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Saadi Ghaderi
Esfahan Water Regional Organization, Iran
Dr. Khalid Moin
Jamia Millia Islamia, Department of Civil Engineer...
Objective of this talk:-Objective of this talk:-
• Natural disaster and Poverty in Developing
and poor countries, focussin...
• The world has witnessed an increase inThe world has witnessed an increase in
the frequency and severity of naturalthe fr...
3,852 disasters killed more than 780,000
people over the past 10 years, affected
more than 2 billion others and cost a
min...
Eight of the top 10 countries with the highest
number of disaster-related deaths were in Asia.
FACTS AND FIGURES FOR
THE DECADE : 2000-2009
60% people died because of60% people died because of earthquakesearthquakes
i...
From 2000-2004, some 262 million
people were annually affected by
climate disasters, 98% of which were
from developing cou...
The most people killed by natural
disasters are located in Asia
85% of fatalities were in Asia
Natural disasters are a fact of life for
every country, but they are especially
dangerous for people in countries where
pe...
We review several case studies of
natural disasters occurring in the poor
LDC`s,Developing and rich countries
Haiti
Iindia...
Indicator Haiti El Salvdor USA
Population (UN
estimate, 2010 )
10,033,000 (82th) 6,163,000 (106th) 309,374,000(3th)
Capita...
GDP per capita(PPP US$)(2007)
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
45000
50000
Haiti Elsalvador USA
106th
13th...
Most of its 500,000 residents live in
extreme poverty
HaitiHaiti
Haiti is already the poorest country in the
Latin America...
About 66% of all Haitians work in the
agricultural sector
Due to acute poverty, four out of five
farmers cannot satisfy th...
Half of the children in Haiti are
unvaccinated and just 40% of the
population has access to basic health care
About 80% of...
Approximately 5% of Haiti's adult population
is infected with HIV
Before the 2010 earthquake, nearly half the
causes of de...
More than 50 natural disasters have
affected Haiti in the past 20 years.
Incidence of disasters in Haiti, 1970-2009
Natura...
On January 12, 2010, Haiti was struck by a
magnitude-7.0 earthquake, the country's
most severe earthquake in over 200 year...
Hurricane Jeanne passed through Haiti in
September 2004 leaving over 3,006 dead,
30,000 homeless, and hundreds-of-
thousan...
Two factors –Two factors –
acute poverty andand civil unrest ––
also play key social roles in deepening thealso play key s...
Storms and floods that have struck bothStorms and floods that have struck both
Haiti and the Dominican Republic since 2004...
10 most recent natural disasters
that have occurred in:
10 most recent natural disasters
that have occurred in:
Disasters:...
EL SalvadorEL Salvador
In 2005 the number of people living in
extreme poverty in El Salvador was 20%.
Health care for the ...
During 1980–1992, The Salvadoran Civil War
was predominantly fought Civil War between
the government of El Salvador and a ...
Natural Disaster in EL Salvador
Deaths: more than 1,200 people
Affected: 300,000 dwellings (about 32%
of the existing hous...
EL Salvador Earthquakes,EL Salvador Earthquakes,
19861986
The 5.7 Mw-earthquake of 1986 resulted in
1,500 deaths, 10,000 i...
Hurricane Mitch devastated Nicaragua, Panama,
Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador,
Mexico, Costa Rica, Jamaica, and F...
Located
in
six
Located
in
six
active
volcanoes,
active
volcanoes,
Earthquake
and
Earthquake
and
hurricane
area
hurricane
a...
The Comparation of indicator of Japan, Iran & India
Indicator India Iran Japan
Population(UN
estimate, 2010)
1,181,432,000...
GDP per capita(PPP US$)(2007)
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
India Iran Japan
88th
10th
134th
Literacy R...
IndiaIndia
The per capita net state domestic product of
India's richest states is about 3.2 times that
of the poorest stat...
Despite India's impressive economic
growth over recent decades, it still
contains the largest concentration of poor
people...
As of 2001, more than 70% of India's
population continues to reside in rural areas
More than 850 million Indians earn less...
Natural Disaster in India
The Indian sub continent is highly prone to
natural disasters. Floods, droughts,
cyclones and ea...
