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Steps on the characterization and treatment of urban technological risk in Merida city (Venezuela).

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Steps on the characterization and treatment of urban technological risk in Merida city (Venezuela).

Steps on the characterization and treatment of urban technological risk in Merida city (Venezuela).

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Steps on the characterization and treatment of urban technological risk in Merida city (Venezuela). Steps on the characterization and treatment of urban technological risk in Merida city (Venezuela). Presentation Transcript

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  • Steps on the characterization and treatment of urban technological risk in Merida city (Venezuela). Alejandro Linayo Disaster Risk Management Research Center . CIGIR Latin-American Research Network on Disaster Reduction LARED Mérida - Venezuela INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010
    • Seismic Risk
    • Hydrological Risk
    • Geologycal Risk
    • Technological Risk
    Most important urban disaster risk scenarios INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010
  • Fuente: “Análisis del Riesgo en Instalaciones Industriales”; Casal et all, 2001 INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010
    • Step one:
      • Technological Risk Urban spaces
    • Step two:
        • Urban spaces Technological Risk
    • Step three:
        • Urbano spaces Technologycal Risk
    EVOLUTION OF URBAN TECHNOLOGICAL RISK APPROACH: INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010
    • Step one:
      • Technological Risk Urban spaces
    • Step two:
        • Urban spaces Technological Risk
    • Step three:
        • Urbano spaces Technologycal Risk
    EVOLUTION OF URBAN TECHNOLOGICAL RISK APPROACH: INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010
  • Fuente: archivo fotográfico del profesor Julio Portillo Rosales ) On November 13 th 1939 an Oil refinery fire destroys the town of Lagunillas, in the east side of Maracaibo Lake - Venezuela, killing between 2000 and 4000 personas INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010
  • Fuente: archivo fotográfico del profesor Julio Portillo Rosales ) Photos of the destruction of the town of Lagunillas, in the east side of Maracaibo INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010
    • Step one:
      • Technological Risk Urban spaces
    • Step two:
        • Urban spaces Technological Risk
    • Step three:
        • Urbano spaces Technologycal Risk
    INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010 EVOLUTION OF URBAN TECHNOLOGICAL RISK APPROACH:
  • INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010
  • How urban spaces became a risk for industrial facilities??
    • Despite original design locating industrial facilities in the urban periphery, the usual uncontrolled urban growth “ate up” original security distances (low-income human groups searching for alternative ways to survive, ignore territorial and environmental regulations and restrictions).
    • 2. As soon as an industry is settled, it start to promote marginal economic activities that favor the establishment of illegal shanty towns that, over time, consolidate into small citadels surrounded by technological risks.
    INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010
  • The Disaster of Tacoa On Dec. 19, 1982, a large crowd of power plant workers and local residents in Tacoa, Venezuela, gathered to watch a burning crude oil storage tank. Nearly eight hours had passed since the tank first caught fire. Had the observers better understood a devastating phenomenon known as boilover, the eruption of  steam and hot oil that followed would not have claimed more than 200 lives. The first hand accounts of those who witnessed the event emphasize the obvious – the potential for boilover must be treated with respect. source: www.fireworld.com INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010
    • Step one:
      • Technological Risk Urban spaces
    • Step two:
        • Urban spaces Technological Risk
    • Step three:
        • Urbano spaces Technologycal Risk
    EVOLUTION OF URBAN INDUSTRIAL RISK APPROACH: INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010
  • INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010 Urban risk characterization and treatment in Merida city (Venezuela).
  • Characterization of urban technological risk
    • Methodology:
      • Historical Inventory of HAZMAT emergencies and disasters registered (since 1964 to 2010).
      • Definition of volume – dangerousness criteria to define field inventory of urban HAZMAT deposits.
