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The Catastrophe Response System and Its Behavior in China: a Comparison to USA
 

The Catastrophe Response System and Its Behavior in China: a Comparison to USA

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The Catastrophe Response System and Its Behavior in China: a Comparison to USA

The Catastrophe Response System and Its Behavior in China: a Comparison to USA

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  • In China, when a catastrophe occurs, the index-based assessment is used to decide which emergency response level should be launched. If we launch the national level-II, the province will be the first responder and the Central government acts a supporting partner. If we launch the level-I,the Central government will bear all the responsibility, and command the provinces to defend against this catastrophe. In the case of USA, we find its response system is different from China. When a catastrophe occurs, they try to do an accurate assessment, by collecting more information so as to judge whether state resource has been or will be overwhelmed. If the answer is no, the state government deals with the disaster by itself. With the evolving of disaster and the counteractions, information is continuously collected and used to make updating judgments. When sufficient information does reach a judgment that the disaster exceeds the state resource, the state will ask for help from the Federal government. The critical distinction between the two systems is that how or when the Central or Federal government will begin to play the major role. In USA, there is a continuous looping of counteracting-information collecting-judging-new counteracting. The looping requires more information and therefore becomes time-consuming. In contrast, China applies an index-based assessment, which is quick and less information dependent. We tentatively consider that the quick disaster assessment helps the quick launch of the National Level-I emergency response plan in Wenchuan Earthquake. Nonetheless, we think that a less information-dependent assessment is subjected to more uncertainty, and the resultant National Level-I may be overacting in some cases. Admitting its possible low efficiency in resource utilization, the China system does save time and help reaching a quick decision to avoid unnecessary lives losses. We think the tendency of the China emergency response system to overact is profoundly rooted in China culture.

The Catastrophe Response System and Its Behavior in China: a Comparison to USA The Catastrophe Response System and Its Behavior in China: a Comparison to USA Presentation Transcript

