2nd Scientific Conference UNCCD          中国的荒漠化与风沙灾害 Desertification and Blown Sand Disaster                  in China    ...
提纲( Main Points ) :1. 干旱半干旱区( The Arid and Semiarid Areas )2. 荒漠化过 程( Desertification Processes )3. 风 沙危害( Blown-sand Disa...
1. 中国的干旱、半干旱区 /The Arid &          Semiarid Areas         风蚀和风沙灾害发生区         ( Wind erosion area )                        ...
2. 中国干旱半干旱区的荒漠化过程Desertification Processes in China 荒漠化过 程的发 生 (Genesis of Desertification Processes)    ●   土地干旱与盐碱 化( La...
●地表干旱化( LandDessication )Seven   Hedin1903 说 : “ 当罗 布荒原的游移湖彻 底消失、塔里木河的尾闾 淹没在高大沙丘的时 代最 终 来 临时 ,风 对 罗 布荒原的侵 蚀 就 变 得没有任何限制了。到...
Gashun Lake(嘎顺淖尔 -1962 年干涸)        Sorgo Lake (索果                        淖尔 -1992 年干涸)     黑河流域黑 河水系变迁( The Heihe River Sy...
古 日 乃 干 盐 湖 ( Playa , Guernai , Inner Mongolia ,2000 )索果淖尔 湖底龟 裂地( Sorgo Nor , 2002 )                  Beijing Normal
●   植被退化 (Vegetation Degeneration)      梭梭     大面积 干枯的梭梭 /Dead Bushes due to desiccation                     Beijing Normal
塔里木河下游枯死的胡杨树( The dead trees, lowerTarim River ) Beijing Normal
鬼树 林 /The Ghost Forest, lower Heihe River                     Beijing Normal
梭梭                                          胡杨柽柳                                          霸王各种 成因的植被退化 /Plant degeneration...
胡杨 林的未来 ?/A Doom Future for the Poplar Trees?                    Beijing Normal
陕 西靖边 ---Jingbian, Shaanxi Province小老头树 /Short old trees-due to deficient moisture                         Beijing Normal
Western Inner Mongolia放牧导 致的植被退化 /Vegetation degeneration due to                  Beijing Normal
内蒙古锡 林郭勒 ---Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia交通引起的草原退化 /Grassland degeneraton due to traffic                        Beijing Normal
●   风蚀( Wind Erosion )            100m      雅丹 / 风蚀 土脊 / 风蚀长 丘 / 白龙                      堆    柴达 木盆地雅丹 --- Image of Wind-e...
 风蚀形态 /Features of Wind Erosion                   25 m                                    Yiliping, Qinhai  Streamlined M...
White Dragon MoundWhite Dragon Mound                                             60kmA Prototype Yardang      The Migratin...
丘库 姆塔格沙漠             状                     沙               羽毛            甘肃 疏勒河下游风蚀 影                                     ...
甘肃 三垄 沙 ---Sanlongsha, Gansu线 形雅丹 ---Linear Yardangs in Lower Shuler River                   Beijing Normal
龟 裂地片蚀                        天鹅 湖风蚀墩黑 河主河道                        沙尘 暴The Heihe River System, Today’s “Dust Bowl” in Chin...
   Deflation of Clastic Sediments-Source of Sandy Deserts    Deflated Lacustrine Layer          Deflated Fluvial Layer   ...
   Estimated Rates of Wind Erosion  铯 Cs-137 Tracing (by Li-Jie Pu & Ping Yan)---Xinjiang, Kurle ( 草地 ): 3540 t km-2 a-1...
 考古测 量 ---Archaeology---Western Inner Mongolia (内陆 冲积 平原) : ~ 1 mm a -1                              Pagoda age: 700 yrs ...
 碳 14 年代学 --Root C-14 Dating---Western Inner Mongolia (干涸内陆 湖泊) : 1.5 mm a-1     850 yrs B.P.               126 cm       ...
 实地观测 ---In situ Investigation---Ordos, Inner Mongolia ( 林地沙土) : 10 mma-1    Age of Trees: 20 Yrs                        ...
--- Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia : 20 mm a-1(草原土路)Sand saltation and           Track surface break-dust emission by wind      ...
--- Ordos, Inner Mongolia (沙地) : 50 mm a-1                                       2m   Age of Trees: 40 Yrs强 烈风蚀 地表 ---Seve...
