Linkages between Desertification and Human Development in            the Western Dry Region of Rajasthan    Dr. Nisha    V...
About Rajasthan India is the seventh largest country by area and with 1.2 billion people it  is the second most populous ...
Area of Study
Western Dry Region of Rajasthan Of the 11 districts, the Western Dry Region of Rajasthan comprises of 9  districts namely...
Analytical framework1. To Study the direction of change, Markov Chain analysis was done2. To Study linkages the developmen...
Operational Definitions Forests : This includes all lands classed as forest under any legal enactment dealing with forest...
Operational Definitions Fallow Lands other than Current Fallows : This includes all lands which were taken up for cultiva...
Changes in direction of Area under Non-agricultural Uses                        Area                  Permanen            ...
Changes in direction of land under Barren and Uncultivated land                         Area                  Permanen    ...
Changes in direction of land under permanent pastures and    other grazing land                         Area              ...
Changes in direction of land under culturable waste land                         Area                  Permanen           ...
Changes in direction of land under Net Sown Area                         Area                  Permanen                   ...
Linkages between development and desertification          Composite Indices and Ranks According to Development and Deserti...
Linkages between development and desertification        Jhunjunu and Sikar have highest number of wells in the region. In...
CONCLUSION   There is an urgent need for people and planners to recognize    desertification as a pressing problem in the...
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Nisha VARGHESE "Linkages between desertification and human development in the western dry region of Rajasthan"

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Transcript of "Nisha VARGHESE "Linkages between desertification and human development in the western dry region of Rajasthan""

  1. 1. Linkages between Desertification and Human Development in the Western Dry Region of Rajasthan Dr. Nisha Varghese IGNOU
  2. 2. About Rajasthan India is the seventh largest country by area and with 1.2 billion people it is the second most populous country in the world. India has 28 states and 7 Union Territories covering a geographical area of 32.78 lakh Sq. Km of which 24% area is covered under forest. The present study relates to Rajasthan, which lies in the northwest of India and accommodates the Great Indian Desert or the Thar Desert. Another important feature of the state is the Aravali range which runs across the state from southwest to northeast. To the west of the Aravali range, there are 11 districts which account for 50% of state’s area.
  3. 3. Area of Study
  4. 4. Western Dry Region of Rajasthan Of the 11 districts, the Western Dry Region of Rajasthan comprises of 9 districts namely (1) Bikaner (2) Jaisalmer (3) Barmer (4) Jodhpur (5) Churu (6) Nagaur (7) Sikar (8) Jhunjhunu (9) Jalore. About 38% of total population of the state with a density of 137 persons per sq. km (as per census 2011) area lives in the arid region. climate here is characterized by low and erratic rainfall, extremes of diurnal and annual temperatures, low humidity and high wind velocity hence prone to wind erosion. The average annual rainfall is 343.7 mm with 16 rainy days. Jaisalmer District is one of the driest parts of the country recording around 9 cm of rainfall in a year.
  5. 5. Analytical framework1. To Study the direction of change, Markov Chain analysis was done2. To Study linkages the development and desertification indices were calculatedDevelopment Indicators Desertification Indicators• Decadal Growth rate of population •% forest area• % female population •% pop. employed in primary sector• % of Rural population •Cropping intensity• % literacy •% irrigation by well• % female literacy •Tractor density• % HH with access to electricity •Livestock density• % HH with access to clean drinking water• Crude birth rate• Infant mortality rate• Under five mortality rate• Sex ratio• Work participation• Per capita net district domestic product
  6. 6. Operational Definitions Forests : This includes all lands classed as forest under any legal enactment dealing with forests or administered as forests. Area under Non-agricultural Uses : This includes all lands occupied by buildings, roads and railways or under water Barren and Un-culturable Land : This includes land like mountains, deserts, etc. Land which cannot be brought under cultivation except at an exorbitant costPermanent Pastures and other Grazing Lands: This includes all grazing lands whether they are permanent pastures or meadows. Land under Miscellaneous Tree Crops, etc. : This includes all cultivable land which is not included in ‘Net area sown’ but is put to some agricultural usesCulturable Waste Land: Land once cultivated but not cultivated for five years in succession is included in this category at the end of the five years.