The twin cyclones,The twin cyclones, OctOct,1999,1999
450,000 cattle dead
Caused to 8,495 Lives lost
2 million Houses & 23...
Bhuje Earthquake in 2001
One of the worst earthquakes in the last
180 years in India
Direct economic losses at $1.3 billio...
IranIran
Iran is considered developing country and more
than 40% of Iranian live in rural area.during
these last thirty ye...
Natural Disasters in Iran
Iran is especially prone to major disasters
caused by natural hazards, particularly
earthquakes....
Approximately 130 large earthquakes
have taken place in most parts of Iran.
In last 100 years, 150,000 people had been
kil...
Bam EarthquakeBam Earthquake , 26 December 2003, 26 December 2003
Deaths: more than 30,000 peopleDeaths: more than 30,000 ...
In Iran, the cyclone caused 28 deaths
and 216 million in damage (2007 USD).
Cyclone GonuCyclone Gonu ,, June 7, 2007June 7...
40% of world poor (500 million) live in
South Asia
40% of world poor (500 million) live in
South Asia
46% of world illiter...
During (1970-2009), 1,132 disasters have
occurred in South Asia and have killed
more than 869,000.
During (1970-2009), 1,1...
Poorer countries have disproportionately higher
mortality and economic loss risks, given similar levels
of hazard exposure...
They can wipe out decades of development in a
matter of hours, sometimes minutes. Because
the economic impact of natural d...
Worldwide, it is estimated that approximately
100,000 people are killed as a result of natural
disasters each year (97% fr...
USA is one of the richest countries in the
world, with infrastructure throughout
much of the country that's built to
withs...
HurricaneHurricane
Katrina(2005)Katrina(2005)
low-income New Orleans residents down and
starving them into despair.
low-in...
The elderly poor were also disproportionately
affected by the disaster: 70% of the New
Orleans area's 53 nursing homes wer...
rural unemploymentrural unemploymentrural unemploymentrural unemployment
faminefaminefaminefamine
civil warscivil warscivi...
More than 90 percent of the populations of
Bangladesh, Nepal, the Dominican Republic,
Burundi, Haiti, Taiwan, Malawi, El S...
Natural
disasters
Catastrophe
PoorPoor
governancegovernance
ExternalExternal
sanctionssanctions
PovertyPoverty
Foreign deb...
The worst natural disastersThe worst natural disasters don't intentionallydon't intentionally
seek out poor people. They j...
8.8 Magnitude,8.8 Magnitude,
ChileChile, 2010, 2010
8.8 Magnitude,8.8 Magnitude,
ChileChile, 2010, 2010
KilledKilled 40000...
A 6.9 MagnitudeA 6.9 Magnitude
Earthquake in 1989Earthquake in 1989
A 6.9 MagnitudeA 6.9 Magnitude
Earthquake in 1989Earth...
ConclusionsConclusionsConclusionsConclusions
Only 11% of the people are exposed to naturalOnly 11% of the people are expos...
Earthquakes don't kill people.Earthquakes don't kill people. BuildingsBuildings
kill peoplekill people (False).(False).
Ea...
Although, most people think the apparent reasonAlthough, most people think the apparent reason
of killing people is lack o...
In each instance, the poor are theIn each instance, the poor are the
most deeply affected by the disastermost deeply affec...
Natural DisastersNatural Disasters
Developing and poor countries
Poverty
Release theRelease the
other disastersother disas...
• Infrastructure developmentInfrastructure development• Infrastructure developmentInfrastructure development
• Increasing ...
• Building institutional and technical capacityBuilding institutional and technical capacity
on adaptation issueson adapta...
Thank you very much for
your kind attention!
