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Health Impact Following Flood in Bojonegoro District, East Java, Indonesia, December, 2007
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Health Impact Following Flood in Bojonegoro District, East Java, Indonesia, December, 2007

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Health Impact Following Flood in Bojonegoro District, East Java, Indonesia, December, 2007

Health Impact Following Flood in Bojonegoro District, East Java, Indonesia, December, 2007


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  • 1. Mondastri K Sudaryo 1 , Besral 1 , Meidy F Prameswari 1 , Debarati Guha-Sapir 2 [email_address] 1 HRCCD, FPH, University of Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia, 2 CRED, University Catholic of the Louvain, Brussels, Belgium,
  • 2. Flood December 2007: 858 houses severely damage 1.850 houses mild to moderately damage 31 death 16 out of 27 sub-districts flooded till 3 meter height 229.000 people displaced Bojonegoro District, East Java Province : Area: 2.307,06 km2 Population (2006): 1.231.399 Background (1)
  • 3. Post Dec 2007 Flood Situation in Kanor Subdistrict, Bojonegoro Background (2)
  • 4.
    • To estimate magnitude of flood related health impact and to identify their potential determinants
  • 5. Respondent Characteristics
    • Methods
    • Cross-sectional design
    • Multistage cluster sampling 50 villages, selected randomly from 167 flooded & 268 non-flooded households
    • Anthropometric measurement done for U-5 children to assess wasting (W/H), underweight (W/A), stunting (H/A),
  • 6. Flood Impact LONGEST FLOOD REMAINED Mean SD Min – Max The highest level of water in houses (meter) 1.1 0.9 0,01 – 8 The longest flood remained (days) 10.3 6.7 1 – 60
  • 7. Results (1a) : General Morbidity The prevalence rates of main acute infectious diseases within 1 month after flood were higher than both the official Bojonegoro prevalence rates before flood and the corresponding current rates within 1 month before interview, i.e. 1 year after flood
  • 8. Results (1b) : General Morbidity -GE and dermatitis might be a consequence of drinking water contamination (35% bad quality after flood, as compared to 8.5% before flood) and contact with flood water -ARI might be related to displacement (67% were displaced within range of 2-30 days and average of 8 days)
  • 9. Results (2) : General Morbidity The prevalence rate of hypertension in the study population were lower than official Bojonegoro prevalence rate (i.e. 8.7%). Our rate might be underestimated, due to recall problems Estimated prevalence rate of main diagnosed chronic diseases In Bojonegoro, December 2007 History of chronic diseases Prevalence Yes 5,0% Five main chronic diseases   1. Hypertension & / Heart Disease 2,2% 2. Rheumatism 0,6% 3. Chronic pulmonary disease 0,5% 4. Renal disease 0,5% 5. Pulmonary TB 0,4%
  • 10. Results (3) : General Morbidity Still about 33% of subjects did not immediately go to modern health facilities when they got illness within 1 month after flood
  • 11. Results (4) : General Morbidity Although almost all (94%) admitted good quality of health service and about 70% could reach easily the health facilities by foot/ bicycle, still more than half did not go to health facilities when getting sick after flood because the illness was not serious.
  • 12. Results (3) : Child Morbidity The prevalence rates of acute infection diseases among under-five (U-5) children within the past 1 year after flood were higher than the official Bojonegoro prevalence rates before flood
  • 13. Results (4) : Child Nutrition The prevalence rates of wasting (20%), underweight (29%), stunting (41%) and among U-5 children within the past 1 year after flood were quite high and even higher than official Bojonegoro prevalence rates before flood
  • 14. Results (5) : Child Nutrition The prevalence rates/ year of malnutrition among under-five children were higher in flooded households as compared to non-flooded households. Noted that the Bojonegoro population frequently suffered from repeating annual floods
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17.
    • Bojonegoro flood in December 2007, might have increased prevalence of major infectious diseases in the population, especially among under-five children
    • Still about one third of sick subjects did not visit health facility
    • Bojonegoro flood might have also amplified acute and chronic malnutrition among under-five children within one year after flood .
    • Important determinants of GE were: age, household status and length of contact with flood water
    • Important determinants of ARI occurence were: age, length of contact with flood water, socio-economic status and duration of displacement
  • 18.
    • 1. More adequate program to anticipate dan prevent the increase of predominant acute infectious diseases after flood in flood prone areas, through strong surveillance, is a must, considering the important predictors of the diseases
    • 2. Specific and focussed intervention for children population should be set-up to prevent acute and chronic malnutrition potentially occurred after annual flood.
  • 19.
    • 3. Communication, information and education programs to promote disaster awareness and positive health seeking behavior should be strengthened, through community participation and wider stakeholder involvement
    • 4. Larger and more analytical research is needed to investigate more about the important factors contributing in the occurrence of acute and chronic malnutrion after frequent annual flood
  • 20. A cknowledgement Funding for this study was made available by the European Commission under the 6 th Framework Programme – Contract n° GOCE-CT-2007- 036877 We also highly appreciate the very helpful support from Bojonegoro Health District Office
  • 21. THANK YOU VERY MUCH