Public empowerment policies for crisis management


Published on

Marita VOS1, Jenni HYVÄRINEN1, Marc STAL2

1University of Jyväskylä, Finland; 2Global Risk Forum GRF Davos, Switzerland

Published in: Education, Business, Technology
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Public empowerment policies for crisis management

  1. 1. Public Empowerment Policies for Crisis Management University of Jyväskylä, Finland (coordinator) Mid Sweden University, Sweden Emergency Services College, Finland Global Risk Forum Davos, Switzerland Inconnect, the Netherlands
  2. 2. Workshop programme• Project info – prof. Marita Vos, Marc Stal & short opening question• Presentation Literature review – Jenni Hyvärinen• Plan for a toolbox – Anne-Marie van het Erve• Technology options – Matti Haataja, Helen Sullivan/ Markku Häkkinen• Discussion 2
  3. 3. Project objectives Marita Vos• Investigating key enablers for public empowerment in crises: – best practices in how authorities enhance individual, family and community response – community approaches connecting with local needs – technological services enhancing resilience• Road map charting promising areas for future R&D and implementation – Support and Coordination Action 3
  4. 4. Methods• Literature study on community resilience & citizen response (2012)• International online expert questionnaire on best practices in involving citizens in coproducing safety (2012)• Extensive interviews with municipalities and groups in Sweden, after secondary analysis of quantitative data (2012-2013)• Focus groups with citizens on use and preferences in social media and mobile services (2012-2013)• International Expert Panel (2013-2014)• Online dialogue platform (2014) 4
  5. 5. WP1 WP2 WP3 Best practices, Community Supporting online questionnaire approach, technology and interviews, guide acceptanceHigh lightening Overview of keypromising areas enablers WP4 WP5 Road Map, Online toolbox, with international advice reports, symposium theme-issue journal WP 6 Project management 5
  6. 6. Mission / societal goal: Prevention and reduction of harm or damageCommunication goals: Cooperation of citizens and Empowerment Societal understanding organizations for response activities of citizens and organizations of risks: • supportive action (e.g. evacuate) • prevention • providing information • assistance for relatives • self-efficacy during a crisis • active participation in the public debate • participative decisionmaking about reconstructionProcesses: Response network, Communication with Monitoring citizens needs exchange of info and citizens and news media coordinationLearning and growth: Continuous evaluation Preparedness plans Best practice sharing, and accountability and exercises retaining lessons learned 6
  7. 7. Short opening question:Co-producing safety with citizens• What are main opportunities to further citizen response? 7
  8. 8. Jenni HyvärinenLITERATURE REVIEW REPORT 8
  9. 9. Purpose of the review• Bring together current knowledge on communication contributing to community resilience and citizen response• Clarify the role of communication• Identify research trends in the literature on this topic 9
  10. 10. Method, research questions• RQ1. How are community resilience and citizen response defined in the literature?• RQ2. What is according to the literature the contribution of crisis communication in strengthening community resilience and citizen response?• RQ3. What are the trends and gaps in the literature about this topic? 10
  11. 11. Method, sample• Protocol of a systematic literature review• Searches in multiple online databases• Search terms *“community resilience” or “citizen response”+ and *communication+ in the abstract, title or keywords• Peer reviewed journals in the last 10 years• Initially 140 hits, of which 32 articles passed inclusion criteria 11
  12. 12. Method, analysis• Data extraction sheet – Categories: title, informal summary, definitions and building blocks for community resilience and citizen response the role of crisis communication, trends in literature, and technology• Thematic analysis – unit one article 12
  13. 13. Results RQ1• Community resilience – a capacity for successful adaptation in the face of disturbance (Norris et al. 2008) – consist of, and can be inspected from, various levels including e.g. individual, family and community level• Citizen response – indicates how citizens react to a crisis, and in this way is a result of resilience 13
  14. 14. Results RQ2• How crisis communication strengthens community resilience and citizen response Topics addressed: – The role of communication – Information needs – Diversity – Communication technology – Trust – Preparedness – Ethics 14
  15. 15. Results RQ3• Trends and gaps in the literature – Trends • amount of articles increases • Influential: Norris et al. (2008) , Perry & Lindell (2003), Helsloot & Ruitenberg’s (2004) – Perspectives • health and psychology (community resilience) • crisis management and the point of view of response organisations (citizen response) – Case-related literature • The Asian Ocean tsunami, hurricane Katrina of New Orleans (Colten et al. 2008), climate change, terrorism threat 15