  • The Catastrophe Response System and Its Behavior in China: a Comparison to USA Jiajin Wang ,Yaobin Meng, Zhao Zhang,Peijun Shi Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875,China. E-mail: [email_address] June 2,2010
  • Ⅱ Catastrophic Risk Assessment Methodology Ⅰ Introduction Ⅲ Response System Ⅳ Incorporating Learned Lessons Ⅴ Concluding Remark Outline
  • Ⅱ Catastrophic Risk Assessment Methodology Ⅰ Introduction Ⅲ Response System Ⅳ Incorporating Learned Lessons Ⅴ Concluding Remark
  • Introduction Earthquake Flood Hurricane
  • Introduction
    • Wenchuan Earthquake in China in 2008
    Features: high seismic intensity and frequent aftershocks; wide severely affected areas; severe secondary disasters and difficulty in rescue. Source: Shi, 2008
  • Introduction
    • Hurricane Katrina in the United States of American in 2005
    The largest natural disaster in history of USA. Three immediate challenges: large area severely destructed; inter-state mutual aids disabled; widespread communication failures.
  • Ⅱ Catastrophic Risk Assessment Methodology Ⅰ Introduction Ⅲ Response System Ⅳ Incorporating Learned Lessons Ⅴ Concluding Remark
  • Catastrophic Risk Assessment Methodology Fundamental Structure of Catastrophe Models
  • Catastrophic Risk Assessment Methodology
    • ◆ The Index-based Methodology in Wenchuan Earthquake Assessment
    • ◆ The Probability-based Quantitative Methodology in Hurricane Katrina Assessment
  • Catastrophic Risk Assessment Methodology
    • ◆ The Index-based Methodology in Wenchuan Earthquake Assessment
    • ◆ The Probability-based Quantitative Methodology in Hurricane Katrina Assessment
  • The Index-based Methodology (1) is the weight of the k th indicator
    • What is CDI?
    • When indicators consist of:
    • specifically average seismic intensity;
    • fraction of the dead/missing;
    • fraction of collapsed houses;
    • geological disaster danger degree
    • which is the weighted sum of a suite of low-level geo-indices;
    • fraction of evacuation and resettlement.
    • The DI becomes the widely employed
    • Consolidated Disaster Index ( CDI ).
    The Index-based Methodology
  • The Index-based Methodology
    • CDI for the totally 417 affected counties were calculated and used to indicate their respective disaster grades
    Table : The Disaster Grades and Spatial Distribution in Wenchuan Earthquake Source: ERREB, 2008 Disaster grade Province County Extremely Affected Area(10) Sichuan(10) Wenchuan,Beichuan,Mianzhu,Shenfang,Qingchuan, Maoxian,Anxian,Dujiangyan,Pingwu,Pengxian Heavily Affected Area(36) Sichuan(26) Lixian,Jiangyou,Lizhou,Chaotian,Wangcang,Zitong, Youxian,Xiaojin,Luijing,Heishui,Congzhou,etc. Gansu(7) Wenxian,Wudou,Kangxian,Chenxian,Huixian,Xihexian, Liangdangxian Shaanxi(3) Ningqiangxian,Lueyangxian,Mianxian Moderately Affected Area(191) Omitted
  • The Index-based Methodology
    • ◆ The DI in Eqn. (1) can be also defined as Disaster Index DI and DII .
    • ◆ DI and DII are different from CDI in the underlying indicators, and play an important role in the rebuilding process.
  • Catastrophic Risk Assessment Methodology
    • ◆ The Index-based Methodology in Wenchuan Earthquake Assessment
    • ◆ The Probability-based Quantitative Methodology in Hurricane Katrina Assessment
  • The Probability-based Quantitative Methodology
    • Concept and Components of The Hazard Analysis
    • PBL : planetary boundary layer models
    • which provide a relatively accurate representation of the broad-scale structure within hurricanes
    • HPS: Hurricane Protection System
  • Ⅱ Catastrophic Risk Assessment Methodology Ⅰ Introduction Ⅲ Response System Ⅳ Incorporating Learned Lessons Ⅴ Concluding Remark
  • Response System Table : Emergency Response System in China Source: Service regulations of the natural disaster emergency relief work ) Emergency response Level Indicator Disaster Death Evacuation and resettlement (ten thousand) Collapsed houses (ten thousand) Responder National Level-I Destructive earthquake >200 >100 >20 Deputy Premier, State Council Other natural disasters >200 >100 >20 National Level-II Destructive earthquake 100-200 80-100 15-20 Minister, Ministry of Civil Affairs (MCA) Other natural disasters 100-200 80-100 15-20 National Level-III Destructive earthquake 50-100 30-80 10-15 Deputy Minister, Ministry of Civil Affairs Other natural disasters 50-100 30-80 10-15 National Level-IV Destructive earthquake 30-50 10-30 1-10 Head of Disaster relief department of MCA Other natural disasters 30-50 10-30 1-10
    • ◆ Before Katrina
    • Department of defense traditionally uses a “ pull ” system that provides support to civil authorities based upon specific requests from local, State, or Federal authorities.
    • From the time a request is initiated until the military force or capability is delivered to the disaster site requires a 21-step process.
    • ◆ After Katrina
    • The Federal response posture switches from the “ pull ” system to “ push ” one, which assets to the affected areas without waiting for State requests.
    • The USA expedites the mission assignment request and the approval process.
    Response System
  • Response System Table : Process of Wenchuan Earthquake and Hurricane Katrina Response Process in China Time* Response Process in USA Time* Prepare for work at disaster areas 17min Louisiana and Mississippi Governor declare a state of emergency 22h Start to deploy resources and capabilities 92min New Orleans Mayor declares a state of emergency 46h Build disaster relief headquarters and hold the emergency conference 132min Louisiana Governor sends letter to President Bush requesting various federal aid 65h Appointed leaders access disaster areas 332min The troops en route doesn't come from Washington until after 120h Change disaster emergency response National Level-II to Level-I 467min President Bush makes emergency disaster declarations 87h Soldiers serve the people in disaster area 32.78h President Bush details his strategy for short-term recovery efforts 130h Supply stockpiled to meet the emergency 45.53h New Orleans mayor calls the situation critical and issues ‘a desperate SOS’ 156h State Council discusses the National Recovery Programs 766 h President Bush surveys Katrina's damage 168h
  • Response System a) China Central government A catastrophic natural disaster occur s Index-based assessment Central government province Response action province Command support The National Level-I The National Level-II State-resource overwhelmed? State-resource overwhelmed? State-resource overwhelmed? Accurate and comprehensive assessment State A catastrophic natural disaster occurs Accurate and comprehensive assessment State Response action NO Yes b) USA State Federal Coordinate State Federal Coordinate
  • Response System
    • Culture Background of Response System in China
    • ◆ The people are the most important element in a state; next are the gods of land and grain; least is the authority himself.-Mencius
    • a famous philosopher of Chinese ancient times
    • ◆ People’s interests shall be always prioritized.- Chairman Mao Zedong
    • the founder of P.R. China
    • ◆ Only is there silver lining in disaster area, we should spare no effort to rescue victims.- Wen Jiabao during Yushu Earthquake in 2010
    • the Premier of China
  • Ⅱ Catastrophic Risk Assessment Methodology Ⅰ Introduction Ⅲ Response System Ⅳ Incorporating Learned Lessons Ⅴ Concluding Remark
  • Incorporating Learned Lessons
    • ◆ In China
    • Post-Wenchuan Earthquake Restoration and Reconstruction Ordinance
    • Regulations of Meteorological Disasters Prevention
    • ◆ In USA
    • National Response Framework
    • National Incident Management System
  • Ⅱ Catastrophic Risk Assessment Methodology Ⅰ Introduction Ⅲ Response System Ⅳ Incorporating Learned Lessons Ⅴ Concluding Remark
  • Concluding Remark
    • ◆ The index-based assessment methodology merits a quick launch of national response action.
    • ◆ A more information-dependent risk assessment methodology is still to be pursued for its probable better trade-off between effect and efficiency.
  •