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Lene POULSEN "A system approach for valuation of sustainable dryland and drought risk management"
Lene POULSEN "A system approach for valuation of sustainable dryland and drought risk management"
Lene POULSEN "A system approach for valuation of sustainable dryland and drought risk management"
Lene POULSEN "A system approach for valuation of sustainable dryland and drought risk management"
Lene POULSEN "A system approach for valuation of sustainable dryland and drought risk management"
Lene POULSEN "A system approach for valuation of sustainable dryland and drought risk management"
Lene POULSEN "A system approach for valuation of sustainable dryland and drought risk management"
Lene POULSEN "A system approach for valuation of sustainable dryland and drought risk management"
Lene POULSEN "A system approach for valuation of sustainable dryland and drought risk management"
Lene POULSEN "A system approach for valuation of sustainable dryland and drought risk management"
Lene POULSEN "A system approach for valuation of sustainable dryland and drought risk management"
Lene POULSEN "A system approach for valuation of sustainable dryland and drought risk management"
Lene POULSEN "A system approach for valuation of sustainable dryland and drought risk management"
Lene POULSEN "A system approach for valuation of sustainable dryland and drought risk management"
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Lene POULSEN "A system approach for valuation of sustainable dryland and drought risk management"

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UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference

UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference

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  • 1. Economic Assessment of Desertification, Sustainable Land Management and Resilience of Arid, Semi-arid, and Dry Sub-humid Areas UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference Plenary Session 2 10 April 2013 COSTS AND BENEFITS OF POLICIES AND PRACTICES ADDRESSINGLAND DEGRADATION AND DROUGHT IN THE DRYLANDS Lene.Poulsen@gmail.com 1| Slide
  • 2. FOCUS AND STRUCTURE OF WHITE PAPER 2• Economic Assessment of Policies and Practices aiming at Sustainable Dryland and Drought Risk Management• Resilience as a means• Ecosystem Services Approach as a means• Communication among scientists, practitioners, and policy makers• Recommendations for focus of future research• Structure: 1/Technical discussion (introduction, valuations, accounting systems, policies and practices, recommendations), 2/Examples of frameworks and concrete assessments 2| Slide
  • 3. DRYLANDS: COMPLEX SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS• Heterogeneity – multi-scale• Interconnection – Interdependency - Feedbacks• Non-linearity of causation• Dynamic and Adaptive• Emergence• Thresholds - Phase transitions Challenges in understanding the functioning of complex systems, incl. the inter- & intraactions of social, biological, and climate drivers 3| Slide
  • 4. MANAGING COMPLEX SYSTEMS• Uncertainty• Unpredictability• Boundaries: social (physical, space), ecological, processes- products-outcomes (activities-services-benefits), time, space• How to define thresholds• How to recognize slow regime shift• Substituability• Identifying feedbacks Specific requirements for effective management of complexity, incl. economic assessments 4| Slide
  • 5. ECOSYSTEM SERVICES APPROACH• Linking social and ecological – benefits people obtain• Good communication tool – potential to capture externalities• Differing classifications – challenges of synergistic services and tradeoffs• Boundary challenges• Challenges of predictive analyses 5| Slide
  • 6. RESILIENCE OF COMPLEX SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS - DRYLANDS -• Capacities to survive, adapt, and follow a positive trajectory in the face of external and/or internal changes, even catastrophic incidents, and rebound strengthened and more resourceful while retaining essentially the same functions. – Continuous and dynamic process – all phases from pre- stressor, during the stress, post-stress, and in between stresses – Proactive and reactive abilities vis-à-vis change – Can be fostered through interventions and policies – Need for constant monitoring, analyzing, learning, and rolling planning. i.e. resilience management is a means to achieve sustainable drýland and drought risk management, incl. ZNLD 6| Slide
  • 7. MANAGEABLE CHARACTERISTICS OF RESILIENCE• Acceptance of uncertainty• Adaptive with a good learning capacity• Multidirectional connectedness and diversity• Coping capacity• Address critical feedbacks• Flexible and innovative with redundancy• Social capital• Transformative capacity• Good governance Can be assessed through quantitative and qualitative indicators and with clear definitions (whom, what, when, where) 7| Slide
  • 8. ECONOMIC VALUATION OF SUSTAINABLE DRYLAND AND DROUGHT RISK MANAGEMENT• Any economic valuation requires measurements – what is being valued?• Can we value assets and services that are not marketed?• Environmental economists have developed a number of non-market market techniques based on individual preferences; either revealed / observed or stated / expressed• Total Economic Value (use and non-use) – reflect ecosystem services approach• Environmental Valuation Reference Inventory (EVRI) - global repository of environmental valuations (4,000) aiming at benefits transfer 8| Slide
  • 9. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSES AND ALTERNATIVE METHODS• Mainstream economics – summation of individual preferences• Does not capture the complex system nature• Good communication value – compulsory for funding of public investments in many countries• Alternative methods: e.g., safe minimum standard 9| Slide
  • 10. ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING• SEEA (topic of other panelist) – work in progress• Experimenting ecosystem services• Need to harmonize with UNCCD• Countries with low statistical capacity: DevInfo 10| Slide
  • 11. VALUATION OF POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SUSTAINABLE DRYLAND AND DROUGHT RISK MANAGEMENT• Plurality and methodological diversity in assessments of policies and practices: participatory approaches, sophisticated models, etc.• Models often developed independent from policies,• Some well documented new policies: markets for ecosystem services, adaptation to climate change 11| Slide
  • 12. STATUS OF RESEARCH• Increasing focus on transdisciplinary research,• Resilience: trendy concept – lack of definitions – differing definitions – some interesting framework development for resilience assessments of SESs, incl. economic assessments and policy assessments,• Ecosystem Services Approach: classification challenges – principles used for assessments – identification of service bundles – limited success stories for policy application (water sector),• Economic assessments: mainly use of mainstream economics but some interesting developments for system approach – new frameworks for policy assessments - great use of benefits transfer – important body of research and assessments from drylands but not necessarily with a dryland focus• Communication: mainly information sharing and little communication – presentations without confidence levels – differing use of concepts. Challenge: complexity at all levels: subject matter – managing and governance structures 12| Slide
  • 13. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FOCUS OF FUTURE RESEARCH FOR A GREATER UNDERSTANDING OF COMPLEX DRYLAND SYSTEMS• modeling of the dynamic relationship between dryland system elements,• feedback loops,• resilience indicators,• identification of potential thresholds´,• identification of bottlenecks for resilience assessments of the dryland systems,• role of socio-economic-political factors shaping economic impact,• effective monitoring, organization, and planning of resilience management,• uncertainty cascade,• drought risk management. 13| Slide
  • 14. More Information: Poulsen, Lene, “Costs and Benefits ofPolicies and Practices Addressing Land Degradation and Drought in the Drylands” White Paper II. UN CCD 2nd Scientific Conference. UNCCD Secretariat, Bonn http://2sc.unccd.int THANKS! 14| Slide

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