Floating ecocities as a strategy to reduce the vulnerability of delta areas


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Rutger De GRAAF1,2

1Rotterdam University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands, Kingdom of the; 2DeltaSync, Delft, the Netherlands

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Floating ecocities as a strategy to reduce the vulnerability of delta areas

  1. 1. Natural Hazard Resilient Cities28 August 20128:30-10.00Global Risk Forum Davos 2012International Risk and Disaster Conference
  2. 2. The concept of vulnerability Type Time Responsibility orientation Threshold Damage Past Clear Capacity prevention Coping Damage Instant Not clear Capacity reduction Recovery Damage Instant/ Not clear Capacity reaction future Adaptive Damage Future Undefined Capacity anticipationGraaf, R.E. de , F.H.M. van de Ven en N.C. van de Giesen (2009) Alternative water management options to reduce vulnerability for climate changein the Netherlands. Natural Hazards. Nat Hazards 51, pp 407–422
  3. 3. Outline• Marie Toubin: Promote urban resilience through collaborative urban services management• Heinrich Webler: Flood risk management – ceating efficiency by stakeholder involvement• Rutger de Graaf: Floating ecocities as a strategy to reduce the vulnerability of delta areas• Plenary discussion
  4. 4. Floating ecocities as a strategy to reduce the vulnerability of delta areas28 August 2012Global Risk Forum Davos 2012DeltaSync BV &Rotterdam University of Applied SciencesDr. ir. Rutger de Graaf
  5. 5. WhyFloating food cities will save the world © DeltaSync, 2012
  6. 6. Main challenge of 21st century• How to accomodate 4.5 billion additional city dwellers until 2100 while resources such as: – Fossil fuels – Fresh water – Phosphates and fertile soil – Biodiversity stocks are being depleted, and• Flood damage is expected to increase from 20 billion US$ to 50 billion US$ until 2100, even without climate change © DeltaSync, 2012
  7. 7. Land shortage 2050Current shortage: 50 Mkm²Future shortage: 175 Mkm² © DeltaSync, 2012
  8. 8. Situation with all best practicesShortage: 12 Mkm² © DeltaSync, 2012
  9. 9. Where to go? Desert? : water resources are lacking http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Barnards_Ga laxy.jpg Space?? : still too expensivehttp://www.mega-tapety.info/krajobrazy-polaipustynie-1414.html
  10. 10. The ocean !“We are tied to the ocean. And when we go back to the sea,whether it is to sail or to watchhttp://www.philipp- back from - we are goingwhence we came.” - John F. Kennedy winterberg.com/galerie/mexico_wallpaper.php
  11. 11. Solution © DeltaSync, 2012
  12. 12. Enough spaceOcean surface: 361 Mkm2Needed: 3,3% © DeltaSync, 2012
  13. 13. More efficient LAND WATERAgriculture Livestock Mariculture 200 x as efficient Crops HydroponicsUrbanization Conventional Floating 1 x as efficientBiofuel Sugarcane Algae 20 x as efficientWHY?- Fish don’t use energy heating for their body- Algae don’t need to produce vascular tissue- Waterbased species evolved over many million years earlier- Waterbased species do not need fresh water resources © DeltaSync, 2012
  14. 14. More efficient• 1 on water = 50 on land © DeltaSync, 2012
  15. 15. Other benefits• Using waste from the city for food production• CO2 reduction• Saving fresh water• Climate proof city expansion• Small part of ocean is needed, the rest can be converted into nature reserves• More citizen influence in water, energy and food production• Local democracy © DeltaSync, 2012
  16. 16. Concept Current cities Floating cityLinear metabolism Closed cycle © DeltaSync, 2012
  17. 17. © DeltaSync, 2012
  18. 18. © DeltaSync, 2012Using waste from the city for food production
  19. 19. © DeltaSync, 2012Using waste from the city for food production
  20. 20. © DeltaSync, 2012
  21. 21. Benefits CO2Amount of food © DeltaSync, 2012
  22. 22. Optimisation• 44% of the world food demand could be met by using the available (waste) nutrients and CO2 from cities.• A total floating area of the size of Germany (358.800 km2) would be enough for 44% of the world food demand.• In this optimal ratio 13% of the population would live in the floating cities. © DeltaSync, 2012
  23. 23. Water efficiency© DeltaSync, 2012
  24. 24. Flood damage reduction• When 1,196 bilion people would live in the floating cities about 5 bilion dollar could be saved in flood damage per year• Floating cities will adapt to any future sea level © DeltaSync, 2012
  25. 25. Conclusion• Incremental innovation and being a little more efficient is not going to be the answer to the challenges of the 21st century,• A fundamental new approach to human and urban development is needed• Floating ecological food cities can accommodate the urbanization demand without increasing land scarcity while at the same time providing global food security and effectively using waste products of land based cities.• “If at first an idea isnt absurd, theres no hope for it.” - Albert Einstein © DeltaSync, 2012
  26. 26. Contact detailsDr. ir. Rutger de GraafDeltaSync & Rotterdam Universityrutger@deltasync.nl T: +31 152561872C: +31 616308790www.deltasync.nl