Intensity of Soil Erosion by Wind in China                 Beijing Normal
●   沙漠化 ---Sandification   沙漠和沙地 /Sand Deserts and Sandy Lands 面积 /Area: 710, 000 km2 比例 /Percentage: 7.4% of China’s t...
Lahsa中国沙漠 / 沙地分布图 --- Sand Deserts/Lands in China                 Beijing Normal
流动 沙丘 ---Taklimakan Sand Desert-337, 600 km2                    Beijing Normal
古尔 班通古特沙漠 ---Gurban Tunggut Sand Desert                 Beijing Normal
罗 布泊  2400m asl                 80km      800m asl  山金阿尔                        库 姆塔格沙漠                250                ...
流动 沙丘 ---Sand dune in Kumtak Sand Desert                 Beijing Normal
柴达 木盆地流动 沙丘 --- Sand Dunes in Qaidam Basin                   Beijing Normal
黑河流域                 >300m       巴丹吉林沙漠                                     乌兰布和沙漠                                  腾格里沙漠 ...
腾 格里沙漠 -Tengger Sand Desert     Beijing Normal
Ulan BuhDesert       乌兰 布和沙漠 Ulan Buh Sand Desert97 image           Beijing Normal
库布齐沙漠 --Kubqi Sand Desert along the Yellow River                    Beijing Normal
Active Sandy Land1990’s                                   Fixed Sandy Land                                               F...
Mu Us Sandy Land                             Loess                             Plateau    毛乌 素沙地 ---Mu Us Sandy Land      ...
浑善达克沙地 ---Hunsandag Sandy Land         Beijing Normal
Dynamics ofSandification in Horqin Sandy     Land                                          1997                           ...
科尔 沁沙地 ---Horqin Sandy Land                Beijing Normal
呼伦贝尔 沙地 ---Hulun Beir Sandy Land      Beijing Normal
西藏雅江河谷沙丘                   Bird View, Zedang Coundy     Sand Dunes in Brahmaputra Valley                Beijing Normal
西藏雅江河谷沙丘                   Barchan Dunes in Valley           Sand Dunes in Tibet               Beijing Normal
敦煌鸣 沙山   The Singing Sand Mount near Dunhuang                 Beijing Normal
敦煌月牙泉The Crescent Spring near Dunhuang               Beijing Normal
●   Gobi- Pebblization--- 戈壁砾质化黑 戈壁上的风 影沙丘 ---Shadow Dunes on the Black Gobi                Surface                Beijing...
砾 浪 ---Gravel Waves to the west of Yumen Pass                  Beijing Normal
3. 风沙危害 ---Blown-sand hazards    沙害类型 ---    Main Categories of Blown-sand Disasters   ● Abrasion   by Blown Sand (风 沙流打磨)...
Wheat   作物沙割 ---Crop Cutted by Blown Sand                 Beijing Normal
沙化耕地 ---Sandified Cropland          Beijing Normal
农田风蚀沙害 ---Farmland Buried by Shifting Sand                  Beijing Normal
40 km2                  Linze                临泽县                 County绿洲沙害 ---Oasis Buried by Shifting Sand              ...
统万城Ancient Tongwan City Ruined in the Mu Us Sandy Land                    Beijing Normal
The Black City (800 a B.P.)湮没在流沙中的黑城 ---The Black City Ruined in the Shifting Dunes                Beijing Normal
长城风沙危害 ---The Great Wall abraded by blown sand                 Beijing Normal
Yulin, Shaanxi Province    公路沙害 --Road Blocked by Dune Encroachment                          Beijing Normal
沙埋铁 路 ---Shifting sand covers railway                Beijing Normal
Shaanxi                    Shaanxi Houses Wrecked by Shifting Sand,沙埋房屋 --- 陕西、内蒙                        Inner Mongolia   ...
玉门关、莫高窟 -Famous historical heritages              Beijing Normal
通讯线 路沙害Communication Line Endangered by Shift Dunes                   Beijing Normal
荒漠龙 卷  A Desert Devil in Badam Jaran Desert, in 2000                   Beijing Normal
16:50, 20 June, 2000北京就地起尘 ---Local Dust Emission in Beijing                       Beijing Normal
Inner Mongolia                                   Cold Front                太                行                山Loess Platea...
Annually Mean (1951-2000)中国沙尘 暴分布 ---Distribution of Dust-storm Days in China                     Beijing Normal
25                                                                     23                       20                       1...
More than 100 Person died in the storm1993 年 /5.5 沙尘暴 -- 甘肃金昌A dust storm encroached Jinchang, on May 5, 1993             ...
