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LianYou LIU "Desertification and blown sand disaster in China"

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  • 1. 2nd Scientific Conference UNCCD 中国的荒漠化与风沙灾害 Desertification and Blown Sand Disaster in China 刘连友( Liu Lian-You ) Institute of Drought and Blown Sand Disaster, Academy of Disaster Reduction and Emergency Management , BNU, China 09-12 April 2013, Bonn, Germany Beijing Normal
  • 2. 提纲( Main Points ) :1. 干旱半干旱区( The Arid and Semiarid Areas )2. 荒漠化过 程( Desertification Processes )3. 风 沙危害( Blown-sand Disasters )4. 防沙治沙( Control Techniques & Practices ) Beijing Normal
  • 3. 1. 中国的干旱、半干旱区 /The Arid & Semiarid Areas 风蚀和风沙灾害发生区 ( Wind erosion area ) 水蚀和洪水灾害发生区 ( Water erosion area )  Area: 4.5 million Km2  Percentage: 47% of China’s total land area  Population : 100.7 million Beijing Normal
  • 4. 2. 中国干旱半干旱区的荒漠化过程Desertification Processes in China 荒漠化过 程的发 生 (Genesis of Desertification Processes) ● 土地干旱与盐碱 化( Land Desiccation ) ● 盐碱 化 ( Salinization ) ● 植被退化( Vegetation Degeneration ) ● 风蚀 ( Wind Erosion ) ● 风 沙流、粉尘 流 (Aeolian Sand & Dust Flux ) ● 沙漠化( Sandification ) ● 沙尘 暴( Sand and Dust Storms ) Beijing Normal
  • 5. ●地表干旱化( LandDessication )Seven Hedin1903 说 : “ 当罗 布荒原的游移湖彻 底消失、塔里木河的尾闾 淹没在高大沙丘的时 代最 终 来 临时 ,风 对 罗 布荒原的侵 蚀 就 变 得没有任何限制了。到了那时,便会产 生一个深洼 地,和一个永无尽头的干旱中心” 罗 布泊 -1972 年干涸( Lop Lake ) Beijing Normal
  • 6. Gashun Lake(嘎顺淖尔 -1962 年干涸) Sorgo Lake (索果 淖尔 -1992 年干涸) 黑河流域黑 河水系变迁( The Heihe River System ) Beijing Normal
  • 7. 古 日 乃 干 盐 湖 ( Playa , Guernai , Inner Mongolia ,2000 )索果淖尔 湖底龟 裂地( Sorgo Nor , 2002 ) Beijing Normal
  • 8. ● 植被退化 (Vegetation Degeneration) 梭梭 大面积 干枯的梭梭 /Dead Bushes due to desiccation Beijing Normal
  • 9. 塔里木河下游枯死的胡杨树( The dead trees, lowerTarim River ) Beijing Normal
  • 10. 鬼树 林 /The Ghost Forest, lower Heihe River Beijing Normal
  • 11. 梭梭 胡杨柽柳 霸王各种 成因的植被退化 /Plant degeneration due todessication, salinizaton and wind erosion Beijing Normal
  • 12. 胡杨 林的未来 ?/A Doom Future for the Poplar Trees? Beijing Normal
  • 13. 陕 西靖边 ---Jingbian, Shaanxi Province小老头树 /Short old trees-due to deficient moisture Beijing Normal
  • 14. Western Inner Mongolia放牧导 致的植被退化 /Vegetation degeneration due to Beijing Normal
  • 15. 内蒙古锡 林郭勒 ---Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia交通引起的草原退化 /Grassland degeneraton due to traffic Beijing Normal
  • 16. ● 风蚀( Wind Erosion ) 100m 雅丹 / 风蚀 土脊 / 风蚀长 丘 / 白龙 堆 柴达 木盆地雅丹 --- Image of Wind-eroded Yardangs Beijing Normal
  • 17.  风蚀形态 /Features of Wind Erosion 25 m Yiliping, Qinhai Streamlined Mega-Yardangs in Tsadam Basin Beijing Normal
