Pandi ZDRULI "Impacts of agricultural practices on manmade soils and ecological restoration efforts in a protected NATURA 2000 area in the Apulia Region, Italy"

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  • Slide modelo para abertura da capitulo — foto serve apenas de refer ência
  • Slide modelo para abertura da capitulo — foto serve apenas de refer ência
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  • 1. UNCCD 2nd Scientific Conference Economic assessment of desertification, sustainable land management and resilience of arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas Bonn, Germany, 9-12 April 2013 Impacts of agricultural practices on manmade soils and ecological restoration efforts in a protected NATURA 2000 area in the Apulia Region, Italy Prof. Dr. Pandi ZdruliInternational Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (CIHEAM) Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari, Italy 1
  • 2. CIHEAMWas established in 1962 under the auspices of OECD and the Council of Europe with originalmembership of France, Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Turkey and ex-Yugoslavia.At present CIHEAM brings together 13 member states Albania, Algeria, Egypt, Lebanon, Malta,Morocco, Tunisia in addition to France, Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Turkey Paris Montpellier Zaragoza Bari Chania
  • 3. RICERCA@ IAMB Main activities of CIHEAM • Training • Research • Cooperation • Knowledge DisseminationIAMB: areas of Integrated Pest Management Integrated Pest Managementscientific excellence of Mediterranean fruit trees of Mediterranean fruit trees Mediterranean Organic Mediterranean Organic Agriculture Agriculture Land and water Land and water resources resources management management Sustainable agriculture Sustainable agriculture and rural development and rural development
  • 4. Location of study areas within the Apulia region Apulia is characterised by a typicalMediterranean climate: hot and dry summers and cool and wet winters Bari 80 % of the rainfall from November to April Geologically the area is typical for karstic Brindisi processes and the presence of Cretaceouslimestone usually covered with Pleistocene calcarenite (soft calcareous sandstone). Provinces Apulia Region 81 % of Apulia’s territory is used by agriculture
  • 5. Case 1: The province of BariStrong competing interests for land: rock grinding for crop productionMore 20,000 ha over the last three decades were converted Rock and soil grinding:into agricultural lands From natural areas frantumazzione
  • 6. Altamura, Province of Bari Co n ver ting pas ture s in 90 % surface stoniness ara bl e l a nd s fo r ce r ea ls Subsidized durum wheat but with low yieldsPastures with rock outcrops 6
  • 7. 7
  • 8. Apulia is the largest table grape producer and exporter in Italy Man made soils: Anthrosols 30,000 €/ha investment 8
  • 9. Impacts on above ground biodiversity: flora33,33 % loss in species diversity (27 versus 9) But increase in number of individual plants (100 versus 84) 9
  • 10. Impacts on soil quality Positive changes Negative changes No changes Decrease in SOM (≈ 57 %)Increase in soil depth Decrease in SOC (≈ 58 %) Soil textureIncrease in active and total CaCO3 Decrease in N (≈ 32 %) CECIncrease in rock fragments (skeleton) Increase in pH ECIncrease in P2O5 Destruction of soil structure 10
  • 11. Good agricultural practices towards soil management Farmyard organic manure Legume green manuring The future of rock grinding???????????• If not subsidized cereals are not a viable and profitable option,• Table grapes depend on the market,• 2012 yielded good economic returns followed soon after by new land conversions•The perception of biodiversity conversation attracts little attention to farmers 11
  • 12. Case 2: The province of Brindisi No till corn grown in Brazil 12
  • 13. Since 2000 the official management Authority is a Consortium made ofrepresentatives from• Commune of Carovigno• Commune of Brindisi• WWF ItaliaThe Consortium is in charge of:Nature conservation and rehabilitationEcosystem managementPreservation of cultural heritageEnhancement of sustainable agricultural production No till corn grown in BrazilIn-house research in coastal habitat protectionEnvironmental awareness, training and education 13
  • 14. http://www.riservaditorreguaceto.it No till corn grown in BrazilEstablished in 1991Total area: 2,300 ha (land and water) 14
  • 15. Wetlands of international importance (RAMSAR Convention)• Special Zone Protection (ZPS) – directive 79/409/CEE• Sites of Community Importance (SIC) – directive 92/43/CEE – 3 priority habitats – 5 habitats of community interest No till corn grown in Brazil Coastal sand dunes with Caretta caretta Juniperus spp., Coastal lagoons,Mediterranean saline steppes 15
  • 16. Agricultural development The Park Authority endorse apragmatic approach by promoting certified organic farming produce No till corn grown in Brazil 16
  • 17. Recovering the Machia Mediterranea No till corn grown in BrazilRe-converting arable lands into natural habitats a drop in the ocean but worth pointing out 17
  • 18. The experience of Torre Guaceto Natural Park shows that it is possible to merge cultural heritage, nature conservation, environmental protection and agricultural development Thank you! pandi@iamb.it 18