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Relationship between community empowerment and citizens' interest in participation in natural disaster management: case study earthquake at Tehran districts' level
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Relationship between community empowerment and citizens' interest in participation in natural disaster management: case study earthquake at Tehran districts' level

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Shabbou VAZIRPOUR1, Ali Akbar REZAEI2 ...

Shabbou VAZIRPOUR1, Ali Akbar REZAEI2

1Tehran Disaster Mitigation and Management Organization, Science & Research Tehran Azad University, Iran, Islamic Republic of; 2Science & Research Tehran Azad University

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Relationship between community empowerment and citizens' interest in participation in natural disaster management: case study earthquake at Tehran districts' level Relationship between community empowerment and citizens' interest in participation in natural disaster management: case study earthquake at Tehran districts' level Presentation Transcript

  • Relationship between Community Empowerment & Citizens’ Interest in Participation in Natural DisasterManagement: Case Study on Earthquake at Tehran Districts Level IDRC Davos 2012 Conference By: Shabbou Vazirpour Dr. Aliakbar Rezaei Aug 2012 27
  • Content• 1st part: East Azarbaijan Province Earthquakes (Ahar, Haris, Varzaghan) at a glance;• 2nd part: Relationship between Community Empowerment & Citizens’ Interest in Participation in Natural Disaster Management: Case Study on Earthquake at Tehran Districts Level;• Conclusion
  • Introduction• According to Global Seismic Hazard Map, IRAN has been located on an earthquake prone area with many active faults Source: Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP) by (UN International Decade of Natural Disaster Reduction (1999
  • Recent Devastating Earthquakes• Twin earthquakes with magnitude of 6.4 and 6.3 on the Richter scale hit northwestern part of Iran, east Ararbaijan province, on Aug 11, 2012 Source: www.earthquake-report.com
  • East Azarbaijan Province Earthquakes• The earthquakes impacted four cities of province, Ahar, Haris, Varzaghan and Tabriz and heavily affected rural surrounding areas;• Based on UNOCHA Situation Report No.3 dated Aug 18, 2012, as many as 365 villages, out of a total of 537 in the affected area, are heavily damaged (between 50% and 80%) and 46 villages are completely devastated where buildings had less strength and people had less preparedness against earthquake.
  • East Azarbaijan Province Earthquakes• Based on National Disaster Management Organization (NDMO), The disaster has left 318 dead & more than 5000 injured. An estimated 155,000 persons have been affected , out of whom more than 87,000 have been resettled in tents.
  • East Azarbaijan Province Earthquakes • Also, in 23 October, 2011, a M 7.1 earthquake struck the region of Van in eastern Turkey, near the Iranian border 300 km to the west of the twin August 11, 2012 earthquakes location, resulting in over 500 fatalities. Village affected by East Azarbaijan Village affected by Van earthquakes on(earthquakes on Aug 11, 2012 (2 days later (Oct 23, 2011 ( 8 months later
  • East Azarbaijan Province Earthquakes• Based on evidences, at very beginning of rescue and relief operations, neighbors and local people were the first respondents to this catastrophic event.
  • Lesson Learned• In order for the Earthquake Risks & impacts to be reduced, community should be empowered;• Effective & successful DRR and DM initiatives needs voluntary participation of empowered citizens;• Empowerment of citizens and communities in rural and urban areas and increasing their interest for participation in Disaster Management cycle in Earthquake prone areas is a crucial task.
  • 2nd part: Relationship between Community Empowerment & Citizens’ Interest in Participationin Natural Disaster Management: Case Study on Earthquake at Tehran Districts Level
  • DRR & DM are Challenges for UM in Earthquake Prone areas
  • Earthquake Risk in Tehran• Tehran is located at the foot slope of the Alborz Mountains; in an earthquake prone area with many active faults;• According to historical records, the last severe earthquake struck the city in 1830 A.C (182 years ago).
  • Earthquake Risk in Tehran• Locating on an seismic active zone;• Rapid growth of the City, which means more faults in Tehran Area;• High population density• Vulnerable structures and buildings;• No major earthquake since 1830 which considered a high risk by seismologist;• Concentration of national administrative, economical and business centers;• Potential scale of damages• Tehran is exposed to the risk of earthquake occurrence
  • Earthquake Risk in Tehran• Among many defined related preventive measures, community empowerment and increasing level of public participation in DM cycle plays important role;• Successful and effective DRR and DM require voluntary participation of the empowered citizens;
  • Empowerment of Citizens against! earthquakes, a difficult task
  • Empowerment independent variables in thisresearch • In this research, independent variables of Empowerment are as follows: - information dissemination and awareness raising, raising - training, training - sensitization, sensitization - fatalism and - social trust
  • Methodology• The survey was carried out in 2011 in 3 districts of 22 districts of Tehran;• These districts selected based on selection criteria derived from results of study conducted by Tehran Urban Research and Planning Center entitled “ problem Finding in Urban Management”, listed 40 problem that may affect Tehran and JICA study entitled “ Tehran Seismic Microzonation Study published (2003-2004)• Five items entered in selection criteria
  • MethodologyFollowing 5 items entered in selection Criteria:1. Buildings & infrastructures seismic vulnerability, 2. location of faults’line in districts, 3. population density, 4. construction density and 5.residents’ heterogeneity (due to difference of cultural & social aspectsof districts residents) entered selection criteria;Based on scoring , districts 2, 10 & 17 selected as research area. Source: Research Findings