Saadi.Ghaderi@yahoo.com
Poverty Reduce, the Essential Issue to Disaster Risk Reduction in Developing and Poor Countries
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Poverty Reduce, the Essential Issue to Disaster Risk Reduction in Developing and Poor Countries

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Transcript of "Poverty Reduce, the Essential Issue to Disaster Risk Reduction in Developing and Poor Countries"

  1. 1. Saadi Ghaderi Esfahan Water Regional Organization, Iran Dr. Khalid Moin Jamia Millia Islamia, Department of Civil Engineering, New Delhi, India Dr. Amir Ali Khan National Institute of Disaster Management, New Delhi, India Poverty Reduce, the Essential Issue to Risk Reduction in Developing and Poor Countries International Disaster and Risk Conference ICDR Davos 2010International Disaster and Risk Conference ICDR Davos 2010
  2. 2. Objective of this talk:-Objective of this talk:- • Natural disaster and Poverty in Developing and poor countries, focussing on:- • How we can reduce the effect of naturalHow we can reduce the effect of natural disasters in these countries?disasters in these countries? • How we can reduce the effect of naturalHow we can reduce the effect of natural disasters in these countries?disasters in these countries? • Why natural disasters having consequences catastrpophic in poor and Developin countries • Why natural disasters having consequences catastrpophic in poor and Developin countries
  3. 3. • The world has witnessed an increase inThe world has witnessed an increase in the frequency and severity of naturalthe frequency and severity of natural disasters in the last two decades.disasters in the last two decades. • The world has witnessed an increase inThe world has witnessed an increase in the frequency and severity of naturalthe frequency and severity of natural disasters in the last two decades.disasters in the last two decades.
  4. 4. 3,852 disasters killed more than 780,000 people over the past 10 years, affected more than 2 billion others and cost a minimum of $960 billion. (Source: CRED)
  5. 5. Eight of the top 10 countries with the highest number of disaster-related deaths were in Asia.
  6. 6. FACTS AND FIGURES FOR THE DECADE : 2000-2009 60% people died because of60% people died because of earthquakesearthquakes in the last decade, followed byin the last decade, followed by stormsstorms (22%) and (11%)(22%) and (11%) extreme temperaturesextreme temperatures
  7. 7. From 2000-2004, some 262 million people were annually affected by climate disasters, 98% of which were from developing countries According to UN statistics: The chance of killing people in developing and poor countries than rich countries against crisis is 4
  8. 8. The most people killed by natural disasters are located in Asia 85% of fatalities were in Asia
  9. 9. Natural disasters are a fact of life for every country, but they are especially dangerous for people in countries where people struggle to survive. It is in these poorer, third-world countries that a major natural disasters can kill thousands and threaten the livelihoods of those who survived the disaster.
  10. 10. We review several case studies of natural disasters occurring in the poor LDC`s,Developing and rich countries Haiti Iindia USA El Salvador Iran
  11. 11. Indicator Haiti El Salvdor USA Population (UN estimate, 2010 ) 10,033,000 (82th) 6,163,000 (106th) 309,374,000(3th) Capital city Port-au-Prince (population: 2.5 million) San Salvador (1.8 million) Washington, DC(5.36 million) GDP (PPP) $International Monetary Fund, 2009) 11,562 (135th) 43,676 (87th) 14,256,275 (1th) GDP per capita (PPP US$)(2007) $ 1155(149th) $ 5,804(106th) $ 45592(13th ) literacy rate(UNDP, 2007/2008) 54.5%(156th) 80.5%(123th) 99%(21th) Life Expectancy(2007) 61 years(149th) 71.3 years(106th) 79.1 years(13th ) infant mortality rate(2008) 48.8 per 1,000 live births(136th ) 21.5 per 1000 live births (99th) 6.3 per 1,000 live births(33th) HDI, (based on 2007 data,UNDP, published on October 5, 2009 ) 0.532(149th ) 0.747(106th) ▲ 0.956(very high) (13th) The Comparation of Indicators of USA, Haiti & EL Salvador GDP: Gross Domestic Product PPP:Purchasing Power Parity HDI: Human Development Index
