Leptospirosis in Fiji: A Review of the Situation in 2012

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GRF 2nd One Health Summit 2013: Presentation by REID, Dr. Simon Andrew, The University of Queensland

GRF 2nd One Health Summit 2013: Presentation by REID, Dr. Simon Andrew, The University of Queensland

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  • 1. LEPTOSPIROSIS IN FIJI: A REVIEW OF THE SITUATION IN 2012 Associate Professor Simon Reid School of Population Health University of Queensland Brisbane, Australia CRICOS Provider No 00025B
  • 2. Acknowledgements Fiji Centre for CD Control • Dr Vereniki Raiwalui • Dr Mike Kama • Aggie Dawainavesi UQ • Dr Vanessa Racloz WHO (South Pacific) • Dr Eric Nilles CRICOS Provider No 00025B
  • 3. CRICOS Provider No 00025B
  • 4. INCIDENCE OF LEPTOSPIROSIS ELISA • 2011: 12 per 100,000 • 2012: 62.5 – 100 per 100,000 CRICOS Provider No 00025B
  • 5. Fiji 2012 • 525 confirmed cases • 52 deaths • Up to ~300 more cases if PCR had been used
  • 6. Floods Ba Lautoka Nadi Rewa Suva CRICOS Provider No 00025B
  • 7. ETHNICITY 400 350 Cases per 100,000 300 iTaukei Indian 250 200 150 100 50 0 Ba CRICOS Provider No 00025B Lautoka Macuata Nadi Nadroga Subdivision Ra Rewa Suva
  • 8. Age distribution CRICOS Provider No 00025B
  • 9. RESERVOIRS? CRICOS Provider No 00025B
  • 10. Serovars • Predominant serovars in human cases (historical): – – – – australis copenhageni canicola cynoptera • Limited data on range of serovars in domestic and feral animals in Fiji • 1981: antibodies detected (CFT) in: – Cattle (27.5%), sheep (17.1%), goats (10.3%), pigs (10.0%) – Dogs (57%), rats (55.8%), mongoose (53.1%), mice (40%) CRICOS Provider No 00025B
  • 11. Naduri and Burebasaga (2002) 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% Mongoose = ~70% Hardjo 0.0% SPC ANIMAL HEALTH & PRODUCTION SERVICE (http://www.spc.int/lrd/)
  • 12. Prevalence of Leptospira Antibodies by Serovar in Cattle from Naduri Village (n = 130) 50% Prevalence 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% CRICOS Provider No 00025B Serovar
  • 13. Overlap with humans Human 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% CRICOS Provider No 00025B Dog
  • 14. One Health Issues/opportunities • Major gaps in epidemiological information • Case investigations are lead by environmental health officers but need to include AH and PH personnel • Importance of sampling ALL mammals (including humans) at the site of transmission • Need to work out how to get rats and mongoose • MoH has initiated a national strategy CRICOS Provider No 00025B