UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference Economic assessment of desertification, sustainable land management and           resilien...
CIHEAMWas established in 1962 under the auspices of OECD and the Council of Europe with originalmembership of France, Gree...
RICERCA@ IAMB  Main activities of CIHEAM  •  Training  •  Research  •  Cooperation  •  Knowledge DisseminationIAMB: areas ...
Soil is slipping away, ….but we can stop it!      This is the main message of WAD  Billions of tons of soil area washed aw...
Our own existence rely on a thin soil layer                                                                  Critical Zone...
Soil is the foundation of our society    Source: Safriel (2007)                                Source: SSSA, 2011• 99 % of...
Availability of global soil resources         Global land and water cover     9 billion people by 2050 will rely mostly   ...
From Lal, 2012                                                   Still 60 % of the food                                   ...
The evil of soil degradation in WAD                                              SD reduced agricultural productivity by• ...
Soil degradation affects all: an on soilperspective            The impact of human activities EU                       Dif...
Consequences of the earthquake that hit Emilia Romagna region                   in Italy on 29 May 2012       Fluvisol/Cam...
Dominant soil and terrain constraints for low input farming                                                               ...
Can the soil still feed us? YES but only through SLM                                  The “power” of fence                ...
“To forget how to tender soil is to forget about ourselves”      Mahatma GandiTerraced agroforestry system inKonso, Ethiop...
Healthy soils produce                            Soils could sequesterhealthy and abundant                              ca...
Thank you!pandi@iamb.it It is here where much of the food               grows                                     16
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Pandi Zdruli "Agriculture and soil in WAD"

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UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference

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  • Transcript of "Pandi Zdruli "Agriculture and soil in WAD""