S    K    China 东山江                                  Japan    苏              Beijing Normal
Dust   云区   陆地   海面                  Dust   陆地   裸地   薄云   厚云   NOAA/AVHRR 2002-04-06-13                  FY-1C 2002-04-06...
500                       500                        450                        400                       400             ...
4. 防沙治沙 ---Control Techniques and Practices       ● Mechanical   dune fixation (机械固沙)       ●   Chemical dune fixation ( 化...
尼龙 方格 Plastic Checkerboards in Tengger Sand Desert                   Beijing Normal
草方格Straw Checkerboards along the Bao-Lan Railway                   Beijing Normal
沙柳方格Checkerboards in Kubqi Sand Desert            Beijing Normal
化学固沙剂Chemical dune fixation on highway slope                Beijing Normal
植物固沙Plantation in Taklimakan Sand Desert              Beijing Normal
植物固沙Shrub dune fixation system        Beijing Normal
沙地造林Artifical forest along Jing-Tong railway in             Horqin Sandy Land                   Beijing Normal
沙地造林Evergreen trees in Mu Us Sandy Land             Beijing Normal
农 田林网Agricultural shelterbelts system           Beijing Normal
保护 性耕作Stubble mulch---Conservation tillage techniques                  Beijing Normal
Wind tunnel built by BNU                        Beijing Normal
0                                                                                  2                                      ...
Thank Youfor Your attention!   Beijing Normal University            Beijing Normal
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LianYou LIU "Desertification and blown sand disaster in China"

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LianYou LIU "Desertification and blown sand disaster in China"

  1. 1. 2nd Scientific Conference UNCCD 中国的荒漠化与风沙灾害 Desertification and Blown Sand Disaster in China 刘连友( Liu Lian-You ) Institute of Drought and Blown Sand Disaster, Academy of Disaster Reduction and Emergency Management , BNU, China 09-12 April 2013, Bonn, Germany Beijing Normal
  2. 2. 提纲( Main Points ) :1. 干旱半干旱区( The Arid and Semiarid Areas )2. 荒漠化过 程( Desertification Processes )3. 风 沙危害( Blown-sand Disasters )4. 防沙治沙( Control Techniques & Practices ) Beijing Normal
  3. 3. 1. 中国的干旱、半干旱区 /The Arid & Semiarid Areas 风蚀和风沙灾害发生区 ( Wind erosion area ) 水蚀和洪水灾害发生区 ( Water erosion area )  Area: 4.5 million Km2  Percentage: 47% of China’s total land area  Population : 100.7 million Beijing Normal
  4. 4. 2. 中国干旱半干旱区的荒漠化过程Desertification Processes in China 荒漠化过 程的发 生 (Genesis of Desertification Processes) ● 土地干旱与盐碱 化( Land Desiccation ) ● 盐碱 化 ( Salinization ) ● 植被退化( Vegetation Degeneration ) ● 风蚀 ( Wind Erosion ) ● 风 沙流、粉尘 流 (Aeolian Sand & Dust Flux ) ● 沙漠化( Sandification ) ● 沙尘 暴( Sand and Dust Storms ) Beijing Normal
  5. 5. ●地表干旱化( LandDessication )Seven Hedin1903 说 : “ 当罗 布荒原的游移湖彻 底消失、塔里木河的尾闾 淹没在高大沙丘的时 代最 终 来 临时 ,风 对 罗 布荒原的侵 蚀 就 变 得没有任何限制了。到了那时,便会产 生一个深洼 地,和一个永无尽头的干旱中心” 罗 布泊 -1972 年干涸( Lop Lake ) Beijing Normal
  6. 6. Gashun Lake(嘎顺淖尔 -1962 年干涸) Sorgo Lake (索果 淖尔 -1992 年干涸) 黑河流域黑 河水系变迁( The Heihe River System ) Beijing Normal