  • 18. White Dragon MoundWhite Dragon Mound 60kmA Prototype Yardang The Migrating Lake---Lop Nor Asian Dry Core and Center of Wind Erosion Beijing Normal
  • 19. 丘库 姆塔格沙漠 状 沙 羽毛 甘肃 疏勒河下游风蚀 影 像 Image of Linear Yardangs in Lower Shuler River Beijing Normal
  • 20. 甘肃 三垄 沙 ---Sanlongsha, Gansu线 形雅丹 ---Linear Yardangs in Lower Shuler River Beijing Normal
  • 21. 龟 裂地片蚀 天鹅 湖风蚀墩黑 河主河道 沙尘 暴The Heihe River System, Today’s “Dust Bowl” in China Beijing Normal
  • 22.  Deflation of Clastic Sediments-Source of Sandy Deserts Deflated Lacustrine Layer Deflated Fluvial Layer Spherical weathering & Deflation Sandy Shale Rock Mushroom Beijing Normal
  • 23.  Estimated Rates of Wind Erosion  铯 Cs-137 Tracing (by Li-Jie Pu & Ping Yan)---Xinjiang, Kurle ( 草地 ): 3540 t km-2 a-1/~2.2mm a-1---Qinghai, Gonghe Basin( 草地 ): 1260 t km-2 a-1 /~0.8 mm a-1 质 地分析 Soil Texture Analysis (by Zhi-Bao Dong)---Inner Mongolia ( 农 田 ): 1500 t km-2 a-1/~0.9 mm a-1 风蚀输 送观测 Aeolian transport measurement---Ordso Plateau ( 沙区 ): 1690 t km-2 a-1 /~1.1 mm a-1 Beijing Normal
  • 24.  考古测 量 ---Archaeology---Western Inner Mongolia (内陆 冲积 平原) : ~ 1 mm a -1 Pagoda age: 700 yrs 69 cm The First Pagoda Wind Erosion of Fluvial Sediments Beijing Normal
  • 25.  碳 14 年代学 --Root C-14 Dating---Western Inner Mongolia (干涸内陆 湖泊) : 1.5 mm a-1 850 yrs B.P. 126 cm 天鹅 湖 ---Swan Lake Wind Erosion of Terminal Lake Sediments Beijing Normal
  • 26.  实地观测 ---In situ Investigation---Ordos, Inner Mongolia ( 林地沙土) : 10 mma-1 Age of Trees: 20 Yrs 20cmOrdos Plateau Wind Erosion of Sandy Soil under Planted Forest Beijing Normal
  • 27. --- Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia : 20 mm a-1(草原土路)Sand saltation and Track surface break-dust emission by wind down by wind erosionGrooves and flutes on Deep trough with isolatedbare hard track surface inter-track ridgesSevere Wind Erosion of Grassland Soil due to Traffic Beijing Normal
  • 28. --- Ordos, Inner Mongolia (沙地) : 50 mm a-1 2m Age of Trees: 40 Yrs强 烈风蚀 地表 ---Severe Erosion of Sandy Soil byWind Beijing Normal
  • 29. Intensity of Soil Erosion by Wind in China Beijing Normal
  • 30. ● 沙漠化 ---Sandification 沙漠和沙地 /Sand Deserts and Sandy Lands 面积 /Area: 710, 000 km2 比例 /Percentage: 7.4% of China’s total land area 沙化趋势 /Tendency of Contemporary Sandification 发 生发 展速率 /2000 前 Rate of Expansion (Before 2000): Increased by 3000-30, 000 km2 a-1 发 生发 展速率 /2000 后 Rate of Expansion (Aftere 2000): Decreased by 5000-8000 km2 a-1 Beijing Normal
  • 31. Lahsa中国沙漠 / 沙地分布图 --- Sand Deserts/Lands in China Beijing Normal
  • 32. 流动 沙丘 ---Taklimakan Sand Desert-337, 600 km2 Beijing Normal
  • 33. 古尔 班通古特沙漠 ---Gurban Tunggut Sand Desert Beijing Normal
