exceeding 600, 000.00 naira  Households in the study area are significantly vulnerable to climatic hazards (mean VS = 5.3)  Lack of basic infrastructure and services are the major drivers of household’s vulnerability (mean VS = 6.2). This is attributed to the remoteness and limited accessibility of the region.  Majority of households prefer change in agricultural system and relocation down slope as adaptation strategies to the impacts of the climate hazards.
  • 23. 6. Added value for the Post 2015 Framework for 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Disaster Risk Reduction  How did your work support the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action:  The work has focused on vulnerability of rural households to climate hazards in remote mountainous region. The work has identified:  Major drivers of vulnerability  Major climate hazards events threatening livelihoods  Adaptation strategies  From your perspective what are the main gaps, needs and further steps to be addressed in the Post 2015 Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction in:  Research: 1.Improving understanding of the underlying causes and triggers of vulnerability to hazards events 2. Linking livelihoods sources and indigenous sustainable practices.  Education & Training: Capacity building on disaster preparedness, response and recovery practices for all stakeholders in DRR and DRM: government, NGOs, corporate organisations and individuals.  Implementation & Practice: Agencies charged with disaster risk management should be empowered, and there should be an effective mechanism of coordinating disaster management among stakeholders.  Policy: Policy dialogue should be geared towards effective designing, implementation and evaluation of policies that would reduce exposure to hazard risks, increase resilience and quality of life, and also to bridge the knowledge gap on DRR /DRM among stakeholders.
  • 24. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org References Kaly, Ursula; Brigugio, Lino; McLeod, Helena; Schmall, Susana; Pratt, Craig; Pal, Reginald (1999). Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI) to summarize Natural Environmental Vulnerability Profiles. SOPAC Technical Report number 275. South Pacific Applied Geosciences Commission, Fiji. Parry, M. L.; Canziani, O. F.; Palutikof, J. P. and Co-outhors (2007). Technical Summary, Climate Change 2007. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Parry, M. L.; Canziani, O. F.; Palutikof, J. P; van der Linden, P. J.; hanson, C. E., Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 23 – 78. Tyubee, Bernard Tarza; Gyuse, Timothy Terver; Basalirwa, Charles Peter Kagawa; Majaliwa, Jackson Gilbert Majalolo (2010). An Assessment of the Level of Vulnerability to Climate Risks in a Developing and Unplanned Tropical City using the Environmental Vulnerability Index Model. Proceedings of the International Disaster and Risk Conference on Risks, Disasters, Crisis and Global Change: From Threats to Sustainable Opportunities, Davos, Switzerland, 759 – 762. Villa, Fernando; McLead, Helena (2002). Environmental Vulnerability Indicators for Environmental Planning and Decision-Making: Guidelines and Applications. Environmental Management, 29 (3), 335 – 348.
  • 25. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 ‘Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice‘ • 24-28 August 2014 • Davos • Switzerland www.grforum.org Thanks for listening!!!