New Non-Invasive Methods To Control And Eradicate Transboundary Animal Diseases In The Back Yard And Free Ranging Pig Sector

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GRF 2nd One Health Summit 2013: Presentation by DEPNER, Dr. Klaus, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Federal Research Institute of Animal Health

GRF 2nd One Health Summit 2013: Presentation by DEPNER, Dr. Klaus, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Federal Research Institute of Animal Health

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  • 1. New non-invasive methods for control and surveillance of transboundary animal diseases in the backyard and free ranging pig sector Klaus Depner, Vesna Milicevic, Klaas Dietze Global Risk Forum GRF Davos, One Health Summit 2013 17 – 20 November 2013
  • 2. TADs are defined as those diseases that are: • of significant economic, trade and/or food security importance for a considerable number of countries; • which can easily spread to other countries and reach epidemic proportions; • where control/management, including exclusion, requires cooperation between several countries.
  • 3. Backyard farming = Low biosecurity production settings The term ‘backyard pig holding’ usually refers to small-scale holdings that only keep a limited number of pigs, mainly for self-consumption or for small-scale local trade, and that operate within a circuit that is separate from the pig industry. From a zootechnical, commercial and veterinary point of view these holdings could be regarded rather as ‘non-professional pig holdings’
  • 4. 975 730 000 pigs; 40% in low biosecurity systems China: 65% Latin America 3% Eastern Europe 3% High income countries: 25%
  • 5. Socio-economical role of backyard farming … apart from tradition • plays an integral role in recycling of food, • plays an important role for meat supply in rural areas and • is a valuable cash income.
  • 6. Reservoir for TADs (FMD, ASF, CSF…) • • • • • • • • • poor biosecurity swill feeding high number of holdings “illegal” animal movements and markets outdoor keeping, including traditional free ranging systems home slaughtering lack of registration and identification not fully under the control of vet service holders have no immediate interest or incentives in the eradication of animal diseases (holders have no lobby)
  • 7. Back yard pigs
  • 8. Semi-wild pigs
  • 9. Home slaughtering at Christmas
  • 10. Legislation is dealing with 2 aspects CSF in farmed pigs I • Stamping out • Restriction zones • No vaccination • Sanitary measures • Prophylactic culling • etc. CSF in wild boar • Monitoring • Hunting • Oral vaccination • Sanitary measures • etc. II Backyard pigs: Feral pigs or farmed pigs?
  • 11. Backyard pigs = 3rd compartment CSF in backyard pigs I CSF in farmed pigs III II CSF in wild boar
  • 12. Improved CSF control in backyard pigs through oral vaccination
  • 13. Oral vaccination of back yard pigs against CSF in Serbia WORKING HYPOTHESIS ORAL VACCINATION CAN BE USED FOR VACCINATION OF BACKYARD PIGS, PARTICULARLY UNDER ENDEMIC SITUATIONS IN COUNTRIES OR REGIONS WITH A HUGE PROPORTION OF BACK YARD HOLDINGS.
  • 14. Neutralisation Titres (ND50) <12 weeks (N=44) 0 DPV 28 DPV INTERPRETATION 7 ≤5 ≤5 NO IMMUNE REACTION 7 3 ≤5 10 - 30 SLIGHT SEROCONVERSION, INADEQUATE PROTECTION* 3 6 10 - 30 5 - 30 NO TITRE INCREASE, INADEQUATE PROTECTION 1 2 15 Protective antibodies post vac.: SEROCONVERSION, ≤5 40 - 80older than 12 weeks 73% pigs PROTECTION 64% pigs younger than 12 weeks 120 SEROCONVERSION, ≤5 >12 weeks (N=41) 5 18 640 PROTECTION ≤5 >640 SEROCONVERSION, PROTECTION 4 6 10 -160 MORE THAN 3X INCRE ASE SIGNIFICANT TITRE INCREASE, PROTECTION 3 2 40-80 80 NO TITRE INCREASE, PROTECTION 0 3
  • 15. pathogenSWAB S ampling Wild A nimal with B aits Non-invasive saliva sampling method
  • 16. pSWAB
  • 17. ASF CSF FMD pSWAB + = pos
  • 18. Conclusions Alternative disease control measures are needed for the back yard sector. Well established control and eradication programmes for the industrialized sector is not working in the back yards. Oral vaccination and non-invasiv sampling are cheep and feasible disease control approaches for the future. Disease control legislation has to take into account the reality of backyard husbandry.
  • 19. THANK YOU