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Combating land degradation and    desertification and enhancing food   security: towards integrated solutions  Lindsay C. ...
The food security challenge• 1.56 billion ha land used to produce crops (12% Earth’s land surface)•3.4 billion ha devoted ...
Supply-side issues• Biocapacity constraints: e.g. limitations to outputs - plateauing ofcrop yields, finite amount of mine...
Drivers of food insecurity and land degradation• Environmental – including land use and land cover change;  soils and topo...
SolutionsThree key ‘supply side’ solutions and one ‘demand side’ solution1) Increase the area of cropland dedicated to gro...
Successful SLM options in the literature and in WOCAT:    World Overview of Conservation Approaches and      Technologies ...
Example: tackling excess consumption and reducing           losses: demand side challenges• Global production and consumpt...
A way forward• Socio-politically and socio-economically relevant solutions are needed• Demand and supply-side solutions sh...
Conclusion∗ Addressing land degradation can ease food insecurity but will  not completely solve it in the presence of unde...
Conclusion∗ Addressing land degradation can ease food insecurity but will  not completely solve it in the presence of unde...
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Lindsay Carman STRINGER "Combating land degradation and desertification and enhancing food security: towards integrated solutions"

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Transcript of " Lindsay Carman STRINGER "Combating land degradation and desertification and enhancing food security: towards integrated solutions""

  1. 1. Combating land degradation and desertification and enhancing food security: towards integrated solutions Lindsay C. STRINGER, Mariam AKHTAR-SCHUSTER, Maria Jose MARQUES, Farshad AMIRASLANI, Simone QUATRINI, Elena M. ABRAHAM Paper in press in Annals of Arid Zone DesertNet International www.desertnet-international.org Food Security in Drylands Working Group Chair: Lindsay C. StringerEmail: l.stringer@leeds.ac.uk Twitter: @LindsayStringer
  2. 2. The food security challenge• 1.56 billion ha land used to produce crops (12% Earth’s land surface)•3.4 billion ha devoted to livestock production (25% Earth’s land surface)(Bruinsma, 2009)• Approximately one billion people are undernourished (GDPRD, 2012)• Population growth, land degradation, biodiversity loss and a decline inwater quality and availability create further pressure • How do land degradation and desertification contribute to food insecurity? • Can activities to address land degradation and desertification improve food security?
  3. 3. Supply-side issues• Biocapacity constraints: e.g. limitations to outputs - plateauing ofcrop yields, finite amount of minerals, fossil fuels etc to maintainproductivity• Production constraints: e.g. soil nutrient losses, chemical pollution,aquifer depletion, drought, inability to meet food quality, safety orhealth requirements• Distribution constraints: e.g. protectionist policies, export orientedproduction, market deficiencies, poor infrastructure (e.g. limitedtransport and lack of storage capacity) . Demand side issues• Budget limitations: e.g. Lack or loss of purchasing power• Competition in appropriation of food supplies• Changes in per capita consumption patterns as people’s dietschange over time
  4. 4. Drivers of food insecurity and land degradation• Environmental – including land use and land cover change; soils and topographic limitations; climate, climate variability and climate change e.g. affecting water availability• Political – policy and institutional factors e.g.land tenure• Economic – markets, prices and large-scale land acquisitions• Social – including population and demographic change; excess consumption and post-harvest waste; access to knowledge and technologies Land degradation and food security and their drivers are closely interlinked. This suggests that efforts to improve food security can also address land degradation and vice versa – at least in part.
  5. 5. SolutionsThree key ‘supply side’ solutions and one ‘demand side’ solution1) Increase the area of cropland dedicated to growing food crops2) Increase crop productivity or intensity of current land used for food production3) Increase storage capacities to provide buffers4) Decreasing waste offers a demand-side solutionHow can Sustainable Land Management support supply side solutions? Several examples of successful practices such as crop rotation, fallowing, soil fertility and organic matter management, reduction of tillage, crop residue and mulch management, water harvesting etc  these management strategies improve land quality and enhance food security due to increased production (Sanchez and Swaminathan, 2005)
  6. 6. Successful SLM options in the literature and in WOCAT: World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies which tackle supply side issues • WOCAT - Electronic, largely open-access platform that captures SLM technologies used by land mangers (Schwilch et al., 2011) • Would be usefully complemented with a similar system to catalogue knowledge on traditional food securing mechanisms and options for food storage and waste minimisationExample from literature ReferenceImprovement or restoration of soil productivity possible Wezel and Rath (2002)in Sahel agricultural areas by controlling erosion,restoring native vegetation cover and use of manurefrom livestockYield increases of 50 to100% for rain-fed crops after Pretty and Hine (2001)adoption of SLM in Africa and Latin AmericaCompost applications increase yields to a similar Araya and Edwardsmagnitude to chemical fertilisers in Ethiopia (2006)
  7. 7. Example: tackling excess consumption and reducing losses: demand side challenges• Global production and consumption very unevenly distributed• Lowest calorific intake in Ethiopia, Haiti, Angola, Eritrea (<2000kcal/person/day)• USA, Israel, many European countries consume >3200 kcal/person/day• Both highest and lowest consuming countries have significant dryland areas • >40% of food losses occur at post-harvest and processing stages • 40% of losses in developed countries occur at retail and consumer levels (FAO, 2011) • Total food waste by consumers in industrialised countries (222 million tons per annum) is almost equal to the entire food production in sub-Saharan Africa (230 million tons per annum) • Solutions: improved processing, storage and education
  8. 8. A way forward• Socio-politically and socio-economically relevant solutions are needed• Demand and supply-side solutions should be blended to address different facets of the problem (multi-stakeholder involvement)• Transdisciplinary approaches are required, crossing all relevant domains• An equitable distribution of burden is needed based on a thorough understanding of direct and indirect costs, benefits and externalities (incentives)• Solutions should be institutionalised - recognised and enforced by law• Solutions should be consistent and coherent across all countries, sectors and actors• Solutions must be financially sustainable and not exclusively dependent on public subsidies• Solutions must be scalable
  9. 9. Conclusion∗ Addressing land degradation can ease food insecurity but will not completely solve it in the presence of underlying causes and demand side issues Thank you for listening l.stringer@leeds.ac.uk @LindsayStringer
  10. 10. Conclusion∗ Addressing land degradation can ease food insecurity but will not completely solve it in the presence of underlying causes and demand side issues Thank you for listening l.stringer@leeds.ac.uk @LindsayStringer

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