Good afternoon everyone. I want to thank the organizers for the opportunity. My talk is going to focus on two sources of air pollution- Particulate matter and ozone and their interaction with diet and how it affects stress.
This map gives an idea of how air pollution affects the earth. Regions in orange and red are those with the highest levels of air pollution. One of the main reasons for air pollution is ozone. There are two types of ozones: good and bad. Good ozone Is present about 10-30 miles above the earth in the upper layers of the atmosphere. It is responsible for blocking a large portion of ultraviolet rays from the sun. Bad ozone is what is generated at ground level due to the interaction of oxygen molecules with chemicals present in the air that are generated by industries and automotives. Smog is another serious effect of pollution. This picture here demonstrates of how dense smog can be. This happened recently in the city of Harbin, China. Smog is the direct effect of increase in particulate matter in the atmosphere mainly from automotives. Biological effects of air pollution include irritation of the upper respiratory tract, the lungs, increases allergic airway disease and cardiometabolic disorders.
Air pollution not only affects humans but also influences animal health. Animals are placed at higher risk for respiratory diseases as a result of air pollution. One of the biological effects of air pollution is increasing stress.
Besides air pollution
Interaction Between Exposure To Concentrated Ambient Particles, Ozone And Diet On Stress Axis Functions
Sheba M.J. MohanKumar, Priya Balasubramanian, Katryn
Allen, James G. Wagner, Jack R. Harkema and
Neuroendocrine Research Laboratory and Laboratory
of Inhalation Pathology, College of Veterinary
Medicine, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, MI,
Ozone and Particulate matter
Ozone- “good” and “bad”
Bad ozone-generated at
ground level by automotive
Smog – auto exhaust also
contains air particles.
Biological effects: irritates
lungs, upper respiratory tract,
increases allergic airway
Air pollution - relevance to One
Air pollution also
Increased risk for
Obesity and Air pollution
Obesity is widespread. Increased risk for
cardiovascular and metabolic disorders
Obesity is also linked to stress
Asthma is more common in obese patients
Would exposure to Ozone and CAPs aggravate
respiratory and cardiovascular conditions in obese
Adult male Sprague Dawley rats
Normal chow or high fructose diet for 6 weeks
Expose to Air or Ozone
Brains removed and sectioned
Isolation of Paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus for
Median eminence for CRH-ELISA
Serum for corticosterone-RIA
HF diet by itself increases norepinephrine and
corticosterone- suggesting stress axis activation.
Animals on normal diet react more to CAPs
Animals on HF diet react to CAPs and Ozone
combination. Obesity may increase susceptibility to
these dual exposures.
Elevations in Norepinephrine levels can also increase
risk for cardiovascular conditions.
Controlling CAPs and ozone pollution is important
Assessment: Do CAPs and ozone increase risk for
allergic airway disease? Other biological effects,
Manage: Reduce automotive vehicle use- reduce
gasoline and solvent use. Electric vehicles, walk/bike.
Use cleaner energy sources. Susceptible populations
should stay indoors during high ozone periods.
Communicate: Increase awareness.