  7. 7. Operational Definitions Fallow Lands other than Current Fallows : This includes all lands which were taken up for cultivation but are temporarily out of cultivation for a period of not less than one year and not more than five years.Current Fallows: This represents cropped area which are kept fallow during the current year.Net Area Sown: This represents the total area sown with crops and orchards. Area sown more than once; in the same year is counted only once.Total Cropped Area: Areas sown with crops more than once during the year being counted as separate areas for each crop.
  8. 8. Changes in direction of Area under Non-agricultural Uses Area Permanen Land under Barren t pastures culturable Total under Net Area Forest non- uncultiva & other waste Fallow tree crops Sown Agricultu ted Land Grazing land Lands & Groves ral uses land Bikaner 0.2787 0.5047 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.2166 0.0000 0.0000 Churu 0.0440 0.6433 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.3127 Jalore 0.1616 0.2872 0.0000 0.0614 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.4899 Jaisalmer 0.1032 0.0000 0.0000 0.0012 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.8956 Jodhpur 0.0000 0.1936 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.8064 Nagaur 0.0000 0.5798 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.4202 Jhunjunu 0.1074 0.8452 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0475 0.0000 Sikar 0.2087 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.7913 Barmer 0.0000 0.2497 0.1029 0.6473 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Jaisalmer, Jodhpur and Sikar, probability of retention is low or zero. Jaisalmer and Jodhpur major parts of Thar desert and major tourist destinations as well. Shift mainly towards net sown area to meet the food needs of populations that have moved to these areas because of livelihood opportunities due to flourishing tourism industry
  9. 9. Changes in direction of land under Barren and Uncultivated land Area Permanen Land under Barren t pastures culturable Total under Net Area Forest non- uncultiva & other waste Fallow tree crops Sown Agricultu ted Land Grazing land Lands & Groves ral uses land Bikaner 0.0000 0.0000 0.9606 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0394 Churu 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Jalore 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 Jaisalmer 0.0000 0.0000 0.2170 0.0000 0.0000 0.4211 0.1697 0.1921 Jodhpur 0.0000 0.0000 0.5766 0.0000 0.0000 0.0041 0.4193 0.0000 Nagaur 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 Jhunjunu 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 Sikar 0.0831 0.1638 0.7531 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Barmer 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.6537 0.3463 0.0000 Any shift away from this use should be considered as a positive sign In Nagaur, Jalore, Barmer and Jhunjunu the probability of shift is from barren and uncultivated land towards net sown area or other lands which may be put to cultivation. This also shows the expansion and intensification of land cultivation to meet the increased demand for food.
  10. 10. Changes in direction of land under permanent pastures and other grazing land Area Permanen Land under Barren t pastures culturable Total under Net Area Forest non- uncultiva & other waste Fallow tree crops Sown Agricultu ted Land Grazing land Lands & Groves ral uses land Bikaner 0.0000 0.9619 0.0000 0.0381 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Churu 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 Jalore 0.0000 0.0974 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.9026 Jaisalmer 0.0006 0.3220 0.0000 0.3120 0.0000 0.3528 0.0126 0.0000 Jodhpur 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 Nagaur 0.1703 0.2950 0.0000 0.1163 0.0000 0.0734 0.0000 0.3449 Jhunjunu 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.6226 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.3774 Sikar 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.3434 0.0000 0.0000 0.6566 0.0000 Barmer 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 Transformation of rangelands to croplands increases the risk of desertification due to increased pressure on the remaining rangelands or to the use of unsustainable cultivation practices. The probability of retention of land under permanent pastures has been zero in three out of nine districts (Churu, Jalore and Barmer). High probability of shift away from pastures has been in districts where the livestock density is less than the regional average.