  • 34. 罗 布泊 2400m asl 80km 800m asl 山金阿尔 库 姆塔格沙漠 250 m k库 木塔格沙漠 ---Kumtaq Sand Desert Beijing Normal
  • 35. 流动 沙丘 ---Sand dune in Kumtak Sand Desert Beijing Normal
  • 36. 柴达 木盆地流动 沙丘 --- Sand Dunes in Qaidam Basin Beijing Normal
  • 37. 黑河流域 >300m 巴丹吉林沙漠 乌兰布和沙漠 腾格里沙漠 民勤绿洲高大沙山 ---Sand Mounts in Badaim Jaran Desert Beijing Normal
  • 38. 腾 格里沙漠 -Tengger Sand Desert Beijing Normal
  • 39. Ulan BuhDesert 乌兰 布和沙漠 Ulan Buh Sand Desert97 image Beijing Normal
  • 40. 库布齐沙漠 --Kubqi Sand Desert along the Yellow River Beijing Normal
  • 41. Active Sandy Land1990’s Fixed Sandy Land Farmland Lakes YulinDynamics of Sandification in Mu Us Sandy Land 1960’S Beijing Normal
  • 42. Mu Us Sandy Land Loess Plateau 毛乌 素沙地 ---Mu Us Sandy Land Beijing Normal
  • 43. 浑善达克沙地 ---Hunsandag Sandy Land Beijing Normal
  • 44. Dynamics ofSandification in Horqin Sandy Land 1997 Tongliao City 科尔沁沙地 1990 Beijing Normal
  • 45. 科尔 沁沙地 ---Horqin Sandy Land Beijing Normal
  • 46. 呼伦贝尔 沙地 ---Hulun Beir Sandy Land Beijing Normal
  • 47. 西藏雅江河谷沙丘 Bird View, Zedang Coundy Sand Dunes in Brahmaputra Valley Beijing Normal
  • 48. 西藏雅江河谷沙丘 Barchan Dunes in Valley Sand Dunes in Tibet Beijing Normal
  • 49. 敦煌鸣 沙山 The Singing Sand Mount near Dunhuang Beijing Normal
  • 50. 敦煌月牙泉The Crescent Spring near Dunhuang Beijing Normal
  • 51. ● Gobi- Pebblization--- 戈壁砾质化黑 戈壁上的风 影沙丘 ---Shadow Dunes on the Black Gobi Surface Beijing Normal
  • 52. 砾 浪 ---Gravel Waves to the west of Yumen Pass Beijing Normal
  • 53. 3. 风沙危害 ---Blown-sand hazards 沙害类型 --- Main Categories of Blown-sand Disasters ● Abrasion by Blown Sand (风 沙流打磨) ● Sand Burying by Sand Deposition ( 沙埋) ● Texture Coarsening and Infertility of Farmland (农 田粗化和贫 瘠化) ● Air Pollution by Dust Emission, Transportation and Sedimentation (大气污 染) ● Human Casualties by Strong Dust Storms Beijing Normal
  • 54. Wheat 作物沙割 ---Crop Cutted by Blown Sand Beijing Normal
  • 55. 沙化耕地 ---Sandified Cropland Beijing Normal
  • 56. 农田风蚀沙害 ---Farmland Buried by Shifting Sand Beijing Normal
  • 57. 40 km2 Linze 临泽县 County绿洲沙害 ---Oasis Buried by Shifting Sand Beijing Normal
  • 58. 统万城Ancient Tongwan City Ruined in the Mu Us Sandy Land Beijing Normal
  • 59. The Black City (800 a B.P.)湮没在流沙中的黑城 ---The Black City Ruined in the Shifting Dunes Beijing Normal
  • 60. 长城风沙危害 ---The Great Wall abraded by blown sand Beijing Normal
  • 61. Yulin, Shaanxi Province 公路沙害 --Road Blocked by Dune Encroachment Beijing Normal
  • 62. 沙埋铁 路 ---Shifting sand covers railway Beijing Normal
  • 63. Shaanxi Shaanxi Houses Wrecked by Shifting Sand,沙埋房屋 --- 陕西、内蒙 Inner Mongolia Beijing Normal