  12. 12. GDP per capita(PPP US$)(2007) 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 50000 Haiti Elsalvador USA 106th 13th 149th HDI, (based on 2007 data,UNPD) 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1 Haiti Elsalvador USA 106th 13th 149th Literacy Rate(UNDP, 2007/2008) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Haiti Elsalvador USA 123th 21th 156th Infant Mortality Rate(per 1000)(UNPD,2008) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Haiti Elsalvador USA 99th 33th 136th
  13. 13. Most of its 500,000 residents live in extreme poverty HaitiHaiti Haiti is already the poorest country in the Latin America Port-au-Prince is such a dense city, and most of the construction is very, very poor In 2008, Port-au-Prince’s mayor estimated that 60 percent of the capital’s buildings were unsafe Charcoal is now the primary fuel source for 70% of Haitians
  14. 14. About 66% of all Haitians work in the agricultural sector Due to acute poverty, four out of five farmers cannot satisfy their basic food needs
  15. 15. Half of the children in Haiti are unvaccinated and just 40% of the population has access to basic health care About 80% of the population were estimated to be living in poverty in 2003
  16. 16. Approximately 5% of Haiti's adult population is infected with HIV Before the 2010 earthquake, nearly half the causes of deaths have been attributed to HIVI/AIDS, respiratory infections, meningitis and diarrhea diseases, including cholera and typhoid
  17. 17. More than 50 natural disasters have affected Haiti in the past 20 years. Incidence of disasters in Haiti, 1970-2009 Natural Disaster in Haiti The frequency of climatic disasters (droughts, storms and floods) increased 2.5 times between 1970-1989 and 1990-2009, whilst the number of fatalities per disaster climbed 5 times
  18. 18. On January 12, 2010, Haiti was struck by a magnitude-7.0 earthquake, the country's most severe earthquake in over 200 years Deaths: 230,000 2010 Haiti Earthquake2010 Haiti Earthquake 300,000 were injured. 1.9 million were displaced The base estimate is US$ 8.1bn
  19. 19. Hurricane Jeanne passed through Haiti in September 2004 leaving over 3,006 dead, 30,000 homeless, and hundreds-of- thousands without adequate care. Hurricane Jeanne, 2004Hurricane Jeanne, 2004
  20. 20. Two factors –Two factors – acute poverty andand civil unrest –– also play key social roles in deepening thealso play key social roles in deepening the effects of natural disasters on Haiti.effects of natural disasters on Haiti. Two factors –Two factors – acute poverty andand civil unrest –– also play key social roles in deepening thealso play key social roles in deepening the effects of natural disasters on Haiti.effects of natural disasters on Haiti.
  21. 21. Storms and floods that have struck bothStorms and floods that have struck both Haiti and the Dominican Republic since 2004Haiti and the Dominican Republic since 2004 killed 3,500 people in Haitikilled 3,500 people in Haiti butbut just 200just 200 people in its richer island neighbourpeople in its richer island neighbour
  22. 22. 10 most recent natural disasters that have occurred in: 10 most recent natural disasters that have occurred in: Disasters:Disasters: Hurricane,Hurricane, Tropical Storm, FloodTropical Storm, Flood Killed:Killed: 208208 Affected:Affected: 194794194794 Disasters:Disasters: Hurricane,Hurricane, Tropical Storm, FloodTropical Storm, Flood Killed:Killed: 208208 Affected:Affected: 194794194794 Disasters:Disasters: Hurricane,Hurricane, Tropical Storm, FloodTropical Storm, Flood Killed:Killed: 35083508 Affected:Affected: 581345581345 Disasters:Disasters: Hurricane,Hurricane, Tropical Storm, FloodTropical Storm, Flood Killed:Killed: 35083508 Affected:Affected: 581345581345 Dominican RepublicHaiti Disasters don't strike equally across the globe; they hit the poor the hardest.
  23. 23. EL SalvadorEL Salvador In 2005 the number of people living in extreme poverty in El Salvador was 20%. Health care for the urban and rural poor is limited. El Salvador was one the poorest countries in Latin America at the time of the quakes, with nearly 31% of the population under extreme poverty in 2000. El Salvador was one the poorest countries in Latin America at the time of the quakes, with nearly 31% of the population under extreme poverty in 2000.
