Tale of two cities: developing city reliance strategies under climate change scenarios for Indore and Surat, India

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Gopalakrishna BHAT, Umamaheshwaran RAJASEKAR, Anup KARANTH …

Gopalakrishna BHAT, Umamaheshwaran RAJASEKAR, Anup KARANTH

TARU Leading Edge, India, Republic of

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  • ACCCRN was launched in 2008 and is funded by the Rockefeller Foundation as part of a US$90 million, initiative aimed at Building Climate Change Resilience. This initiative aims to catalyze attention, funding, and action in three primary areas:Experimenting with and testing local approaches to building climate change resilience for institutions and systems serving poor and vulnerable communities;Promoting, demonstrating, and disseminating knowledge about these and other viable approaches; andIncreasing awareness among funders, practitioners, policy makers and business on the need to invest in building climate resilience.
  • Projects span many urban climate change action areas including land use & urban planning; drainage, flood & solid waste management; water demand & conservation systems; responsive health systems; & institutional coordination mechanisms & capacity support. Most projects address multiple sectors in integrated way.Projects focus on soft as well as hard interventions, with a strong focus on social resilience.
  • Projects span many urban climate change action areas including land use & urban planning; drainage, flood & solid waste management; water demand & conservation systems; responsive health systems; & institutional coordination mechanisms & capacity support. Most projects address multiple sectors in integrated way.Projects focus on soft as well as hard interventions, with a strong focus on social resilience.