  7. 7. 古 日 乃 干 盐 湖 ( Playa , Guernai , Inner Mongolia ,2000 )索果淖尔 湖底龟 裂地( Sorgo Nor , 2002 ) Beijing Normal
  8. 8. ● 植被退化 (Vegetation Degeneration) 梭梭 大面积 干枯的梭梭 /Dead Bushes due to desiccation Beijing Normal
  9. 9. 塔里木河下游枯死的胡杨树( The dead trees, lowerTarim River ) Beijing Normal
  10. 10. 鬼树 林 /The Ghost Forest, lower Heihe River Beijing Normal
  11. 11. 梭梭 胡杨柽柳 霸王各种 成因的植被退化 /Plant degeneration due todessication, salinizaton and wind erosion Beijing Normal
  12. 12. 胡杨 林的未来 ?/A Doom Future for the Poplar Trees? Beijing Normal
  13. 13. 陕 西靖边 ---Jingbian, Shaanxi Province小老头树 /Short old trees-due to deficient moisture Beijing Normal
  14. 14. Western Inner Mongolia放牧导 致的植被退化 /Vegetation degeneration due to Beijing Normal
  15. 15. 内蒙古锡 林郭勒 ---Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia交通引起的草原退化 /Grassland degeneraton due to traffic Beijing Normal
  16. 16. ● 风蚀( Wind Erosion ) 100m 雅丹 / 风蚀 土脊 / 风蚀长 丘 / 白龙 堆 柴达 木盆地雅丹 --- Image of Wind-eroded Yardangs Beijing Normal
  17. 17.  风蚀形态 /Features of Wind Erosion 25 m Yiliping, Qinhai Streamlined Mega-Yardangs in Tsadam Basin Beijing Normal
  18. 18. White Dragon MoundWhite Dragon Mound 60kmA Prototype Yardang The Migrating Lake---Lop Nor Asian Dry Core and Center of Wind Erosion Beijing Normal
  19. 19. 丘库 姆塔格沙漠 状 沙 羽毛 甘肃 疏勒河下游风蚀 影 像 Image of Linear Yardangs in Lower Shuler River Beijing Normal
  20. 20. 甘肃 三垄 沙 ---Sanlongsha, Gansu线 形雅丹 ---Linear Yardangs in Lower Shuler River Beijing Normal
  21. 21. 龟 裂地片蚀 天鹅 湖风蚀墩黑 河主河道 沙尘 暴The Heihe River System, Today’s “Dust Bowl” in China Beijing Normal
  22. 22.  Deflation of Clastic Sediments-Source of Sandy Deserts Deflated Lacustrine Layer Deflated Fluvial Layer Spherical weathering & Deflation Sandy Shale Rock Mushroom Beijing Normal
  23. 23.  Estimated Rates of Wind Erosion  铯 Cs-137 Tracing (by Li-Jie Pu & Ping Yan)---Xinjiang, Kurle ( 草地 ): 3540 t km-2 a-1/~2.2mm a-1---Qinghai, Gonghe Basin( 草地 ): 1260 t km-2 a-1 /~0.8 mm a-1 质 地分析 Soil Texture Analysis (by Zhi-Bao Dong)---Inner Mongolia ( 农 田 ): 1500 t km-2 a-1/~0.9 mm a-1 风蚀输 送观测 Aeolian transport measurement---Ordso Plateau ( 沙区 ): 1690 t km-2 a-1 /~1.1 mm a-1 Beijing Normal
  24. 24.  考古测 量 ---Archaeology---Western Inner Mongolia (内陆 冲积 平原) : ~ 1 mm a -1 Pagoda age: 700 yrs 69 cm The First Pagoda Wind Erosion of Fluvial Sediments Beijing Normal
  25. 25.  碳 14 年代学 --Root C-14 Dating---Western Inner Mongolia (干涸内陆 湖泊) : 1.5 mm a-1 850 yrs B.P. 126 cm 天鹅 湖 ---Swan Lake Wind Erosion of Terminal Lake Sediments Beijing Normal
  26. 26.  实地观测 ---In situ Investigation---Ordos, Inner Mongolia ( 林地沙土) : 10 mma-1 Age of Trees: 20 Yrs 20cmOrdos Plateau Wind Erosion of Sandy Soil under Planted Forest Beijing Normal
  27. 27. --- Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia : 20 mm a-1(草原土路)Sand saltation and Track surface break-dust emission by wind down by wind erosionGrooves and flutes on Deep trough with isolatedbare hard track surface inter-track ridgesSevere Wind Erosion of Grassland Soil due to Traffic Beijing Normal