  24. 24. During 1980–1992, The Salvadoran Civil War was predominantly fought Civil War between the government of El Salvador and a coalition of four leftist groups and one communist group known as the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front(FMLN). Approximately 75,000 people were killed in the war
  25. 25. Natural Disaster in EL Salvador Deaths: more than 1,200 people Affected: 300,000 dwellings (about 32% of the existing housing stock) Caused: US$1.6 billion in direct and indirect damages (12% of GDP in 2000). Deaths: more than 1,200 people Affected: 300,000 dwellings (about 32% of the existing housing stock) Caused: US$1.6 billion in direct and indirect damages (12% of GDP in 2000). Two strong earthquakes inTwo strong earthquakes in 20012001
  26. 26. EL Salvador Earthquakes,EL Salvador Earthquakes, 19861986 The 5.7 Mw-earthquake of 1986 resulted in 1,500 deaths, 10,000 injuries, and 100,000 people left homeless
  27. 27. Hurricane Mitch devastated Nicaragua, Panama, Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Mexico, Costa Rica, Jamaica, and Florida. Overall 10,000 people were killed, 3 million displaced, and $8.5 billion in damages incurred In Nicaragua, 750,000 homes were destroyed and in El Salvador, 50,000 people were left homeless and 500,000 were forced to flee their homes. Hurricane Mitch, 1998
  28. 28. Located in six Located in six active volcanoes, active volcanoes, Earthquake and Earthquake and hurricane area hurricane area CivilW ar The vulnerabilityThe vulnerability of El Salvador toof El Salvador to natural hazardnatural hazard The vulnerabilityThe vulnerability of El Salvador toof El Salvador to natural hazardnatural hazard Poverty and Highest population Density
  29. 29. The Comparation of indicator of Japan, Iran & India Indicator India Iran Japan Population(UN estimate, 2010) 1,181,432,000 (2nd) 74,196,000 (17th) 127,390,000(10th) Capital city San Salvador (1.8 million) Tehran (population: 13.5 million) Washington, DC(5.36 million) GDP (PPP) $ International Monetary Fund, 2009) 3,526,124 (4th) 827,858 (18th) 4,159,432 (3th) GDP per capita (PPP US$)(2007) $ 2753(134th) $ 10955(88th) $ 33632(10th) Literacy Rate(UNDP, 2007/2008) 66%(147th) 82.4%(116th) 99%(21th) Life Expectancy 63.7 years (2008) 73 years (2009) 83 years(2010) Infant Mortality Rate(UNPD,2008) 55 per 1,000 live births (143th) 30.6 per 1,000 live births(119th) 3.2 per 1,000 live births (3th) HDI, (based on 2007 data,UNPD, published on October 5, 2009 ) ▲0.612(medium)(134th) ▼0.782 (medium) (88th) ▲0.96(very high) (10th) GDP: Gross Domestic Product PPP:Purchasing Power Parity HDI: Human Development Index
  30. 30. GDP per capita(PPP US$)(2007) 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 India Iran Japan 88th 10th 134th Literacy Rate(UNDP, 2007/2008) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 India Iran Japan 116th 21th 147th Infant Mortality Rate(per 1000)(UNPD,2008) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 India Iran Japan 119th 3th 143th HDI, (based on 2007 data,UNPD, 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1 India Iran Japan 88th, medium 10th, very high 134th, medium
  31. 31. IndiaIndia The per capita net state domestic product of India's richest states is about 3.2 times that of the poorest states India is the world's second most populated country. ( of 1.2 billion people) India has the world's second largest Labour force, with 516.3 million people.
  32. 32. Despite India's impressive economic growth over recent decades, it still contains the largest concentration of poor people in the world. The percentage of people living below the World Bank's international poverty line of $1.25 a day
  33. 33. As of 2001, more than 70% of India's population continues to reside in rural areas More than 850 million Indians earn less than 2 dollars a day
  34. 34. Natural Disaster in India The Indian sub continent is highly prone to natural disasters. Floods, droughts, cyclones and earthquakes are a recurrent phenomenon in India 60% of land mass prone to earthquakes, 40 million hectares of landmass prone to floods, Drought (8%) During 1819-2001, fifteen great earthquakes (magnitude exceeding 5.2 – 8.7) occurred in India.
  35. 35. The twin cyclones,The twin cyclones, OctOct,1999,1999 450,000 cattle dead Caused to 8,495 Lives lost 2 million Houses & 23,000 Schools damaged Loss of 90 million trees and Power supply disrupted in 19,062 villages.