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  • 1. Tale of two cities: Developing city resilience strategies under climate change scenarios for Indore and Surat, India Dr Umamaheshwaran Rajasekar G K Bhat Anup Karanth (Presenting Author) Aug 29, 2012TARU Leading Edge Pvt Ltd
  • 2. ACCCRN OverviewAsian Cities Climate Change ResilienceNetwork (ACCCRN) is a network of ten citiesin India, Indonesia, Thailand & Vietnam,experimenting with a range of activities thatwill collectively improve the ability of thecities to withstand, to prepare for, and to recoverfrom current and future impacts of climatechange that are difficult to predict.ACCCRN represents a unique initiative todevelop, test and demonstrate practicalstrategies for responding to the impacts of Profileclimate change on urban areas. 7 year initiative launched in 2008 Investing in 10 core cities in 4 Asian countries and expanding to 30+ cities in 6 countries Impact The resilience and capacity of a growing number of developing countries/Asian cities in relation to current and future climate risks is enhanced, and through this work the lives of poor and vulnerable men and women are improved. TARU Leading Edge Pvt Ltd
  • 3. ACCCRN - Work flow & progress timeline ACCCRN Phase IIIACCCRN Phase I Mar 2009 SETTING Nov 2008 UP OF CAC; Sept 2009 Apr 2010 May 2010 2010 - 2014DISCUSSION PILOT • Urban Apr 2008 ASSESSING PRESENTAION PILOT PROJECTS; ResilienceMEETINGS, CITY OF VA PROJECT IDENTIFICAT- ProjectsCONSULTAT- ACCCRN PHASE VULNERABI FINDINGS, II PROPOSAL • Replication, City ION OFIONS: Work COMMISSIO- DISCUSSION, Opportunity -LITY & RESILIENCE UCCR Phase & NING SECTOR SCENARIO Assessment RISKS; OPTIONS, Strategy Approach STUDIES PLANNING • Sustainabilit Report INCLUDING CITY CRS y CC IMPACTS Framework linking dialogue, engagement, action and sustainability of initiatives TARU Leading Edge Pvt Ltd
  • 4. Indore - City regional setting IPUR A /UDA K OT TO A RA KOT TO AG TO 3 AM NH AL TO RA TL HOP TO B TO MAXI TO RA TL AH AM UJJAIN AM AD BA D 7 BADNAGAR SH 2 SONKACHA AL HOP TO B SANWER BADNAWAR 80 DEWAS KMS 60 3 NH KMS 59 80 20 NH KMS DEPALPUR KMS 40 40 KMS TO ITARASI 60 KMS KMS NH 59 A INDORE BAGALI 59 DHAR NH 3 NH BARWAH DHAMNOD MAHESHWARMunicipal Limits: 130.17 sqkm BA I A UM W M DA A TOPlanning area : 504.87 sqkm W AN DA KH AN TO KHLocation: 22 .43′N ,76 .42′E TO Average altitude of 550m amsl.Climate: Moderately extreme climate, TOWNS INDUSTRIAL HUBPopulation: 2.16 million (Provisional population) RESERVE FORESTMain industries: Engineering, textiles units, Food processing (Soya, RAILWAY LINE sunflower and related), Pharmaceuticals, Iron & steel, MAJOR ROADS Leather, Automobile components, Industrial chemicals, COMMAND CIRCLE Cement, Soaps & detergents etc. TARU Leading Edge Pvt Ltd
  • 5. Surat - Regional setting & GrowthBefore 1963 1963 1970 1975 1986 1994 2006  Economic capital of Gujarat State  62% population growth in 1991-2001  Now ranks the 9th largest city in the country.  Home to Textile and Diamond industry, Traditional Zari and Zardosi work Area in • 42% of worlds total rough diamond cutting & polishing with 50 outYear Population of 125 sightholders across the world. Sq. Km1951 8.18 223,182 • 70% of nations total rough diamond cutting & polishing1961 8.18 288,026 • 65% of nations total diamond exports1971 33.85 471,656 • 28% of nations total manmade fiber production1981 55.56 776,583 • 40% of nations total manmade fabric production1991 111.16 1,498,817 • 18% of nations total manmade fiber exports2001 112.27 2,433,785  More than 0.6 million power looms and 350 process houses2006 326.51 2,877,241  Spin-offs from proximity to Hazira with leading industry such as ONGC,2011 326.51 ~ 4.5 million L&T, Reliance, ESSAR, NTPC & Shell (168 sq km/ 65 sq mi) TARU Leading Edge Pvt Ltd
  • 6. Tale of Two CitiesINDORE SURAT• Commercial capital of the state • Home to Textile and Diamond• Developing and aspiring city Industries challenged by resources • Strong small entrepreneur / constraints labor driven economy• Indore and nearby region more • Strong social cohesion, Internal urbanized and industrialized resilience high (Pithampur, Dewas, Mhow); • Proactive and efficient Industry outside the city administration with clear vision,• Infrastructure growth unable to supported by industry/trade match urban growth • Well managed city• City referred to as Shab-e- • Industry within the city Malwa • Flood risk high, 2006 floods• Water scarcity may re-emerge estimated loss as `22,000Cr• Health risk (vector borne (USD 4.5billion) diseases) TARU Leading Edge Pvt Ltd
  • 7. TARU Leading Edge Pvt Ltd
  • 8. Climate Prognosis CVCC – Likely projectionsTEMPERATURE CHANGES - Future mean monthly temperature ranges : 2021-2100 The monthly average min temperature is expected to increase by about 2oC by 2030’s to about 3-4oC by 2080’s. Maximum increase is expected during the winters TARU Leading Edge Pvt Ltd
  • 9. Risk & ImpactsFLOOD PRONETAPI ELEVATION COASTAL ZONE SLUMS &FLOOD RISK ZONES KHADI INCIDENCES OF MALARIA (INDORE) LOW RIVER FLOOD RISK ZONES Source: TARU ANALYSIS, 2009, 2010 TARU Leading Edge Pvt Ltd
  • 10. Surat Flood risk and Impacts 2,600,000 140.0 Population(2001) affected 2,400,000 120.0 2,200,000 100.0 Area (sqkm) 2,000,000 80.0 1,800,000 60.0 1,600,000 1,400,000 40.0 1,200,000 20.0 1,000,000 0.0 4 5 6 7 8 9 Discharge (X0.1 million cusecs) Affected popln Affected Area• Tapi river could discharge 1.5 m cusec safely before 1970’s• City growth on both sides, embankments, river bed siltation, bridges, weir has reduced the safe carrying capacity• At present, even 0.4 m cusec discharge causes floods TARU Leading Edge Pvt Ltd
  • 11. GEOPSY based Urban Vulnerability Analysis TARU ANALYSIS, 2009, 2010 TARU Leading Edge Pvt Ltd
  • 12. GEOPSY based Urban Vulnerability Analysis (2) TARU ANALYSIS, 2009, 2010 TARU Leading Edge Pvt Ltd