  28. 28. --- Ordos, Inner Mongolia (沙地) : 50 mm a-1 2m Age of Trees: 40 Yrs强 烈风蚀 地表 ---Severe Erosion of Sandy Soil byWind Beijing Normal
  29. 29. Intensity of Soil Erosion by Wind in China Beijing Normal
  30. 30. ● 沙漠化 ---Sandification 沙漠和沙地 /Sand Deserts and Sandy Lands 面积 /Area: 710, 000 km2 比例 /Percentage: 7.4% of China’s total land area 沙化趋势 /Tendency of Contemporary Sandification 发 生发 展速率 /2000 前 Rate of Expansion (Before 2000): Increased by 3000-30, 000 km2 a-1 发 生发 展速率 /2000 后 Rate of Expansion (Aftere 2000): Decreased by 5000-8000 km2 a-1 Beijing Normal
  31. 31. Lahsa中国沙漠 / 沙地分布图 --- Sand Deserts/Lands in China Beijing Normal
  32. 32. 流动 沙丘 ---Taklimakan Sand Desert-337, 600 km2 Beijing Normal
  33. 33. 古尔 班通古特沙漠 ---Gurban Tunggut Sand Desert Beijing Normal
  34. 34. 罗 布泊 2400m asl 80km 800m asl 山金阿尔 库 姆塔格沙漠 250 m k库 木塔格沙漠 ---Kumtaq Sand Desert Beijing Normal
  35. 35. 流动 沙丘 ---Sand dune in Kumtak Sand Desert Beijing Normal
  36. 36. 柴达 木盆地流动 沙丘 --- Sand Dunes in Qaidam Basin Beijing Normal
  37. 37. 黑河流域 >300m 巴丹吉林沙漠 乌兰布和沙漠 腾格里沙漠 民勤绿洲高大沙山 ---Sand Mounts in Badaim Jaran Desert Beijing Normal
  38. 38. 腾 格里沙漠 -Tengger Sand Desert Beijing Normal
  39. 39. Ulan BuhDesert 乌兰 布和沙漠 Ulan Buh Sand Desert97 image Beijing Normal
  40. 40. 库布齐沙漠 --Kubqi Sand Desert along the Yellow River Beijing Normal
  41. 41. Active Sandy Land1990’s Fixed Sandy Land Farmland Lakes YulinDynamics of Sandification in Mu Us Sandy Land 1960’S Beijing Normal
  42. 42. Mu Us Sandy Land Loess Plateau 毛乌 素沙地 ---Mu Us Sandy Land Beijing Normal
  43. 43. 浑善达克沙地 ---Hunsandag Sandy Land Beijing Normal
  44. 44. Dynamics ofSandification in Horqin Sandy Land 1997 Tongliao City 科尔沁沙地 1990 Beijing Normal
  45. 45. 科尔 沁沙地 ---Horqin Sandy Land Beijing Normal
  46. 46. 呼伦贝尔 沙地 ---Hulun Beir Sandy Land Beijing Normal
  47. 47. 西藏雅江河谷沙丘 Bird View, Zedang Coundy Sand Dunes in Brahmaputra Valley Beijing Normal
  48. 48. 西藏雅江河谷沙丘 Barchan Dunes in Valley Sand Dunes in Tibet Beijing Normal
  49. 49. 敦煌鸣 沙山 The Singing Sand Mount near Dunhuang Beijing Normal
  50. 50. 敦煌月牙泉The Crescent Spring near Dunhuang Beijing Normal
  51. 51. ● Gobi- Pebblization--- 戈壁砾质化黑 戈壁上的风 影沙丘 ---Shadow Dunes on the Black Gobi Surface Beijing Normal
  52. 52. 砾 浪 ---Gravel Waves to the west of Yumen Pass Beijing Normal
  53. 53. 3. 风沙危害 ---Blown-sand hazards 沙害类型 --- Main Categories of Blown-sand Disasters ● Abrasion by Blown Sand (风 沙流打磨) ● Sand Burying by Sand Deposition ( 沙埋) ● Texture Coarsening and Infertility of Farmland (农 田粗化和贫 瘠化) ● Air Pollution by Dust Emission, Transportation and Sedimentation (大气污 染) ● Human Casualties by Strong Dust Storms Beijing Normal
  54. 54. Wheat 作物沙割 ---Crop Cutted by Blown Sand Beijing Normal
  55. 55. 沙化耕地 ---Sandified Cropland Beijing Normal
  56. 56. 农田风蚀沙害 ---Farmland Buried by Shifting Sand Beijing Normal
  57. 57. 40 km2 Linze 临泽县 County绿洲沙害 ---Oasis Buried by Shifting Sand Beijing Normal
  58. 58. 统万城Ancient Tongwan City Ruined in the Mu Us Sandy Land Beijing Normal
  59. 59. The Black City (800 a B.P.)湮没在流沙中的黑城 ---The Black City Ruined in the Shifting Dunes Beijing Normal
