Strategies & options to address landdegradation due to landslides in the         context of Bhutan   UNCCD 2nd Scientific ...
Overview        Introduction        Landslides related concerns        Landslides mitigation initiatives        Lessons le...
The Country-BHUTAN9 to 12 April 2013   UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany   3
Facts & Figures                                                                       Land area    % Area by Altitudinal R...
Facts & Figures (contd.)    Physiographic zones → 3 (GH, IH, SH)    Climatic zones → 4 (alpine, sub-alpine,    temperate &...
The Land cover (%)               80                    70.46               70               60               50Total Area ...
Land degradation information Land degradation in Bhutan is not well documented Information on the cause, extent trend & ot...
Causes of landslidesSteep and rugged terrain of the Bhutan Himalayas9 to 12 April 2013    UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany   8
% land under different slope                 angles                     0 to 8                      2%                    ...
Land formation            Widest valley              Arable land on steep slopes9 to 12 April 2013      UNCCD 2nd CST, Bon...
Causes of landslide (contd.)           Fragile/Unstable geological settings9 to 12 April 2013    UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germ...
Anthropogenic/Direct factors of             LD1)       Forest fires2)       Excessive use of forest resources3)       Over...
Indirect Factors of LDa. Population Growth and Structure  Population growing @ 1.3% p.a.  Total Fertility Rate is high at ...
b. Poverty   23% of the Bhutanese live below   National Poverty (NP) line of Nu.   1,100/p/m ($ 20-22)   31% live below th...
c. 69% depend on Agriculture                           Small land holding size limits                           the scope ...
d. Social Norms   Land fragmentation due to split inheritance   among families        Results in unsustainable intensific...
e. Climate Change  Extreme climate cause increased forest  fires, glacial retreat and GLOFs, flashfloods  and landslides  ...
f. Policy & Institutional Issues  Lack of cross-sectoral policy on national  land use & mgt.  Weak focus on LM (esp. farm ...
Main concerns due to LD include:    Loss of land physically due to landslides &    downstream siltation leading to reducti...
• GDP share - 22% (2011)           • Power generated by 4 mega Plant             is about 7,308.8 MU (2011)Hydropower • To...
Experiences from:                                                    1.Implementing                                       ...
Initiatives to prevent/mitigate LD    Developed NAP to guide different sectors    to combat LD    Supported policy develop...
Initiatives to prevent/mitigate LD Developed village level SLM planning methodology to enable site & problem specific SLM ...
Initiatives to prevent/mitigate LD      Erosion plots establishment to generate      soil erosion rate information      De...
Initiatives to prevent /mitigate LD    Others such as:       Promotion of organic farming       Protection of wetland in...
Lessons learned             Focus village approach in identifying             LD problems, planning & implementing        ...
Lessons learned Participatory SLM planning methods           Enables the participation of everyone in decision the       ...
Lessons learnedMitigation of landslides (precusors)     Implementing low cost bio-engineering measures9 to 12 April 2013 ...
ConclusionsMany threats are posed by different forms(e.g. Landslide) of land degradation;   It causes both on & off-site ...
Thank you!!!9 to 12 April 2013   UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany   30
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Karma Dema DORJI "Land resources under threat: strategies and options to address land degradation due to landslides in the context of Bhutan"

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Karma Dema DORJI "Land resources under threat: strategies and options to address land degradation due to landslides in the context of Bhutan"