  36. 36. Bhuje Earthquake in 2001 One of the worst earthquakes in the last 180 years in India Direct economic losses at $1.3 billion Deaths:19,727 The number of injured:166,000 Indications are that 600,000 people were left homeless 348,000 houses destroyed and an additional 844,000 damaged
  37. 37. IranIran Iran is considered developing country and more than 40% of Iranian live in rural area.during these last thirty years,due to lack of financial means, lack of awareness of the population, and low quality construction instruments, in these areas vulnerability to natural disasters is high. Iran ranks second in the world in natural gas reserves and third in oil reserves
  38. 38. Natural Disasters in Iran Iran is especially prone to major disasters caused by natural hazards, particularly earthquakes. Among the 40 different types of natural disasters observable in different parts of the world, 31 types have been identified in Iran. In the last century, 12 earthquakes that have registered above 7 on the Richter scale have struck Iran.
  39. 39. Approximately 130 large earthquakes have taken place in most parts of Iran. In last 100 years, 150,000 people had been killed by natural disasters in the country while earthquakes alone accounted for about 80% of deaths Due to weak structures, poor livelihood and lack of awareness in urban and rural areas, earthquake always have a huge mortality in Iran. About 90% of land mass of Iran is prone to earthquakes.
  40. 40. Bam EarthquakeBam Earthquake , 26 December 2003, 26 December 2003 Deaths: more than 30,000 peopleDeaths: more than 30,000 people Manjil EarthquakeManjil Earthquake , 26 December 1990, 26 December 1990 Deaths: more than 40000Deaths: more than 40000 The number of injured:60,000The number of injured:60,000 400,000 people were left homeless400,000 people were left homeless 348,000 houses destroyed and an348,000 houses destroyed and an additional 844,000 damagedadditional 844,000 damaged Injured: 50,000Injured: 50,000
  41. 41. In Iran, the cyclone caused 28 deaths and 216 million in damage (2007 USD). Cyclone GonuCyclone Gonu ,, June 7, 2007June 7, 2007
  42. 42. 40% of world poor (500 million) live in South Asia 40% of world poor (500 million) live in South Asia 46% of world illiterates also belong to South Asia. 46% of world illiterates also belong to South Asia. 1.4 billion people of South Asia is still growing at more than 2% per annum, 1.4 billion people of South Asia is still growing at more than 2% per annum, 23% of world population, South Asia produces only 1.3% of world income. 23% of world population, South Asia produces only 1.3% of world income. South Asia
  43. 43. During (1970-2009), 1,132 disasters have occurred in South Asia and have killed more than 869,000. During (1970-2009), 1,132 disasters have occurred in South Asia and have killed more than 869,000. South Asia countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka South Asia countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka Theses countries are very vulnerable to natural disasters Theses countries are very vulnerable to natural disasters
  44. 44. Poorer countries have disproportionately higher mortality and economic loss risks, given similar levels of hazard exposure. For example: Globally, high-income countries account for 39% of the exposure to tropical cyclones but only 1% of the mortality risk. Low-income countries represent 13% of the exposure but no less than 81% of the mortality risk.
  45. 45. They can wipe out decades of development in a matter of hours, sometimes minutes. Because the economic impact of natural disasters hit poor people the hardest, disaster recovery programs may help reduce poverty, They can wipe out decades of development in a matter of hours, sometimes minutes. Because the economic impact of natural disasters hit poor people the hardest, disaster recovery programs may help reduce poverty, Losses from natural disasters are most devastating to the poorest people, especially in developing countries. Losses from natural disasters are most devastating to the poorest people, especially in developing countries. Disasters are closely linked to poverty
  46. 46. Worldwide, it is estimated that approximately 100,000 people are killed as a result of natural disasters each year (97% from third-world countries). Worldwide, it is estimated that approximately 100,000 people are killed as a result of natural disasters each year (97% from third-world countries). The damage from natural disasters in third- world countries is exacerbated by mistakes made by humans. The damage from natural disasters in third- world countries is exacerbated by mistakes made by humans. Direct losses from natural disasters are projected to reach $300 billion annually by the year 2050. Direct losses from natural disasters are projected to reach $300 billion annually by the year 2050.