  • Selected Problems with great impact on Tehran DM at 22 district level Urban problems that affect Disaster Management at Tehran Districts level D1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2Bldgs * * * * * * * * * * * * * *SeismicVulnerabilityLocation of * * * * * * *Faults’ linePopulation * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *DensityConstructio * * * * *n densityResidents’ * * * * * * * * * * * * * *Hetrogenity Scores 7 7 5 5 5 3 - 4 3 6 4 6 4 6 5 2 7 4 3 5 - 2
  • Methodology• Throughout three districts, 390 citizens’ aged 15 & above selected by stratified sampling method as respondent to the questionnaire; Districts 2 District 10 Districts 17 51% 26.9% 22.1%• Demographic and KAP data gathered through questionnaire• Sample population includes 52.1% men and 47.9% women• Mean for age was 33.01%• Majority of respondent belonged to 26-35 age group• Maximum age was 61 & Minimum was 16
  • Some of the Findings of the Research• According to respondents’ view points earthquake is the second threat for Tehran following Air pollution
  • Some of the Findings of the Research- 95.9% of respondents heard about possibility ofoccurrence devastating EQ in Tehran;-Regarding source of receiving information on EQ,47.7% received through TV, 15% newspapers, 11.7% byfriends & colleagues and only 6.5% by internet (74.4%respondents had access to internet);
  • Some of the Findings of the Researchof respondents strongly believed in information they 41.8%-receive on occurrence of EQ in Tehran, 37.2% moderately and .18% a little believed in that
  • Some of the Findings of the Research Regarding required information dissemination and awareness raising measures for modification of residents and community attitude toward earthquake in Tehran, 50.5% of respondents believed that very little measures (nearly nothing) has been done by disaster management related organization for modification of Tehran residents’ attitude toward earthquake, 38.5% a little bit and 11% think that required measures have been done in this regard.
  • Some of the Findings of the ResearchStatus of required measures for increasing preparedness -against Earthquakes in Tehran without or with a littleallocation of financial resources
  • Some of the Findings of the ResearchMeasures required for citizens preparedness Not Done( %)Meetings & receiving training material 60.4%Talking with family on what to do in 55.4%disastersDeveloped family emergency plan 70.1% KnowledgeParticipation in DM training course 45% didntMembership in emergency Voluntary group 70.3% changePreparation disaster supply kit 58.2% Action!Practicing self protection against earthquake 47.3%Buildings non structural reinforcement 58.6%Recognition of homes safe and unsafe 40.2%locations
  • Findings of the Research• Analysis of data shows relationship between empowerment of citizens and their interest in increasing participation in disaster management;• There is strong correlation between training and citizens interest in participation in Disaster Management, high positive correlation between information dissemination and public awareness, Sensitization and social trust with citizens interest in participation in DM cycle and negative reverse correlation exist between fatalism and citizens interest in participation in Disaster Management (fatalism decrease citizens interest in participation in natural disaster management) .
  • Findings of the Research • Data analysis demonstrates• Regarding association between various variables of that empowerment variables people empowerment, data and citizens interest in analysis demonstrated that participation in natural there is a positive meaningful disasters management in three association between training and education, information districts shows meaningful dissemination and awareness difference. In district 17 raising, Sensitization and citizens are more empowered social trust. This means that and interested in participation any modification in each of the said variable can affect in natural disaster other variables as well. But management and this is the fatalism doesnt show least for district 2 citizens ( in meaningful association with Tehran Seismic Microzonation others. Study district 17 announced as the most vulnerable district in Tehran.
  • Added Value to integrative Riskmanagement• As community based disaster management plays a very crucial role in integrative risk management, therefore empowerment of citizens with the aim to increase their interest in participation in natural disaster management and preparedness is of great importance.• The results of this research can be helpful in improving national capacities for community- based disaster risk management in urban earthquakes and flood management which is a part of Natural Disaster Risk Management Component of GOI and UNDP new 5-year plan , in order for the UNDP slogan to be more tangible "empowered lives, resilient nations".
  • Conclusion• For an effective and successful disaster management, people should be empowered and motivated for participation in natural disaster management cycle;• There are many cultural, social and economical obstacles that affect on level of people participation in risk reduction and disaster management;• Based on statistical analysis of this research training and public trust are the most important factors increasing citizens interest in participation in earthquake disaster management;
  • Conclusion• According to findings 74.4% of respondents had access to internet but only 6% of them received information on preparedness and disaster management through internet. This means that annual programs should move toward utilization of other potentials for acceleration of increasing citizens interest in participation in natural disaster management and preparedness• The study pointed out that citizens received many information on probable occurrence of devastative earthquake in Tehran but took less action even regarding measures that do not need any financial resource. Therefore, DRR & DM annual plans should move toward recognition of residents’ attitude, needs and their understanding of Risks in order for the knowledge can be changed to Action to prevent impact of future evitable natural disasters.
  • Thank you for your attention