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 Joachim Von Braun "Economic and social impacts of land degradation and drought - framework, assessment and policy implications"
 Joachim Von Braun "Economic and social impacts of land degradation and drought - framework, assessment and policy implications"
 Joachim Von Braun "Economic and social impacts of land degradation and drought - framework, assessment and policy implications"
 Joachim Von Braun "Economic and social impacts of land degradation and drought - framework, assessment and policy implications"
 Joachim Von Braun "Economic and social impacts of land degradation and drought - framework, assessment and policy implications"
 Joachim Von Braun "Economic and social impacts of land degradation and drought - framework, assessment and policy implications"
 Joachim Von Braun "Economic and social impacts of land degradation and drought - framework, assessment and policy implications"
 Joachim Von Braun "Economic and social impacts of land degradation and drought - framework, assessment and policy implications"
 Joachim Von Braun "Economic and social impacts of land degradation and drought - framework, assessment and policy implications"
 Joachim Von Braun "Economic and social impacts of land degradation and drought - framework, assessment and policy implications"
 Joachim Von Braun "Economic and social impacts of land degradation and drought - framework, assessment and policy implications"
 Joachim Von Braun "Economic and social impacts of land degradation and drought - framework, assessment and policy implications"
 Joachim Von Braun "Economic and social impacts of land degradation and drought - framework, assessment and policy implications"
 Joachim Von Braun "Economic and social impacts of land degradation and drought - framework, assessment and policy implications"
 Joachim Von Braun "Economic and social impacts of land degradation and drought - framework, assessment and policy implications"
 Joachim Von Braun "Economic and social impacts of land degradation and drought - framework, assessment and policy implications"
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Joachim Von Braun "Economic and social impacts of land degradation and drought - framework, assessment and policy implications"

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UNCCD 2nd scientific conference