    1. 1. UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference Economic assessment of desertification, sustainable land management and resilience of arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas Bonn, Germany, 9-12 April 2013 Agriculture and soil in WAD Prof. Dr. Pandi ZdruliInternational Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (CIHEAM) Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari, Italy 1
    2. 2. CIHEAMWas established in 1962 under the auspices of OECD and the Council of Europe with originalmembership of France, Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Turkey and ex-Yugoslavia.At present CIHEAM brings together 13 member states Albania, Algeria, Egypt, Lebanon, Malta,Morocco, Tunisia in addition to France, Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Turkey Paris Montpellier Zaragoza Bari Chania
    3. 3. RICERCA@ IAMB Main activities of CIHEAM • Training • Research • Cooperation • Knowledge DisseminationIAMB: areas of Integrated Pest Management Integrated Pest Managementscientific excellence of Mediterranean fruit trees of Mediterranean fruit trees Mediterranean Organic Mediterranean Organic Agriculture Agriculture Land and water Land and water resources resources management management Sustainable agriculture Sustainable agriculture and rural development and rural development
    4. 4. Soil is slipping away, ….but we can stop it! This is the main message of WAD Billions of tons of soil area washed away each year
    5. 5. Our own existence rely on a thin soil layer Critical ZoneSource: J. Luis Rubio (2010) Source: Wilding and Lin, (2006). Main functions of soils: Biomass production, storage, filtering, transformation, gene pool, cultural heritage protection, source of raw materials EC, COM (2006) 231
    6. 6. Soil is the foundation of our society Source: Safriel (2007) Source: SSSA, 2011• 99 % of food, fiber and fodder• 51 % of all ecosystem services through nutrient cycling (FAO, 2011)• Storing up to 1,550 Pg C to 1-m depth, twice the amount of Carbon in the atmosphere (Lal, 2004; Baveye, 2007) 6
    7. 7. Availability of global soil resources Global land and water cover 9 billion people by 2050 will rely mostly for their food and livelihoods on these limited recoursesBut arable land per capita decreased from 0.39 ha per person in 1960 to 0,21 ha in 2007 7
    8. 8. From Lal, 2012 Still 60 % of the food needs derive fromConverting pastures to cropland in Apulia, Italy rainfed systems 8
    9. 9. The evil of soil degradation in WAD SD reduced agricultural productivity by• Erosion (water and wind) ~15% between 1950 and 2000. For three centuries ending in 2000, topsoil has been• Salinisation/Alkalinisation lost at the rate of 300 million tons/yr. Between 1950 and 2000, topsoil was lost at• OM and soil fertility decline the rate of 760 millions tons per year. and nutrient mining From Lal, 2012 Annual soil fertility depletion rates in• Soil sealing SSA are worth US$4 billions of fertilizer (Source: Gilbert, 2012) Natural and man-made erosion Gully erosion in Albania The “calanchi” of Southern Italy 9
    10. 10. Soil degradation affects all: an on soilperspective The impact of human activities EU Diffuse input of contaminants as Manures and particulates Acids fertilisers Sewage sludge Persistent substances Pesticides & herbicides tals y me Heav Gravel s i on Accumulation/ extraction il ero Land use change So Contamination Compaction Release of toxic Distruction Salinisation substances Sealing of humus Acidification Blocking of soil Gradual Changes in the Contamination of soils and ground water with Destruction of functions important to destruction of structure of applied agrochemicals and atmospheric soil the ecology of the soils soils pollutants landscape Recultivation Reduction in Changes in soil composition Destruction of soil of soil soil fertility Adverse impacts on living organisms in the Reduction in soil soil fertility Source: Montanarella, 2007 Soil degradation cost € 80 per year to each inhabitant of the European Union and the overall annual costs for the Union are estimated up to €38 billion annually for EU25 10
    11. 11. Consequences of the earthquake that hit Emilia Romagna region in Italy on 29 May 2012 Fluvisol/Cambisol/Luvisol association of the Po River valley, Italy 11
    12. 12. Dominant soil and terrain constraints for low input farming Farmers need to produce 70 % more food by 2050 equal to 1 billion tons more of wheat, rice and other cereals and 200 million more tons of beef and other livestock products Drylands are home to 2,7 billion people High fertile soils cover only 3 per cent of the world’s A fertile land area, but produce > than 40 per cent of the global but 70 % of the soils are degraded Mollisol food and over 90 per cent of them are used for cereal production Great disparities between the rich and poor countries Protect High income countries: 32 % prime lands them! Population: 1 billion, Arable land ha/ capita: 0.37 Low income countries: 28 % prime lands Population: 2.6 billion, Arable land ha/capita: 0.17 FAO, 2011 12
    13. 13. Can the soil still feed us? YES but only through SLM The “power” of fence Degradation just started It’s all degraded No till corn grown in Brazil No degradation There is not a “fit for all” strategy.....it has to be locally tested and validated Sardinia, Italy, 2011 Photo: Zdruli It’s all about management!!! r SLMCo nse WOCAT African Great Green Wall g Strat egies fo rv atio ed Financin na ricultu re “Bhoo Integrat gric en ag c or lan hetana in anagement ultu Ev erGre d reju iti Integra ted soil fertility m re Conse vinati ative” rvation onUrea d tillage Economic valuation of land eep p CRP PES lacem ent Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems Green Water Credits 13
    14. 14. “To forget how to tender soil is to forget about ourselves” Mahatma GandiTerraced agroforestry system inKonso, Ethiopia demonstrate dualbenefits of soil conservation and No till corn grown in Brazilagriculture As of 2012 there are 2.6 billion global farmers But small scale ones produce 70 % of food Well designed terraces in Syria Greening the desert in India 14
    15. 15. Healthy soils produce Soils could sequesterhealthy and abundant carbon 5 times more food than the atmosphere Only 1 % of soil Zero-net land degradation microorganisms have been identified SLM improve Streptomycin was productivity andidentified in the soil biota livelihoods of affected populations WAD’s conclusion:Soils preserve and enhance ecosystem services and functionality 15
    16. 16. Thank you!pandi@iamb.it It is here where much of the food grows 16

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