  47. 47. USA is one of the richest countries in the world, with infrastructure throughout much of the country that's built to withstand severe storms and quakes. USA is one of the richest countries in the world, with infrastructure throughout much of the country that's built to withstand severe storms and quakes. A 2004 report on "Poverty and Disasters in the United States" finds that : "the poor in the U.S. are more vulnerable to natural disasters, due to such factors as place and type of residence, building construction and social exclusion”
  48. 48. HurricaneHurricane Katrina(2005)Katrina(2005) low-income New Orleans residents down and starving them into despair. low-income New Orleans residents down and starving them into despair. Rich packed up their suitcases and headed out of town, while impoverished residents without access to private transportation were left to ride out a lethal storm Rich packed up their suitcases and headed out of town, while impoverished residents without access to private transportation were left to ride out a lethal storm
  49. 49. The elderly poor were also disproportionately affected by the disaster: 70% of the New Orleans area's 53 nursing homes were not evacuated before the hurricane struck. The elderly poor were also disproportionately affected by the disaster: 70% of the New Orleans area's 53 nursing homes were not evacuated before the hurricane struck. The 100,000 who remained in the drowning city were largely poor and predominantly black, exposing the racial dimension of New Orleans’s persistent poverty The 100,000 who remained in the drowning city were largely poor and predominantly black, exposing the racial dimension of New Orleans’s persistent poverty 28% of New Orleanians are poor (twice the national average) and 84% of those are black. 28% of New Orleanians are poor (twice the national average) and 84% of those are black.
  50. 50. rural unemploymentrural unemploymentrural unemploymentrural unemployment faminefaminefaminefamine civil warscivil warscivil warscivil wars population growthpopulation growthpopulation growthpopulation growth Natural disasters have hadNatural disasters have had a disproportionately largea disproportionately large impact on the developingimpact on the developing world and on poor peopleworld and on poor people within those countries, forwithin those countries, for a variety of reasonsa variety of reasons
  51. 51. More than 90 percent of the populations of Bangladesh, Nepal, the Dominican Republic, Burundi, Haiti, Taiwan, Malawi, El Salvador, and Honduras live in areas at high relative risk of death from two or more hazards In 1998, 90% of the victims of natural disasters lived in in Less Developing Countries In 1998, 90% of the victims of natural disasters lived in in Less Developing Countries
  52. 52. Natural disasters Catastrophe PoorPoor governancegovernance ExternalExternal sanctionssanctions PovertyPoverty Foreign debtForeign debt
  53. 53. The worst natural disastersThe worst natural disasters don't intentionallydon't intentionally seek out poor people. They just do the mostseek out poor people. They just do the most damage to people with the fewest resources.damage to people with the fewest resources. The worst natural disastersThe worst natural disasters don't intentionallydon't intentionally seek out poor people. They just do the mostseek out poor people. They just do the most damage to people with the fewest resources.damage to people with the fewest resources.
  54. 54. 8.8 Magnitude,8.8 Magnitude, ChileChile, 2010, 2010 8.8 Magnitude,8.8 Magnitude, ChileChile, 2010, 2010 KilledKilled 4000040000 KilledKilled 800800 6.5 Magnitude,6.5 Magnitude, IranIran, 2003, 2003 6.5 Magnitude,6.5 Magnitude, IranIran, 2003, 2003 KilledKilled 230000230000 7 Magnitude,7 Magnitude, HaitiHaiti, 2010, 2010 7 Magnitude,7 Magnitude, HaitiHaiti, 2010, 2010 The comparison of effects of earthquake in three countries The comparison of effects of earthquake in three countries
  55. 55. A 6.9 MagnitudeA 6.9 Magnitude Earthquake in 1989Earthquake in 1989 A 6.9 MagnitudeA 6.9 Magnitude Earthquake in 1989Earthquake in 1989 KilledKilled 230000230000 peoplepeople KilledKilled 6363 peoplepeople The 7The 7 MagnitudeMagnitude Earthquake in 2010Earthquake in 2010 The 7The 7 MagnitudeMagnitude Earthquake in 2010Earthquake in 2010 ButBut HaitiHaiti SouthernSouthern CaliforniaCalifornia
  56. 56. ConclusionsConclusionsConclusionsConclusions Only 11% of the people are exposed to naturalOnly 11% of the people are exposed to natural hazards live in poor countries, but they accounthazards live in poor countries, but they account for more than 53% of total deaths.for more than 53% of total deaths. Only 11% of the people are exposed to naturalOnly 11% of the people are exposed to natural hazards live in poor countries, but they accounthazards live in poor countries, but they account for more than 53% of total deaths.for more than 53% of total deaths.
