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Pathogens and Populations: One Health in an Era of Change
 

Pathogens and Populations: One Health in an Era of Change

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GRF 2nd One Health Summit 2013: Presentation by Katey Pelican, «USAid

GRF 2nd One Health Summit 2013: Presentation by Katey Pelican, «USAid

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  • Out of over 20 nominated critical initiatives, seven key activities were selected as fundamental to moving forward the One Health agenda and obtaining goals associated with the 3-5 year vision.7 workgroups were then formed to collaboratively develop and implement the key activities.Each group was asked to develop One Health plans and partnerships that would occur within a designated timeframe; plans included specific activities, budgets, deliverables, and constraints.The workgroups have continued to develop and finalize their action plans and carry out activities via teleconference.

Pathogens and Populations: One Health in an Era of Change Pathogens and Populations: One Health in an Era of Change Presentation Transcript

  • Pathogens and Populations: One Health in an Era of Change One Health Conference, Davos, Switzerland November 2013 Emerging Pandemic Threats Program PREDICT • RESPOND • PREVENT • IDENTIFY
  • Figure 1 The Lancet 2012; 380:1956-1965 ( Emerging Pandemic Threats Program PREDICT • RESPOND • PREVENT • IDENTIFY
  • Disease in Livestock • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy • Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome • Bovine Tuberculosis • Bluetongue • Rift Valley Fever Emerging Pandemic Threats Program PREDICT • RESPOND • PREVENT • IDENTIFY
  • Disease in Wildlife • White nose syndrome –bats • Canine Distemper – Lions – Black-footed ferrets • Fibropapilloma – Sea turtles • Chytridiomycosis – Amphibians • Chronic Wasting Disease – Cervids • Tazmanian Devil Facial Tumour Dz Emerging Pandemic Threats Program PREDICT • RESPOND • PREVENT • IDENTIFY
  • 100 years ago: An Era of Collections Informing Ecology Emerging Pandemic Threats Program PREDICT • RESPOND • PREVENT • IDENTIFY
  • Vertebrate Species on Planet (57,739 species) Birds 9,917 17% Fish 28,500 9% 49% Mammals 5,416 14% 10% Reptiles 8,163 Amphibians 5,743 Emerging Pandemic Threats Program PREDICT • RESPOND • PREVENT • IDENTIFY
  • What we don’t know – IUCN Red List 1150 Species 18% data deficient Guardian.co.uk 2258 Species 16% data deficient USDA Forest service Emerging Pandemic Threats Program PREDICT • RESPOND • PREVENT • IDENTIFY
  • Microbiome • 5 1030 bacteria on Earth • ~13,500 bacteria characterized of an estimated 107 – 109 • 50 billion/g and > 1 million species in one soil sample (Gans et al 2005) • 100 trillion microbes of up to 1000 species in gut • 10 times more microbes than cells in body Emerging Pandemic Threats Program PREDICT • RESPOND • PREVENT • IDENTIFY
  • A NEW era of Collections Emerging Pandemic Threats Program PREDICT • RESPOND • PREVENT • IDENTIFY
  • Metagenomics can be used to profile the totality of microbes in a sample From Tim Johnson, UMN. Funded by Turkey Growers Association Emerging Pandemic Threats Program PREDICT • RESPOND • PREVENT • IDENTIFY
  • Emerging Pandemic Threats Program PREDICT • RESPOND • PREVENT • IDENTIFY
  • USAID PREDICT has found: • 250 new viruses in wildlife: corona, boca, herpes, retro, adeno, rhabdo • 45,000 individual animals from families known to harbor zoonoses (bats, rodents, birds, carnivores, primates, and ungulates) Emerging Pandemic Threats Program PREDICT • RESPOND • PREVENT • IDENTIFY
  • In Minnesota Alone • > 10 novel viruses found in fish populations.
  • And NOT just Microbial “Collections” Emerging Pandemic Threats Program PREDICT • RESPOND • PREVENT • IDENTIFY
  • How to increase the likelihood of success? 1. A risk-based and long term approach Emerging Pandemic Threats Program PREDICT • RESPOND • PREVENT • IDENTIFY
  • Emerging Pandemic Threats Program PREDICT • RESPOND • PREVENT • IDENTIFY
  • Risk based • Host species • Families of concern • ?? What makes a microbe risky? – Reservoir Host species? – Spillover host? – Biodiversity or not? – Host-microbe interaction? – Receptors it acts on? – Microbial population ecology!!
  • Emerging Pandemic Threats Program PREDICT • RESPOND • PREVENT • IDENTIFY
  • How to increase the likelihood of success? 1. A risk-based approach and long-term approach 2. Capacity building across health sectors where it is needed Emerging Pandemic Threats Program PREDICT • RESPOND • PREVENT • IDENTIFY
