―What are decades of development advances worth if asingle natural, socio-natural or social adverse event canwipe it all out overnight?‖
From fragmentation towards integration: RESILIENT DEVELOPMENT PRACTICE A call for utilizing a multi-hazards and multi-vulnerabilities approach to reduce risks and increase community resilience 2012 GRF International Disaster and Risk Conference August 26, 2012Stephen J. LathamRegional Advisor Community Resilience and Disaster Risk ReductionLatin America and Caribbean (LAC) Regional Office, World Vision International
Resilient Development Practice (RDP)in LAC Region The Community Resilience Project in the LAC Region was implemented in Peru and Brazil during Phase 1. Haiti was a part of the design phase During Phase 2, the project is being implemented in Bolivia, Brazil and Nicaragua with financing from WV Australia and AusAID. The project has received additional funding from WV Taiwan for the Dominican Republic In search of prospective donors to help us mainstream and scale up RDP in LAC Region and beyond
What do all of these terms have in common?What word holds them all together?• Economic Development • Climate Change• Integrated Programming Adaptation• Agriculture and Food • Sustainable Livelihoods Security • Sustainable Development• Risk Management • Transformational• Disaster Risk Management development• Emergency Management • Peace building• Disaster Management • Conflict Resolution• Disaster Risk Reduction
WHAT is Community Resilience? Simply put, resiliency refers to the capacity of human beings to survive and thrive in the face of adversity
WHAT is Community Resilience?Viewing Crisis or Adversity as Opportunity“When written in Chinese (Mandarin) the word„CRISIS‟ is composed of two characters. Onerepresents „DANGER‟, while the other represents„CHANCE‟ or „OPPORTUNITY‟ ”Source: Prof. Ian Davis
Community Resilience Defined The capacity for an individual, group, community or society to anticipate, avoid, minimize, cope, absorb, recover, overcome and even be transformed after having been exposed to an adverse event—i.e., shocks, stress factors and or disasters—whether of natural, socio-natural or social origin. Source: Stephen Latham CRP LACRO
Resilient Development Practices(RDP): Goal Phase 2 Supporting the sustained wellbeing of Children, Adolescent, Youth (CAY), their families and communities by mainstreaming and scaling up RDP as an integral part of development programming in Latin America and the Caribbean Region.
What is Resilient DevelopmentPractice (RDP)? Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) + Social Risk Reduction (RRS) + Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA) + Climate Change Adaptation (CCA)Source: Stephen Latham CRP LACRO
Prospective vs Corrective RiskManagementProspective – land use planning, organization and investment; development; sectorial and financial planning that looks towards the future to avoid the creation or re-emergence of new risks. (Prof. Allan Lavell)
Prospective vs Corrective RiskManagementCorrective – has to do with an emphasis on existing hazards - mitigating human losses through preparedness, response, early alert systems, and mitigating economic losses [through both structural and non-structural measures]* such as mitigation works, insurance, environmental protection, soil rehabilitation in agriculture, etc. (Prof. Allan Lavell)* CRP LACRO
WHY is Community Resilience important?Source: ^ A Needless Toll of Natural Disasters, Op-Ed, Boston Globe, 23 March 2006- by Eric Schwartz (UN Secretary General’s Deputy Special Envoy for TsunamiRecovery
DRR a key issue for Rio + 20• Disaster risk reduction has been identified as one of the seven key issues for Rio+20.• •A Resilient Future: UNISDR Statement on the Zero Draft of the Outcome Document Rio+20: "The Future We Want―. This paper presents UNISDR observations and suggestions for the zero draft based on lessons learned in implementation of the Hyogo Framework of Action 2005-2015 (HFA): Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters Source: http://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/publications/24941
DRR a key issue for Rio + 20• “Disaster risk is increasing globally. More people and assets are located at areas of high risk. Economic losses from disasters are increasing. In some countries the risk of losing wealth in disasters is now outstripping the rate at which the wealth itself is being created.”• Failure to incorporate Disaster Risk Reduction measures into strategies for achieving the MDGs will ultimately lead to its failure and instability will ensue, as illustrated by the following graphs.