  57. 57. Earthquakes don't kill people.Earthquakes don't kill people. BuildingsBuildings kill peoplekill people (False).(False). Earthquakes don't kill people.Earthquakes don't kill people. BuildingsBuildings kill peoplekill people (False).(False). Earthquakes don't kill people.Earthquakes don't kill people. PovertyPoverty kill peoplekill people (True).(True). Earthquakes don't kill people.Earthquakes don't kill people. PovertyPoverty kill peoplekill people (True).(True). ConclusionsConclusionsConclusionsConclusions
  58. 58. Although, most people think the apparent reasonAlthough, most people think the apparent reason of killing people is lack of unsafe buildings,of killing people is lack of unsafe buildings, BUTBUT We Believe the main reason that naturalWe Believe the main reason that natural disasters be catastrophic, in all countries isdisasters be catastrophic, in all countries is POVERTYPOVERTY Although, most people think the apparent reasonAlthough, most people think the apparent reason of killing people is lack of unsafe buildings,of killing people is lack of unsafe buildings, BUTBUT We Believe the main reason that naturalWe Believe the main reason that natural disasters be catastrophic, in all countries isdisasters be catastrophic, in all countries is POVERTYPOVERTY ConclusionsConclusionsConclusionsConclusions
  59. 59. In each instance, the poor are theIn each instance, the poor are the most deeply affected by the disastermost deeply affected by the disaster In each instance, the poor are theIn each instance, the poor are the most deeply affected by the disastermost deeply affected by the disaster ConclusionsConclusionsConclusionsConclusions
  60. 60. Natural DisastersNatural Disasters Developing and poor countries Poverty Release theRelease the other disastersother disasters Weak DisasterWeak Disaster ManagementManagement in Due to Losses andLosses and DamagesDamages
  61. 61. • Infrastructure developmentInfrastructure development• Infrastructure developmentInfrastructure development • Increasing awarenessIncreasing awareness• Increasing awarenessIncreasing awareness • Reduce povertyReduce poverty• Reduce povertyReduce poverty • Cooperation between regional countriesCooperation between regional countries• Cooperation between regional countriesCooperation between regional countries • Funding organizationsFunding organizations• Funding organizationsFunding organizations • International institutions as essential factorsInternational institutions as essential factors• International institutions as essential factorsInternational institutions as essential factors To reduce the impact of natural disastersTo reduce the impact of natural disasters in poor and developing countries:in poor and developing countries: To reduce the impact of natural disastersTo reduce the impact of natural disasters in poor and developing countries:in poor and developing countries: • TrainingTraining• TrainingTraining • Stop the civil warStop the civil war• Stop the civil warStop the civil war
  62. 62. • Building institutional and technical capacityBuilding institutional and technical capacity on adaptation issueson adaptation issues • Building institutional and technical capacityBuilding institutional and technical capacity on adaptation issueson adaptation issues To reduce poverty and natural disasters risk:To reduce poverty and natural disasters risk:To reduce poverty and natural disasters risk:To reduce poverty and natural disasters risk: • Scientific research programs on climateScientific research programs on climate change, its impacts on natural resourceschange, its impacts on natural resources • Scientific research programs on climateScientific research programs on climate change, its impacts on natural resourceschange, its impacts on natural resources • Improvement of the data collection systemImprovement of the data collection system and analysisand analysis • Improvement of the data collection systemImprovement of the data collection system and analysisand analysis • Enhancing of the system of forecasting,Enhancing of the system of forecasting, modeling and early warning on natural disastersmodeling and early warning on natural disasters • Enhancing of the system of forecasting,Enhancing of the system of forecasting, modeling and early warning on natural disastersmodeling and early warning on natural disasters
  63. 63. Thank you very much for your kind attention! Saadi.Ghaderi@yahoo.com

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