  60. 60. 长城风沙危害 ---The Great Wall abraded by blown sand Beijing Normal
  61. 61. Yulin, Shaanxi Province 公路沙害 --Road Blocked by Dune Encroachment Beijing Normal
  62. 62. 沙埋铁 路 ---Shifting sand covers railway Beijing Normal
  63. 63. Shaanxi Shaanxi Houses Wrecked by Shifting Sand,沙埋房屋 --- 陕西、内蒙 Inner Mongolia Beijing Normal
  64. 64. 玉门关、莫高窟 -Famous historical heritages Beijing Normal
  65. 65. 通讯线 路沙害Communication Line Endangered by Shift Dunes Beijing Normal
  66. 66. 荒漠龙 卷 A Desert Devil in Badam Jaran Desert, in 2000 Beijing Normal
  67. 67. 16:50, 20 June, 2000北京就地起尘 ---Local Dust Emission in Beijing Beijing Normal
  68. 68. Inner Mongolia Cold Front 太 行 山Loess Plateau 尘 云 ---Dust Pall 沙尘暴 ---A Dust Storm on April 16, 1998, China Beijing Normal
  69. 69. Annually Mean (1951-2000)中国沙尘 暴分布 ---Distribution of Dust-storm Days in China Beijing Normal
  70. 70. 25 23 20 15 14 13 10 8) sya d yc ne uqer F 5 5 0 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s ( Decade 强 沙尘 暴分布 ---Strong Dust-storm Days in Northern China Beijing Normal
  71. 71. More than 100 Person died in the storm1993 年 /5.5 沙尘暴 -- 甘肃金昌A dust storm encroached Jinchang, on May 5, 1993 Beijing Normal
  72. 72. S K China 东山江 Japan 苏 Beijing Normal
  73. 73. Dust 云区 陆地 海面 Dust 陆地 裸地 薄云 厚云 NOAA/AVHRR 2002-04-06-13 FY-1C 2002-04-06-08 Enhanced Image of Dust Storms Beijing Normal
  74. 74. 500 500 450 400 400 350 300 300 250 200 200 150 100 100xe dn not ul o Pri A 50 00 1月1日 2月1日 3月1日 4月1日 5月1日 6月1日 7月1日 8月1日 9月1日 10月1日 11月1日 12月1日 I i l J F M A M J J A S O N D Month Air Pollution Index Affected by Dust Storms in Beijing, 2002 Beijing Normal
  75. 75. 4. 防沙治沙 ---Control Techniques and Practices ● Mechanical dune fixation (机械固沙) ● Chemical dune fixation ( 化学固沙 ) ● Plantation sand fixation (植物固沙) Beijing Normal
  76. 76. 尼龙 方格 Plastic Checkerboards in Tengger Sand Desert Beijing Normal
  77. 77. 草方格Straw Checkerboards along the Bao-Lan Railway Beijing Normal
  78. 78. 沙柳方格Checkerboards in Kubqi Sand Desert Beijing Normal
  79. 79. 化学固沙剂Chemical dune fixation on highway slope Beijing Normal
  80. 80. 植物固沙Plantation in Taklimakan Sand Desert Beijing Normal
  81. 81. 植物固沙Shrub dune fixation system Beijing Normal
  82. 82. 沙地造林Artifical forest along Jing-Tong railway in Horqin Sandy Land Beijing Normal
  83. 83. 沙地造林Evergreen trees in Mu Us Sandy Land Beijing Normal
  84. 84. 农 田林网Agricultural shelterbelts system Beijing Normal
  85. 85. 保护 性耕作Stubble mulch---Conservation tillage techniques Beijing Normal
  86. 86. Wind tunnel built by BNU Beijing Normal
  87. 87. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 4 5 9 1 6 5 9 1 8 5 9 1 0 6 9 1 2 6 9 1 4 6 9 1 6 9 1 8 6 9 1 0 7 9 1 2 7 9 1 4 7 9 1 6 7 9 1 8 7 9 1 0 8 9 1 2 8 9 1 4 8 9 1 6 8 9 1 8 9 1 0 9 1 2 9 1Beijing Normal 4 9 1 6 9 1 8 9 1 0 2 0 2 Sand and Dust Storm Days in northern China (1954-2007) 4 0 2 6 0 2
  88. 88. Thank Youfor Your attention! Beijing Normal University Beijing Normal

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