  • 64. 玉门关、莫高窟 -Famous historical heritages Beijing Normal
  • 65. 通讯线 路沙害Communication Line Endangered by Shift Dunes Beijing Normal
  • 66. 荒漠龙 卷 A Desert Devil in Badam Jaran Desert, in 2000 Beijing Normal
  • 67. 16:50, 20 June, 2000北京就地起尘 ---Local Dust Emission in Beijing Beijing Normal
  • 68. Inner Mongolia Cold Front 太 行 山Loess Plateau 尘 云 ---Dust Pall 沙尘暴 ---A Dust Storm on April 16, 1998, China Beijing Normal
  • 69. Annually Mean (1951-2000)中国沙尘 暴分布 ---Distribution of Dust-storm Days in China Beijing Normal
  • 70. 25 23 20 15 14 13 10 8) sya d yc ne uqer F 5 5 0 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s ( Decade 强 沙尘 暴分布 ---Strong Dust-storm Days in Northern China Beijing Normal
  • 71. More than 100 Person died in the storm1993 年 /5.5 沙尘暴 -- 甘肃金昌A dust storm encroached Jinchang, on May 5, 1993 Beijing Normal
  • 72. S K China 东山江 Japan 苏 Beijing Normal
  • 73. Dust 云区 陆地 海面 Dust 陆地 裸地 薄云 厚云 NOAA/AVHRR 2002-04-06-13 FY-1C 2002-04-06-08 Enhanced Image of Dust Storms Beijing Normal
  • 74. 500 500 450 400 400 350 300 300 250 200 200 150 100 100xe dn not ul o Pri A 50 00 1月1日 2月1日 3月1日 4月1日 5月1日 6月1日 7月1日 8月1日 9月1日 10月1日 11月1日 12月1日 I i l J F M A M J J A S O N D Month Air Pollution Index Affected by Dust Storms in Beijing, 2002 Beijing Normal
  • 75. 4. 防沙治沙 ---Control Techniques and Practices ● Mechanical dune fixation (机械固沙) ● Chemical dune fixation ( 化学固沙 ) ● Plantation sand fixation (植物固沙) Beijing Normal
  • 76. 尼龙 方格 Plastic Checkerboards in Tengger Sand Desert Beijing Normal
  • 77. 草方格Straw Checkerboards along the Bao-Lan Railway Beijing Normal
  • 78. 沙柳方格Checkerboards in Kubqi Sand Desert Beijing Normal
  • 79. 化学固沙剂Chemical dune fixation on highway slope Beijing Normal
  • 80. 植物固沙Plantation in Taklimakan Sand Desert Beijing Normal
  • 81. 植物固沙Shrub dune fixation system Beijing Normal
  • 82. 沙地造林Artifical forest along Jing-Tong railway in Horqin Sandy Land Beijing Normal
  • 83. 沙地造林Evergreen trees in Mu Us Sandy Land Beijing Normal
  • 84. 农 田林网Agricultural shelterbelts system Beijing Normal
  • 85. 保护 性耕作Stubble mulch---Conservation tillage techniques Beijing Normal
  • 86. Wind tunnel built by BNU Beijing Normal
  • 87. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 4 5 9 1 6 5 9 1 8 5 9 1 0 6 9 1 2 6 9 1 4 6 9 1 6 9 1 8 6 9 1 0 7 9 1 2 7 9 1 4 7 9 1 6 7 9 1 8 7 9 1 0 8 9 1 2 8 9 1 4 8 9 1 6 8 9 1 8 9 1 0 9 1 2 9 1Beijing Normal 4 9 1 6 9 1 8 9 1 0 2 0 2 Sand and Dust Storm Days in northern China (1954-2007) 4 0 2 6 0 2
  • 88. Thank Youfor Your attention! Beijing Normal University Beijing Normal

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