  11. 11. Changes in direction of land under culturable waste land Area Permanen Land under Barren t pastures culturable Total under Net Area Forest non- uncultiva & other waste Fallow tree crops Sown Agricultu ted Land Grazing land Lands & Groves ral uses land Bikaner 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0059 0.0000 0.7063 0.0000 0.2877 Churu 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 Jalore 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.5009 0.0000 0.4991 Jaisalmer 0.0011 0.0000 0.0898 0.0211 0.0000 0.8880 0.0000 0.0000 Jodhpur 0.0000 0.0477 0.0328 0.0000 0.0000 0.4951 0.0000 0.4244 Nagaur 0.0022 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.9978 Jhunjunu 0.0000 0.2938 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.7062 0.0000 0.0000 Sikar 0.0906 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.1541 0.0000 0.7553 Barmer 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.3472 0.6528 0.0000 Deviation away from culturable waste land towards cultivation could be a negative indication Churu and Nagaur, there is no probability of retention of culturable waste lands which have shown probability of being diverted to agricultural use Bikaner and Jaisalmer being located in the arid western plain and occupying maximum area of the Thar desert, show high probability of retention of land under culturable waste.
  12. 12. Changes in direction of land under Net Sown Area Area Permanen Land under Barren t pastures culturable Total under Net Area Forest non- uncultiva & other waste Fallow tree crops Sown Agricultu ted Land Grazing land Lands & Groves ral uses land Bikaner 0.0062 0.0027 0.0000 0.0209 0.0000 0.1433 0.3614 0.4655 Churu 0.0030 0.0180 0.0000 0.0301 0.0000 0.0084 0.0519 0.8887 Jalore 0.0026 0.0256 0.0956 0.0487 0.0000 0.0188 0.0569 0.7518 Jaisalmer 0.0021 0.1176 0.0890 0.0244 0.0000 0.1410 0.1961 0.4297 Jodhpur 0.0000 0.0335 0.0323 0.0000 0.0000 0.0151 0.3402 0.5790 Nagaur 0.0008 0.0065 0.0382 0.0428 0.0001 0.0068 0.2011 0.7038 Jhunjunu 0.0797 0.0027 0.0328 0.0323 0.0001 0.0000 0.0123 0.8402 Sikar 0.0847 0.0511 0.0069 0.0434 0.0001 0.0135 0.0934 0.7070 Barmer 0.0108 0.0244 0.0533 0.0695 0.0000 0.0345 0.1187 0.6888 Churu, Nagaur, Sikar, Jhunjunu and Jalore show more than 70 percent retention of land under net sown area Not much shift in the land use away from the net sown area in the Arid Western Plain as well the decadal growth of population very high in the districts occupying major part of the Thar Desert leading to growing demand for food and in turn exerting pressure for intensifying the agricultural activities.
  13. 13. Linkages between development and desertification Composite Indices and Ranks According to Development and Desertification Indicators S.No. Districts Development Desertification CI Rank CI Rank 1. Barmer 0.76 9 0.50 3 2. Bikaner 0.37 3 0.35 1 3. Churu 0.39 4 0.55 4 4. Jaisalmer 0.68 8 0.48 2 5. Jalore 0.67 7 0.67 5 6. Jhunjhunu 0.30 1 0.71 8 7. Jodhpur 0.42 6 0.70 7 8. Nagaur 0.42 5 0.75 9 9. Sikar 0.34 2 0.68 6 Jhunjunu and Sikar districts having high development indicators also show high desertification indicators.Policy Q. Is development taking place at a high cost??? The districts having high desertification indices are also more populous districts.Policy Q. Is the demand for food being met by increasing production in the short run, undermining the conditions for sustainable production in the long run???
  14. 14. Linkages between development and desertification Jhunjunu and Sikar have highest number of wells in the region. Increased irrigation potential through well and canal irrigation has put forward protection from vulnerability leading to development.Policy Q. Hasn’t depleting ground water table arising out of overexploitation of water resources introduced new vulnerabilities??? Nagaur, Jodhpur, Jhunjunu and Sikar have the highest tractor density(no. of tractors/1000 ha) in the region indicating practice of intensive tillagePolicy Q. Is intensive tillage desirable in this fragile region??? In Jodhpur and Nagaur, livestock population is more than the human populationPolicy Q. Can we ensure fodder security to increasing livestock population???
  15. 15. CONCLUSION There is an urgent need for people and planners to recognize desertification as a pressing problem in the Western Dry Region of Rajasthan. increased burden on land arising from agriculture based activities is likely to adversely affect the efforts to arrest desertification in the belt. There is an urgent need for policy interventions to prevent desertification due to human activities particularly in the more developed districts of the region as they are worse off in terms of various indicators that are directly related to desertification and land degradation.
  16. 16. THANK YOU

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