  16. 16. Conclusions• Bottom up approach on enhancing the resilience of communities and empowering citizens in crisis response is a common philosophy of the topic• Communication was addressed implicitly – Few articles focused on communication connected to resilience• Future research suggestions – Clarify further the contribution of communication to community resilience and citizen response: • Communication strategies • The use of technology in communication enhancing resilience 16
  17. 17. Anne-Marie van het ErvePLAN FOR A TOOLBOX 17
  18. 18. Plan for a toolboxIf there was 1 METHOD to establish resilience and self efficacy with every citizen.... ...with predictable succesfull outcome... ...and I would have invented and patented it... ...I would be DIRTY RICH! 18
  19. 19. Best and promising practices• There are no simple solutions• Resilience is determined by an enormous amount of variables• Lots of international experience with successful projects and strategies• Spontaneously or planned changes in attitude and behaviour of the target group 19
  20. 20. The Matrix• Desk study (open sources)• Cases: – projects, strategies, initiatives, campaigns, etc.• Adjusted in the recent past (later than 2010)• Enough open source material to be studied: – articles and reports in popular (news) media, evaluation reports, etc.• Adjustable for European authorities and organizations 20
  21. 21. The Matrix• Left side: – Phases in the safety chain o Preparation o Response o Aftercare• Upper side: – relevant variables 21
  22. 22. The Matrix 22
  23. 23. Catalogue of opportunities• What worked … and what didn’t? o Composition of the target group? o Acceptance of the new technology? o Monitoring of public rumors and mood?• Result: a ‘catalogue of opportunities’• A ‘Guide Michelin’ of Public Empowerment: strong enablers for public resilience 23
  24. 24. Matti Haataja, Helen Sullivan/ Markku HäkkinenTECHNOLOGY OPTIONS 24
  25. 25. Technology OptionsHow and what technology could be utilized for furtherempowering individuals and communitiesDesk Study: – Description on individuals’ communication during / on crises & disaster related issues • With who (Authorities, Community, Large companies, …) • Using what channels & technologies – Technology • Emphasis on Social Media & Mobile Solutions • Solutions that can reach all community members 25
  26. 26. Technology Options• Identified Opportunities: – Reachability and timeliness – Increased personal relevancy & understandability – Interactivity: a way to share information & data and communicate within the community • Challenges: – Availability of open data – Local communication systems may not support a heterogeneous crowd – Reliability & functionality of network, services & devices – Both, correct and false information spread wide and fast – Individuals motivation and willingness to adopt and use technology in this domain – Usable by a diverse audience (age, language, ability) 26
  27. 27. Future Work• Continuous research on: – Technology acceptance – Identification of technological solutions for different communication needs and purposes in the domain • Individual and community level• Focus group interviews on preferences for enhancing public resilience technology 27
  28. 28. Technology cannot use a ‘One Size Fits All Approach’• Populations represent a distribution of: – age, ability/disability, culture, education, language, health conditions (acute/chronic)• In the EU, and globally, approximately 17% of the population has an identified disability (86M)• 23 official EU languages and many more regional variants, minority and migrant languages• A significant portion of any population at risk includes those who have limitations in their ability to utilize technology and/or to perceive or understand information 28
  29. 29. Accessibility: a fundamental right• Accessibility - designing technology to be usable by those with disabilities/limitations.• In the context of crisis communications, accessibility is important for critical/life safety information• Accessibility is a legal requirement in many countries: – Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Ger many, Hong Kong, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxemburg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, UK, USA – Standards-based legislation (e.g. W3C WCAG) 29
  30. 30. Inclusiveness• Inclusiveness is a principle that ensures that all members of the user community are considered in design, implementation, and operational usage• People with disabilities must be included in the planning and development process• Considering special needs ‘later’ is too late 30
  31. 31. How disability impacts communication: SMS alerts 31
  32. 32. Challenges and Opportunities• Technology can pose barriers to disabled• ICT implementations must consider accessibility• Mobile technologies can have significant benefits (ignoring cost) for people with disabilities and others resulting from personalisation & built-in accessibility 32
  33. 33. 33
  35. 35. Discussion- Towards a roadmap1. Which promising areas for empowerment need to be stressed?2. Ideas for the online dialogue on future research and implementation directions around the next Davos conference? 35