      • Field inventory of potential urban technological risk.
      • Validation of mathematical models.
      • Design of GIS tool for geospatial characterization of local urban risk.
      • Transference of results of the research process.
    INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010
  • Urban Hazmat Inventory criteria
    • Technological Urban Risk Considered:
      • Explosion (including BLEVE)
      • Great Urban Fires
      • Toxic gases
      • Dirty radiation fonts
    INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010
  • Urban Commercial Activities of Interest INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010
    • Water potabilisation and pools
    • Storage and distribution of gasoline
    • Domestic gas distribution
    • Medicine Gases and similar
    • Liquor distillation & selling
    • Firecrackers selling
    • Paint selling and distribution
    • Laboratory products
    • Agrochemical
    • Supermarkets
    • Cosmetics
    • Esoteric brews
    • Metal cromation
    • Metal mechanic
    • Refrigeration
    • Lubricants oil
    • Woodcraft materials
    • Plastic bags factories
    • Leather factories
    • Candles (sails) factories
  • Checklist for urban inventory of technological hazards INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010 Nº CATEGORIA EMPRESAS, INDUSTRIAS, COMERCIOS SUSTANCIAS A MONITOREAR 8 Agrochemical s AGROISLEŇA CASA AGRICOLA Organochlorades and Organophosphates 9 Hypermarkets EXITO GARZON CIUDAD DE MERIDA MAKRO CADA CENTRAL Alcohol Acetona Kerosene Cloro Limpiador de hornos Aerosoles Bencina 10 Cosmetics MAKARENA GRAN MUNDO KABELLOS Nails Cleaners Alcohol Hair decolorants 11 Esoteric Brew Distribution MAGIA LA REINA EL BRUJO BUENO Ammoniac Powder, Candles (sails)
  • Urban chemical explotion analisis
  • Preliminary results of potential affectation estimated for a painting store located near the airport of Merida city INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010
  • INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010
  • INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010
  • Escenary for instantaneous escape of toxic gases INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010
  • Parameters estimation for basic gaussian models: Model for instantaneous escapes b 3 INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010 b 1 c 1 x 2 c 2 c 3 x 3 x 3 c 3 b 3 a x 1 Clase de estabilidad a b c d A 0,527 0,865 0,28 0,90 B 0,371 0,866 0,23 0,85 C 0,209 0,897 0,22 0,80 D 0,128 0,905 0,20 0,76 E 0,098 0,902 0,15 0,73 F 0,065 0,902 0,12 0,67
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    • Formal agreement with fire department
      • Training.
      • Material and equipments (PC + maps).
      • Logistic support in field activities.
      • Information exchange.
    Transference of research results INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010
  • Conclusions 1. “ Technological risk ” associated with hazardous materials within urban areas is a significant and growing problem. 2. Because of interrelated economic, social, political, cultural, and institutional factors, attempting to manage urban industrial risk solely improving capacities within the bounds of industrial facilities is unlikely to be effective. 3. Realistically -- and particularly in less structured societies -- strong social and economic circumstances makes industrial facilities and human settlements coexist in inconveniently close proximity. 4. Residents within the reaches of technological facilities must be made aware of the potential threats they are exposed (industrial surrounding communities are frequently denied their right to know about the technological risks to which they are exposed. INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010
  • Conclusions 5. Efforts made in Merida City to characterize urban technological risks suggest the importance to include in this kind of risk analysis common commercial facilities. (it seems that the paradigm that limited technological risk sources only to industrial facilities must be revised). 6. Geographic information system (GIS) that combine urban technological and natural threats have been made and used in designing strategies for local risk reduction and disaster preparation. 7. Diverse challenges must be met during these efforts, particularly because available methodologies tend to focus only on risks associated with industrial facilities. INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010
  • www.cigir.org http://www.eird.org/plataforma-tematica-riesgo-urbano/recopilacion-de-articulos/index.html. [email_address] [email_address] ww.desenredando.org FOR ADITIONAL INFORMATION INTERNATIONAL DISASTER AND RISK CONFERENCE DAVOS 2010
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