Hamid Custovic; Melisa LJUSA "Land use changes and loss of soil in Bosnia and Herzegovina as consequences of the war and socio-economic transition"
Land use changes and loss of soil in Bosnia and Herzegovinaas consequences of the war and socio-economic transition Hamid Čustović, Melisa Ljuša, Mihajlo Marković
General information about BiH 51.209,2 km² sea 12,2 km² land 51.197 km² Area plains 5% hills 25% mountains 42% karst 29% Federation of BiH, Administrative Republic of Srpska, organization Brcko District of BiH Capital Sarajevo Population >4 million Total war damages in BiH - over 240 billion USD200,000 people out of a total of 4.4 million citizens were war victims 2.2 million were displaced from their place of residence
Land use changes and loss of soil CORINE land cover 2006 Bijeljina Refugee settlement in Bijeljina CLC 2006 Non-irrigated arable land Discontinuous urban CORINE land cover - I level Image from 1998 Image from 2005 0,83% 0,10% 1,49% 36,51%61,06%Artificial surfaces AgricultureSemi-natural areas WetlandsWater
Land use changes and loss of soil Agricultural land cover/use classes changes - CLC III level•Changes of agricultural land: 14,428.84 ha. 100% 90%•8,749.97 ha have transitioned into the artificial 80%areas. 70% 60%•5,965.65 ha have transitioned into discontinuousurban (112 class). 50% 40%•1,540 ha have transitioned into into semi-natural 30%areas group, 272 ha into water surface group. 20%•7,572 ha of agricultural land have been 10%converted from one category into the other, e.g. 0%pastures into complex cultivation patterns (2,319 211 212 221 222 231 242 243ha). CLC kod 112 121 124 131 132 133 311 313 321 324 331 511 512 CLC Nomenclature 211 Non-irrigated arable land 112 Discontinuous urban 212 Irrigated arable land 121 Industry, commercial 221 Vineyards 124 Aiport 222 Fruit trees and berry plantations 131 Mineral extraction sites 231 Pastures 132 Dump sites 242 Complex cultivation patterns 133 Construction sites 243 Land occupied by agriculture with significant natural 311 Broad-leaved forest areas 313 Mixed forest 321 Natural grassland 324 Transitional woodland to shrub 331 Beaches, dunes, sand plains 511 Water courses 512 Water bodies
Challenges in land management•Three separate systems of land administration operating in Bosnia and Herzegovina,•The existing maps and data are no longer up-to-date and a major part of development thattook place in the past 20 years is not recorded or entered into any registers, Canton Sarajevo – Novi Grad Municipality New settlement actual status Agricultural land cadastral data Agricultural land (actual status ) Agricultural land (cadastral data)
Challenges in land management•Land has never been valuated by the criteria applied in market economy and this is a reasonwhy there is a common misconception that land is a cheap resource,•The process of returning land and real estate to their rightful owners is ongoing,•Regulations on restitution have not been passed,•The unreliable public registers and problems associated with the registration of transactionshave negative impact on the marketing and development of real estate market,•The sales of agricultural land is very often conducted with the aim of subsequent change of useinto construction land,•Movement of the population, especially in the context of their relocation from one part of theterritory (entity) to another, supported by strong political lobbying, had a huge impact on theformation of prices of land and real-estate in general. ...transition process...
Challenges in land management...high fragmentation of farms, lack of systematized data on demand and supply, depopulation of rural areas and greatnumber of displaced persons, inappropriate protection of the top quality land, insufficient transparent procedures ofchanging the original purpose of the land transforming it into the construction land...
Situation in Sarajevo Canton•Canton Sarajevo territory size 1,268 km2, with population of 438,757,•Annual loss of land is around 500-700 ha,•Prices of agricultural land ranging from 2.5 to 25 Eur/m2 – price rises as much as by 50 timesif its use is changed into construction land! Potential mine fields Landslides Afforestation Municipality Trnovo Land destruction 2001 2004 2006
Conclusions•Major cause of the changes in land use is a large scale migration of the population within thecountry, which contributed to an intensified urbanization as well as the appearance of abandonedland;•The existing sources of information are not up-to-date, they are uncoordinated and oftenirrelevant;•There is no official information on permanent losses in agricultural land, no monitoring system;•Establishment of an efficient cadastre is essential and harmonized land policy in the country;•CORINE database may be considered a unique, relevant source of information on land cover atthe level of BiH;•Preparation of databases on use value of land at local level which could be used as a basis for anykinds of planning at municipal level is essential;•Capacity building of all stakeholders and raising awareness about significance of agricultural landis crucial.