Interaction Between Exposure To Concentrated Ambient Particles, Ozone And Diet On Stress Axis Functions


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GRF 2nd One Health Summit 2013: Presentation by MOHANKUMAR, Dr. Sheba MJ, Michigan State University

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  • Good afternoon everyone. I want to thank the organizers for the opportunity. My talk is going to focus on two sources of air pollution- Particulate matter and ozone and their interaction with diet and how it affects stress.
  • This map gives an idea of how air pollution affects the earth. Regions in orange and red are those with the highest levels of air pollution. One of the main reasons for air pollution is ozone. There are two types of ozones: good and bad. Good ozone Is present about 10-30 miles above the earth in the upper layers of the atmosphere. It is responsible for blocking a large portion of ultraviolet rays from the sun. Bad ozone is what is generated at ground level due to the interaction of oxygen molecules with chemicals present in the air that are generated by industries and automotives. Smog is another serious effect of pollution. This picture here demonstrates of how dense smog can be. This happened recently in the city of Harbin, China. Smog is the direct effect of increase in particulate matter in the atmosphere mainly from automotives. Biological effects of air pollution include irritation of the upper respiratory tract, the lungs, increases allergic airway disease and cardiometabolic disorders.
  • Air pollution not only affects humans but also influences animal health. Animals are placed at higher risk for respiratory diseases as a result of air pollution. One of the biological effects of air pollution is increasing stress.
  • Besides air pollution
  • Interaction Between Exposure To Concentrated Ambient Particles, Ozone And Diet On Stress Axis Functions

    1. 1. Sheba M.J. MohanKumar, Priya Balasubramanian, Katryn Allen, James G. Wagner, Jack R. Harkema and P.S. MohanKumar Neuroendocrine Research Laboratory and Laboratory of Inhalation Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, MI, USA
    2. 2. Ozone and Particulate matter Ozone- “good” and “bad” Bad ozone-generated at ground level by automotive exhaust, industries. Smog – auto exhaust also contains air particles. Biological effects: irritates lungs, upper respiratory tract, increases allergic airway disease, cardiometabolic disorders
    3. 3. Air pollution - relevance to One health Air pollution also affects animals Increased risk for respiratory disorders Increased stress STRESS Norepinephrine in Paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus CRH in hypothalamus Glucocorticoids in blood
    4. 4. Obesity and Air pollution Obesity is widespread. Increased risk for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders Obesity is also linked to stress Asthma is more common in obese patients
    5. 5. The Question Would exposure to Ozone and CAPs aggravate respiratory and cardiovascular conditions in obese individuals?
    6. 6. Approach Adult male Sprague Dawley rats Normal chow or high fructose diet for 6 weeks Expose to Air or Ozone
    7. 7. Approach Brains removed and sectioned Isolation of Paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus for Norepinephrine -HPLC-EC Median eminence for CRH-ELISA Serum for corticosterone-RIA
    8. 8. Norepinephrine * *
    9. 9. CRH * *
    10. 10. Corticosterone * *
    11. 11. Summary HF diet by itself increases norepinephrine and corticosterone- suggesting stress axis activation. Animals on normal diet react more to CAPs exposures alone. Animals on HF diet react to CAPs and Ozone combination. Obesity may increase susceptibility to these dual exposures. Elevations in Norepinephrine levels can also increase risk for cardiovascular conditions.
    12. 12. Metabolic imbalance (high fructose diet) Exposure to mixed pollutants Autonomic Nervous System Cardiovascular Respiratory Metabolic Function Liver, Adiposity, insulin resistance
    13. 13. Conclusions: Controlling CAPs and ozone pollution is important Assessment: Do CAPs and ozone increase risk for allergic airway disease? Other biological effects, developmental effects Manage: Reduce automotive vehicle use- reduce gasoline and solvent use. Electric vehicles, walk/bike. Use cleaner energy sources. Susceptible populations should stay indoors during high ozone periods. Communicate: Increase awareness.
    14. 14. Funding support EPA (Harkema) MSU Agbioresearch CVM MSU