  • 13. GEOPSY based Urban Vulnerability Analysis (3) WATER USAGE PATTERN IN DIFFERENT HOUSING CATEGORIES VULNERABILITY AND CAPACITY ASSESSMENT ACROSS SETTLEMENTS TARU ANALYSIS, 2009, 2010 TARU Leading Edge Pvt Ltd
  • 14. Sector Studies(Development of Sector Impact Matrices / Adaptation Matrices / Resilience Options) TARU Leading Edge Pvt Ltd
  • 15. Urban Growth & Socio-Economic ScenariosSTORYLINE: Year 2030 TARU ANALYSIS, 2009, 2010 TARU Leading Edge Pvt Ltd
  • 16. Urban Services Monitoring System (UrSMS) Urban Service Monitoring System (UrSMS) project was developed under the Asian Cities Climate Resilience Network (ACCCRN) for improving the monitoring and grievance redressal for health, water supply, sewerage and solid waste services. Developed with active partnership between SMC and TARU.• Type of engagement – Involvement of key line departments from Surat Municipal Corporation (SMC), Citizens – Mobile phone based structured text messaging system – A structured reporting & Web-GIS interface provided to aid decision makers.• Scaling up efforts – As part of urban reforms, the service level benchmarking and monitoring has been initiated for improving accountability and to monitor improvements in services – UrSMS takes the idea further by involving the citizens in monitoring the service levels through simple indicators. – This system can be upgraded to be used during emergencies such as floods. TARU Leading Edge Pvt Ltd
  • 17. Urban Services Monitoring System (UrSMS)The Urban Services Monitoring Systemis designed on an efficient platform.The system has two main interfaces:1.The mobile interface for sending and receiving structured data via SMS and2. PC interface with Internet Mapping Service for visualizing the information as charts, reports & maps. TARU Leading Edge Pvt Ltd
  • 18. City Resilience Strategy • The CRS also summarizes the findings of the activities under Phase 2. It includes a series of recommendations which will enable the City stakeholders to take proactive measures to prepare for climate change • Preparation of the strategy engaged local government, business community, and citizens in a dialogue to determine adaptation actions that can minimize the negative effects on economy, environment, health and well-being • Resilience strategy strives to minimize the negative impact of CVCC, and take advantage of potential opportunities • CRS proposes a series of actions to prepare the city for climate change including: – Short term actions beginning in 2010-11 that will help prevent and/or minimize the potential impacts of CVCC – A series of action medium/long term actions that will guide the development of a comprehensive, long term strategy to adapt to climate change / build resilience • Download CRS: India Urban Portal www.indiaurbanportal.in ACCCRN http://acccrn.org/ TARU Leading Edge Pvt Ltd
  • 19. TARU Leading Edge Pvt Ltd
  • 20. ACCCRN Phase III City Projects• $18 M reserved for implementation• 22 projects funded and underway, 8 in India• Most projects address multiple sectors in integrated way.• Projects focus on soft as well as hard interventions, with a strong focus on social resilience.• Co-financing, leveraging and scaling opportunities are developed for every project TARU Leading Edge Pvt Ltd
  • 21. ACCCRN City Level Projects TARU Leading Edge Pvt Ltd
  • 22. City level projects in Indore and SuratIndore: Conjunctive Water Management in Indore based on demandfocused end useSurat: End-to-end early warning system for Ukai Dam and LocalFloods (implemented by the SCCT)Indore: Strengthening vector-borne disease surveillance andresponse systemsIndore/Surat: Promoting cool roof and passive ventilation conceptsIndore: Urban lake restoration for emergency water provisionSurat: Urban Health and Climate Resilience Center (UHCRC) TARU Leading Edge Pvt Ltd
  • 23. ACCCRN Partners in India Demand: increasing demand for Supply: provide policy and finance UCCR action in India Country incentives for UCCR in India Coordination & leadership: TaruCity projects: Taru, GEAG, ISET Regulatory Environment: TERIExpansion to new Cities:ICLEI, TERI, GEAG Policy Landscape- SHM and JNNURM: TERI, Irade, NIUABuilding Capacity & Networks: NIUA City Competitiveness Analysis: ICREIRBuilding Awareness of Vulnerability: IRADe Donor Engagement: RF, RosieEngaging Private Sector : Intellecap Sjogren, TARUEngage Cities on Competitiveness :ICREIR Regional Partners KM & Network support: Arup M&E: Verulam Documentation Support: IIED, ISET Communications Support: APCO Technical Assistance: ISET, ARUP, ADPC TARU Leading Edge Pvt Ltd
  • 24. Developing Urban Climate Change Resilience • Urban areas continue to grow and offers a huge opportunity for mainstreaming climate informed development • Cities are where the interplay – Urbanization / CVCC related hazard risks / Vulnerability lead to consequences. All 3 elements should be addressed while developing resilience strategies • Citizen/Stakeholder/Local Government engagement & ownership is a must • Anticipate a positive future. Use tools and conduct exercises such as Visioning, Scenario Planning, Shared Learning Dialogues • Demonstrate through pilots / action • Social cohesion is pre-requisite for Resilience • Redundancy in urban systems enhances resilience • Use of technology must be explored • Empower stakeholders and engage local institutions/experts TARU Leading Edge Pvt Ltd
  • 25. Natural Resource Management (NRM) and Rural Livelihood Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Urban Development Disaster Management and Climate Change Energy Scenario Planning and Strategy Development◘ Social Development◘ Monitoring & Evaluation Bridging Science, Institutions and Society Delhi/ Gurgaon Gandhinagar 424 Qutab Plaza Plot No. 541/2 DLF City Phase I Sector 8 Gurgaon 122 002 Gandhinagar 382 008 India India Phone + 91 124 2560 Phone + 91 79 2324 0479 Fax + 91 124 2560 421 Fax + 91 79 2324 9882 TARU CELEBRATING 20 YEARS www.taru.org E: info@taru.org, akaranth@taru.org