  • Ebola and One Health Emerging Pandemic Threats Program PREDICT • RESPOND • PREVENT • IDENTIFY
  • USAID‟s Emerging Pandemic Threats Program (EPT) Pre-empting the threats from zoonotic diseases Wildlife pathogen detection • Surveillance to identify specific microbes that may cause serious disease in humans Risk determination • Characterize risk that a microbe may pose to humans and its method of transmission from animals to humans Two important aspects of the EPT strategy •Promotes a One Health approach that builds first on existing platforms •Focus in on strengthening country capacities Outbreak response capacity • Strengthen country capacity to detect and respond to outbreaks in animals and humans Risk reduction • Develop and implement behavior change interventions to minimize disease threat for specific high-risk populations
  • Some professions are overlooked Rwanda • CHW: 59,364 • Nurses: 6,543 • Doctors: 571 • CAHW: 906 • Veterinarians: 90 • Wildlife veterinarians: 5 Kenya • CHW: 44,432 • Nurses: 23,512 • Doctors: 4,711 • CAHW: 906 • Animal health officers: 3860 • Veterinarians: 1,828 • Wildlife veterinarians: 11 Emerging Pandemic Threats Program PREDICT • RESPOND • PREVENT • IDENTIFY
  • Emerging Pandemic Threats Program PREDICT • RESPOND • PREVENT • IDENTIFY
  • How to increase the likelihood of success? 1. A risk-based and long term approach 2. Capacity building across health sectors 3. Understand what drives cross-sectoral collaboration to improve coordination. Emerging Pandemic Threats Program PREDICT • RESPOND • PREVENT • IDENTIFY
  • One Health Systems Analysis • Stone Mountain Meeting groups • Interviews • Mapping interactions/response
  • Key Themes-OH Culture • “Natural” (intuitive) way of working • Relationships that are well established and personal – Some stem from relationship with UMN (previous students  employees, employee  faculty or student) – Can also be considered a challenge (especially when leadership changes) • Good communication skills • Strong leadership – Innovation/creativity/visionary • Trust • Long histories of addressing infectious disease outbreaks (especially zoonoses) • Regular social interactions (e.g. inter-agency mixer/“happy hour”
  • Key Themes-OH Infrastructure • Same building/location (of MDA/MDH/BAH) contributes to better collaboration • MOU’s, contracts, requirements – but limited • Required reporting • Working Groups – Federal Inter-Agency, Commissioner’s Meeting, Risk Communication, CAHFS • Incident Command System
  • MDA-Lean Production: Map the Known/Improve the Future Emerging Pandemic Threats Program PREDICT • RESPOND • PREVENT • IDENTIFY
  • Emerging Pandemic Threats Program 29 PREDICT • RESPOND • PREVENT • IDENTIFY
  • Identified “Best Practices” • • • • • Institute a Multiagency Committee – Meet when a multiagency response is needed. – Meet quarterly at 7:30 – Review multiagency systems and collaborations (possibly as part of required systems reviews and table tops) – After action reviews Create a reporting agreement/policy in state. – Build off of existing requirement for reporting of „diseases of public health concern‟ to State Public Health Veterinarian. – Create parallel policy to report „diseases of livestock trade/health concern‟ to Board of Animal Health. • Create a case definition of „concern‟ • Create list of diseases of concern Use map to improve systems – Create Position Descriptions for key personnel that includes cross-agency responsibilities – Use to inform agency leadership and staff of the role of the various agencies and staff. – Create Standards of Practice for Interagency collaboration. – Create position descriptions that fit real responsibilities Expand Incident Command System to include a cross-agency „all hands on deck‟ similar to approach of Minnesota Department of Health. Create a list of key contacts across agencies in the state with alternates
  • How to increase the likelihood of success? 1. A risk-based and long-term approach 2. Capacity building across health sectors 3. Understand what drives cross-sectoral collaboration to improve coordination. 4. More knowledge- this will come! Emerging Pandemic Threats Program PREDICT • RESPOND • PREVENT • IDENTIFY
  • Acknowledgments • • • • • • • • • • USAID Emerging Pandemic Threats Program UMN One Health Partnerships Grant World Bank Stone Mountain Working Groups Carol Rubin, CDC Minnesota Department of Health Minnesota Department of Agriculture Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Minnesota Board of Animal Health Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Emerging Pandemic Threats Program PREDICT • RESPOND • PREVENT • IDENTIFY