UNCCD 2nd scientific conference

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  • 1. Economic and Social Impactsof Land Degradation and DroughtFramework, Assessment and Policy Implications Joachim von Braun Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn 09 April, 2013 UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference
  • 2. Problem Definition Conceptual Framework ELD Assessment Policy ImplicationsBasic Facts about Land Degradation and Drought It is estimated that about a quarter of global land area is degraded (Lal et al. 2012). Droughts are one of the largest determinants of human misery. The extent, frequency and intensity of droughts are expected to increase due to climate change. Land degradation and drought affect the poorest the most and are huge development constraints. 2
  • 3. Problem Definition Conceptual Framework ELD Assessment Policy ImplicationsWorld Food and Agriculture:The Changing Equation 3
  • 4. Problem Definition Conceptual Framework ELD Assessment Policy ImplicationsNeed for NEXUS Perspective: Water–Food–Energy Land and SLM should be an integral part and action agenda for the NEXUS. Source: Bonn2011 Conference: The Water, Energy and Food Security Nexus. 16-18 Nov. 2011 4
  • 5. Problem Definition Conceptual Framework ELD Assessment Policy ImplicationsTotal Arable Land is Limited Climate change, urbanization and degradation affect arable land. Protection of forests imposes further environmental limits. Source: FAOSTAT 5
  • 6. Problem Definition Conceptual Framework ELD Assessment Policy ImplicationsFarmland Price Dynamics Even as such, market prices are capturing only marketed values, ignoring numerous essential ecosystem services of land. Source: von Braun et al (2012) 6
  • 7. Problem Definition Conceptual Framework ELD Assessment Policy ImplicationsProblem Definition Markets are sending clear signals that land and soil degradation, and also droughts, are globally critical problems that require urgent action to address. However, the efforts to address them have so far been insufficient. What is lacking: policy action, based on evidence-based policy framework to address the two interlinked slow onset-disasters: land degradation and drought. 7
  • 8. Problem Definition Conceptual Framework ELD Assessment Policy ImplicationsFramework: Economics of Land Degradation (ELD) UNCCD and BMZ-commissioned global study assessing the state-of-the-knowledge on the economics of land degradation and drought, conducted by IFPRI and ZEF (2010–2011). Reviewed the state-of-the-art Developed a conceptual framework for economic assessment Identified gaps in the science, partnerships and institutional setups required for ELD click to read 8
  • 9. Problem Definition Conceptual Framework ELD Assessment Policy ImplicationsInvestment for Sustainable Wellbeing Wellbeing Function: Output for Income and Wellbeing = f(Labor, Fertilizers, Land quantity and Land quality, Water, Climate, Others) Natural capital – including land and soil resources, water – is an essential building block of the economy. Land degradation and drought have differing characteristics (gradual change vs recurrent shocks), their economic valuation should be conceptualized in terms of their association with the change in productivity and with changes in the provision of ecosystem services and the human benefits derived from them. 9
  • 10. Problem Definition Conceptual Framework ELD Assessment Policy ImplicationsInnovation Feeds the World:Sources of Productivity Growth in World Agriculture Source: IFPRI 2012; Global Policy Report 2013 10
  • 11. Problem Definition Conceptual Framework ELD Assessment Policy ImplicationsEconomics of Land Degradation (ELD) 11
  • 12. Problem Definition Conceptual Framework ELD Assessment Policy ImplicationsComparing Action vs Inaction:Some Case Study Results Source: Nkonya et al (2011) 12
  • 13. Problem Definition Conceptual Framework ELD Assessment Policy ImplicationsStrategy in ELD Assessment 1. Building and informing the policy debate and dialogue on land degradation at regional and global levels guided by evidence-based and policy-oriented research. 2. Forming an inclusive and open collaboration of all stakeholders for addressing land degradation. 3. Communication to increase awareness and commitment to take action against land degradation. 4. Conducting the global ELD assessment, based on carefully selected case studies acting as stepping stones and templates for future research and action. Highlight successful experiences of countries and locations that created incentives and program actions for sustainable land use (returns to farmers and to society). 5. Independent peer-review of the results. 13
  • 14. Problem Definition Conceptual Framework ELD Assessment Policy ImplicationsELD Research Principles Ground-proofing is a must! Market and non-market valuation of land and its degradation with strong emphasis on valuing non-market ecosystem services! Global and national/local, with integrating across scales by modelling! Science-driven and practitioner-oriented, with strong involvement by local partners and farming communities! Focus on rehabilitation and prevention of degradation in a sustainable land use framework, but prevention is better than cure! Focus on land degradation or on people affected by it? Link both from the beginning. 14
  • 15. Problem Definition Conceptual Framework ELD Assessment Policy ImplicationsPrevention and Management of the Great Risks:Bringing action for prevention of Land and Soil Degradation and actionon Drought together 1. Risk prevention: sustainable intensification in agriculture; productivity across value chains; R&D. 2. Risk management: Facilitation of reduced market volatility with appropriate stocks, appropriate regulation, and international cooperation. 3. Social protection: productive safety nets, expanded action for nutrition security of children. 4. Insurance systems: insurance of crops, peoples’ health, public insurance mechanisms for catastrophic events in low income countries (e.g. regional droughts, climate shocks) 15
  • 16. Problem Definition Conceptual Framework ELD Assessment Policy ImplicationsToward Appropriate Action a. Land degradation is a consequence of market failures and partly consequence of poverty. There is a need for policy action to appropriately address land degradation externalities, including the non-market values of land. b. Remedies for the different forms of land degradation, drought management strategies and technologies need to be incentivized. c. Land users must receive direct benefits for adopting sustainable land management (SLM) practices. d. Access to rural services, access to markets are important to increasing the benefits from investments in SLM. In Sum: ELD initiative is to foster a sound combination of transparent and enforceable rules and market-oriented incentives for sustainable land and soil use practices. Countries are in the lead, as optimal solution are mostly local. 16

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