WHY is Community Resilience important?• Resiliency research supports our ability to understand the factors that help children develop into mentally healthy adults, despite growing up in disadvantaged circumstances• Understanding these factors is of great importance if it means we can learn to help children in adverse circumstances to overcome the odds and grow up to become healthy and productive citizens Source: Embrace the Future Foundation
A regional network of over 3 million at-risk children, adolescents, youth and their communities
The ecological model and factorsaffecting resiliency
An ecological model of factors affecting resiliency• Resiliency research has increasingly embraced an ecological model, in which the childs functioning and behavior is viewed within the context of a network or web of bi-directional relationships. It embraces the individuals internal factors i.e., thoughts and feelings as well as external factors such as those related to his/her family, school, peers, neighborhood/ community and wider society/world, where factors such as national mental health policies, global economic climate, terrorism, and the media come into play.• While genetic factors do play a role in resiliency, ultimately much more important is the quality of inter-personal relationships and the availability of networks of support. Source: Embrace the Future Foundation
What has worked? The Resilience Wheel Model* Just as the chain is only as strong as the weakest link, the wheel (community) is only as resilient or strong as the weakest or most vulnerable spoke(i.e., community asset or DRR Priority*Source: Stephen Latham CRP LACRO
Sustainable Livelihoods Approach - Community Assets (Capitals)• Human-Cultural • Agriculture-Food• Economic-Financial Security• Socio-Political • Physical-• Environmental- Infra/structural Health • Scientific- Technological Source: Based on the 5 ―Chamber’s Capitals‖: human, environmental, financial, social and physical . Additional ―missing capitals‖ as suggested by Prof. Ian Davis: political, • Spiritual- cultural, spiritual and technological. Stephen Latham CRP LACRO has merged these and additional assets into 8 composite capitals, as they appear above. Psychological
Why Spiritual Resilience as thehub of the Resilience Wheel?• Spiritual resilience is the hub of the wheel that holds the community assets and DRR priorities together—in line and consistent with World Vision’s Vision, Mission and Core Values.• In Christian contexts, the ultimate expression of spiritual resilience can be attributed to Jesus ―bouncing back‖ from the dead and conquering sin—i.e., Jesus’ resurrection following his crucifixion.• In non-Christian contexts, spiritual resilience can be likened to the ―golden rule‖ – loving your neighbor as yourself• US Air Force Survival School’s ―Rule of Three‖
Why Spiritual Resilience as the hub of the Resilience Wheel? “The Rule of 3”The Rule of 3 states that you cant survive: 3 months without companionship or love. 3 weeks without food. 3 days without water. 3 hours without shelter in extreme conditions. 3 minutes without air. 3 seconds without spirit and hope.
Why Spiritual Resilience as thehub of the Resilience Wheel?• All of the spokes help the community to determine how it can achieve community resilience. But the hub of the wheel not only helps us to determine how we can achieve community resilience, but more importantly it says why we can achieve it.• All other things remaining equal, it is better to know the ―why‖ vs. the ―how‖ in life. A purpose-driven community can go on in the face of adversity as long as it understands why things happen according to God’s will, even if it does not always have all the answers on how to solve all of life’s problems.
Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) basedon the UN Hyogo Framework of Action1. Governance/DRR PrioritizationThis Priority for Action measures the extent to which disasterrisk reduction (DRR) has been a) institutionalised throughgovernment legislation and practices, b) operationalisedthrough the activities of civil society organisations and c)incorporated within the formal and informal systems withinlocal communities.2. Risk Assessment, Monitoring and WarningThis Priority for Action measures the extent to which riskassessment, monitoring systems and early warningmechanisms have been developed to alert local government,civil society and local communities about potential disasters.
UN Hyogo Framework of Action3. Knowledge and EducationThis Priority for Action measures the extent to whichknowledge, innovation and education have been used tobuild a culture of safety and resilience at the local level.4. Underlying Risk FactorsThis Priority for Action measures the extent to whichunderlying risk factors, such as social, economic,environmental conditions and land utilisation have beenaddressed in order to reduce the causes of vulnerabilitiesand disaster risks.
UN Hyogo Framework of Action5. Disaster preparedness and responseThis Priority for Action measures the extent to which progresshas been made toward strengthening disaster preparedness foreffective response (in terms of capacity and resources) of sub-national authorities, organisations and local communities.6. Cross-cutting issuesA set of Cross-cutting Issues also covers a number of areasthat, although not directly included in the five thematic areas, willimpact the effective implementation of the HFA. These topicsinclude: participation, gender, encouraging volunteers andcultural diversity. Note: WVI and CRP LACRO goes beyond theUN mandate and addresses additional issues as witnessed inModule 8
What has worked? Going beyondnatural and socio-natural hazards: HFA as astructure for social hazards• A workshop was conducted in Costa Rica with the UN University of Peace graduate students, as well as meetings with faculty• By consensus, the students and faculty reached a key conclusion: if the word ―disaster‖ could be taken out of HFA Priority of Action 5: ―Preparedness and Response‖, it was found that HFA was indeed a ―compatible‖ Framework for guilding local actions to address social hazards.