  1. 1. Strategies & options to address landdegradation due to landslides in the context of Bhutan UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference, 9th – 12th April 2013 Bonn, Germany Karma Dema Dorji National Soil Services Centre Ministry of Agriculture & Forests
  2. 2. Overview Introduction Landslides related concerns Landslides mitigation initiatives Lessons learned from the initiatives Conclusion9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 2
  3. 3. The Country-BHUTAN9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 3
  4. 4. Facts & Figures Land area % Area by Altitudinal Range 38,394 sq. km 1.1% 19.4% 5.3% Below 600 m 600 - 2,400 m38.4% 2,400 - 4,200 m 35.8% 4,200 - 6,000 m Above 6,000 m Population ≈ 720,679 9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 4
  5. 5. Facts & Figures (contd.) Physiographic zones → 3 (GH, IH, SH) Climatic zones → 4 (alpine, sub-alpine, temperate & subtropical) Country agrarian ≈ 69% population depend on agriculture Farming ≈ largely subsistence based on traditional knowledge with low farm inputs. Average land holding ≈ < a hectare.9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 5
  6. 6. The Land cover (%) 80 70.46 70 60 50Total Area % 40 30 20 10.43 7.44 10 4.10 3.20 2.93 0.16 0.01 0.72 0.01 0.54 09 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 6
  7. 7. Land degradation information Land degradation in Bhutan is not well documented Information on the cause, extent trend & other issues e.g. economic & social implications of LD is scarce & localised Information put together indicates that different types of land degradation occur in Bhutan4/10/2013 National Soil Services Centre 7
  8. 8. Causes of landslidesSteep and rugged terrain of the Bhutan Himalayas9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 8
  9. 9. % land under different slope angles 0 to 8 2% 8 to 30 20% > 30 78%9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 9
  10. 10. Land formation Widest valley Arable land on steep slopes9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 10
  11. 11. Causes of landslide (contd.) Fragile/Unstable geological settings9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 11
  12. 12. Anthropogenic/Direct factors of LD1) Forest fires2) Excessive use of forest resources3) Overgrazing4) Construction of infrastructure without proper environmental assessments & measures5) Industrial development6) Unsustainable Mining7) Solid waste8) Urbanization 9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 12
  13. 13. Indirect Factors of LDa. Population Growth and Structure Population growing @ 1.3% p.a. Total Fertility Rate is high at 3/woman while Contraceptive Prevalence Rate is low at 31% Geographically skewed population distribution Young age structure of the population with 51% under 25 years9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 13
  14. 14. b. Poverty 23% of the Bhutanese live below National Poverty (NP) line of Nu. 1,100/p/m ($ 20-22) 31% live below the NP line in rural areas 1.7% live below the NP line in urban areas9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 14
  15. 15. c. 69% depend on Agriculture Small land holding size limits the scope for SLM interventions Unsustainable agricultural practices  Cultivation on marginal land  Imbalanced used of inorganic fertilizers Poor irrigation system magt.9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 15
  16. 16. d. Social Norms Land fragmentation due to split inheritance among families  Results in unsustainable intensification of both land & land based resources Farm labour shortage due to rural-urban migration  Results in poor mgt. & maintenance of vast areas of land left fallow  Labour intensive SLM activities are not implemented9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 16
  17. 17. e. Climate Change Extreme climate cause increased forest fires, glacial retreat and GLOFs, flashfloods and landslides There are 677 glaciers & 2,674 glacial lakes in Bhutan.  Of these, a total of 25 glacial lakes pose potentially high risk for GLOFs9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 17
  18. 18. f. Policy & Institutional Issues Lack of cross-sectoral policy on national land use & mgt. Weak focus on LM (esp. farm land) in environmental laws & regulations Lacuna in institutional setting for national land use & mgt.9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 18
  19. 19. Main concerns due to LD include: Loss of land physically due to landslides & downstream siltation leading to reduction in usable land sizes; Decline in land producitvity leading to food insufficiency & insecurity Increasing river sediment loads leading to escalation in hydropower maintenance costs 9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 19
  20. 20. • GDP share - 22% (2011) • Power generated by 4 mega Plant is about 7,308.8 MU (2011)Hydropower • Total export of power to neighboring countries is about 5,624.3 (2011) • GDP share – 16% (2011)Agriculture • 69% of the total population depend on Agriculture for their livelihoods 9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 20
  21. 21. Experiences from: 1.Implementing SLM Programs & Projects 2. Conducting LM campaigns9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 21
  22. 22. Initiatives to prevent/mitigate LD Developed NAP to guide different sectors to combat LD Supported policy development to strengthen the overall policy support for SLM Strengthened human & institutional capacities in anticipating & combating LD 9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 22
  23. 23. Initiatives to prevent/mitigate LD Developed village level SLM planning methodology to enable site & problem specific SLM interventions Promoted best SLM technologies e.g. terracing, contour bunding, hedgerows check dams, etc. Develop site and problem specific SLM technical manual 9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 23
  24. 24. Initiatives to prevent/mitigate LD Erosion plots establishment to generate soil erosion rate information Development of Dynamic Information Framework (DIF) to help simulate LD related scenarios School curriculum on LD & SLM development 4/10/2013 National Soil Services Centre 24
  25. 25. Initiatives to prevent /mitigate LD Others such as:  Promotion of organic farming  Protection of wetland including irrigated land  Promotion of private & community forests  Banning “Tseri” (slash & burn) practice  Swapping marginal land with govt. reserve forests  Resettling from marginal to better land owned by Govt.  Allotting land to landless group 9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 25
  26. 26. Lessons learned Focus village approach in identifying LD problems, planning & implementing  Addresses farm labour shortage problem  Enables wider adoption of SLM initiatives  Enables development of common facilities like group saving schemes, establish seedling nurseries, community halls,  Enables a greater visual impact of SLM interventions9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 26
  27. 27. Lessons learned Participatory SLM planning methods  Enables the participation of everyone in decision the making  Enables site and problem specific planning & budgeting of SLM activities  Enables timely implementation of planned activities  Enables greater ownership & sustainability of SLM Communication on landslide risks & impacts  Enables wider awareness & greater interests in SLM especially in the remote corners of Bhutan  Communication before & after the implementation of technologies effective9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 27
  28. 28. Lessons learnedMitigation of landslides (precusors)  Implementing low cost bio-engineering measures9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 28
  29. 29. ConclusionsMany threats are posed by different forms(e.g. Landslide) of land degradation; It causes both on & off-site impacts often extending beyond the political boundaries Addressing precursors of landslides are more effective than trying to address the actual landslide areas On-site practical demonstration of technologies is more effective than awareness through mediaPolicy support necessary for SLM  Cause & effect, extent of impact, social & economical implications of LD is very important9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 29
  30. 30. Thank you!!!9 to 12 April 2013 UNCCD 2nd CST, Bonn, Germany 30

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