What has worked?A Multi-hazardsapproach SOCIO-NATURAL NATURAL SOCIALSource: Stephen Latham CRP LACRO
What has worked? Vulnerability-Resilience Pendulum & Critical Point Analysis Vulnerability Resilience • Small asset • Large wide and base/ narrow diversified asset source base • Minimal Risk • Maximum Risk Reduction Reduction • Minimal • Maximum Protection Protection Factors FactorsSource: Prof. Ian Davis Vulnerability – Resilience PendulumCritical Point Analysis – Stephen J. Latham, CRP LACRO
Cumulative Risk or Protection Factors 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 What has worked? A recognition of multiple causes of vulnerability that needs to be replaced with multple sources of resilience (protective factors)
What has worked? Measuring impactthrough an evidence-based approach:Views from the Frontlines (VFL)•VFL is a global survey designed by the GlobalNetwork of Civil Society Organisations on DRR tocollect perspectives from the local level as to howDRR based on the Hyogo Framework of Action(HFA) is progressing.•20,000 people in 69 countries responded to theViews from the Frontline 2011 survey. Participatingcountries in most of the major regions of the world
VFL – What it does• The VFL is a participatory survey that seeks to understand the extent to which key disaster reduction indicators are changing based on HFA’s 5 Priorities of Action.• It seeks evidence of change at : – Local-level government bodies – Civil Society Organisations – Communities
What VFL does NOT do and a callfor a multi-hazards evidence-based approach Measure social hazards and conflict • CRP LACRO partnered with the UN University of Peace to develop social hazard/ conflict indicators to complement VFL (beyond measuring natural and socio-natural hazards) • Furthermore, the Project in concert with the UN University of Peace has developed a social hazards/conflict module to support peacebuilding and conflict resolution at the local levelSource: Stephen Latham CRP LACRO
Proposal: Evidence-based social hazard indicators for VFL• Social hazard indicators have been developed by the UN University of Peace with questions formulated to gather information consistent with the format of VFL.• The University of Peace survey is designed to complement existing indicators of an abridged version of the VFL survey that covers natural and socio- natural hazard issues
What has worked? Capacity building in Resilient Development Practice (RDP) Supporting risk reduction and resilience building at the local and national level through the development of capacities and competencies in RDP using the 5 Priorities and the Crosscutting themes of the Hyogo Framework of Action as the Social hazards and conflict structure: resolution Girls and boys Adolescents Crosscutting themes (gender, Youth child protection, discapacities, Christian commitments, Women and Men environnment, Local government (in health/HIV/AIDS) partnership with them) Field manual (pocket guide) National Level (staff) Formal Education and DRR Guide
RDP Modules - LAC Regionavailable at www.resilienciacomunitaria.org
What has worked? Workshops that supportCommunities of Practice in RDP • Website where we share good practices for those involved and interested in working on RDP issues • Presence on Facebook. Key words ―Resiliencia Comunitaria‖ (Primary audience Spanish and Portuguese speaking) – Sign up!!! • Exploring social networking mediums: Blogger, Twitter, Youtube, Linked In
Resilient Development Practice (RDP)in LAC Region Proposed future policy direction Making a call for a paradigm shift that moves us from a fragmented and piecemeal programmatic approach towards an integrated and holistic one –i.e., addressing multiple hazards and vulnerabilities for reducing risks and building resilience across the urban-rural continuum.
Resilient Development Practice (RDP)in LAC Region Proposed future policy direction• Girls, boys, adolescent and youth have a critically important role as agents of change and social transformation to mainstream and scale up RDP
A Final Testimony: Children’s Charter –a DRR action plan for children and by children• The Children’s Charter for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) has been developed through consultations with more than 600 children in 21 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America.• Children were asked about the impacts of disasters on their lives, the networks that exist in their communities to tackle disasters and their priorities for DRR going forward.• The aim of this charter is to raise awareness of the need for a child-centred approach to DRR and for stronger commitment from governments, donors and agencies to take appropriate steps to protect children and utilise their energy and knowledge to engage in DRR and climate change adaptation
Children’s Charter in DRR1. Schools must be safe and education must not be interrupted2. Child protection must be a priority before, during and after a disaster3. Children have the right to participate and to access the information they need4. Community infrastructure must be safe, and relief and reconstruction must help reduce future risk5. Disaster Risk Reduction must reach the most vulnerable
Video testimonials, latest newsand general information on the Community Resilience Programme for the LAC Region can be found at:www.resilienciacomunitaria.org