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In the name of God
Tehran
Key Information
Province Tehran
Latitude 35 40 N
Longitude 51 26 E
City 1500 km (579 sq mi)
Urban 686 km (265 sq mi...
1991
)1370H.S.(
1555
)934H.S.(
1866
)1246H.S.(
1970
)1349H.S.(
Tehran Urban Development and locationTehran Urban Developme...
Integrated Seismic Vulnerability Map of Tehran
Tehran situation
Tehran metropolitan cover huge area with:
Pop of 8/000/000
Average PoP density about 112
person/hectar...
The Influence on Traffic after the earthquake occurred
Road damage
Traffic Jam
Building collapse
Lifeline damage
)Electric...
 The Road Damaged by Earthquake
Experience in Traffic after Great East Japan EQ, 2011(3) Situation of the Traffic
& Trans...
Tehran Emergency Road Network
Establishment of emergency road
network to maintain road
functions & to provide proper
R.N/...
Experience in Traffic after Great East Japan EQ, 2011
Situation of Tokyo
 Metropolitan Expressway : All Blocked for Quick...
 The Bridge Damaged by Earthquake
Situation of the Traffic & Transportation
Activities of Emergency Road Network plan in Tehran
 Preparation emergency routes & designation the
alternative routes
 ...
Expected output
Emergency road network (Map)
Emergency road control zoning (Map)
Analysis result of traffic flow in
eme...
Preparation the emergency routes
and
Designation the alternative routes
Preparation the related data of in order to analysis
Tehran network
Selection the shortest path analysis method
• using th...
Input data:
Presidential office
Ministry of interior and the national disaster management ORG
Tehran provincial governo...
Designing the primery emergency routes by using the shortest path
analysis in GIS
controlling for providing
access for important spots
omitting the extra
routes and optimizing
the situation of the lines
T...
Designing the Emergency Routes Network for Tehran
- Evacuation of the private cars
-Restriction for all type of unauthorized vehicles to enter in city
Emergency routes
with...
Estimation expected Blockages in the Network due to
the Destruction of adjacent Buildings
Estimating Expected Blockages in the Network due to Destruction of in the-adjacent
Buildings- experience of previous earth...
Determination the
development of the
debris
Determination
the volume of
debris
Evaluation of
necessary the
equipment
Compa...
Destruction
risk
0-50%
>50%
Estimating on Expected Blockages in the Network due to the Destruction of Surrounding
Building...
Method for Estimation of the
Extent of Debris Development
 Considering different modes of debris development
 Similarity of the destruction modes in the study zoon with the
build...
‫حداقل‬5
‫متر‬
blockage of a
pedestrian and
one line
Extent of debris
removal
2.01-4.7
0-2
4.71–8.3
8.31–10.9
10.91–17.3
E...
Damage Assessment Method for Life Lines
Determination expected Blockages
Caused by the Damage of the Life Lines
influence of destruction of the power poles on the roads (Wenchuan earthquake, 2008(influence of destruction of the power ...
preparation corresponding
maps
determination the
junctions of them
Evaluation the vulnerability
of life lines
(RR)
Determi...
Example of Estimation of Expected
Blockages in the Network
)due to the damage of gas pipe lines(
Map of distribution of gas pipes and the emergency road network in district 3
District border
Gas distribution network (25...
Map of distribution of gas selection and the emergency road network in district 3
District border
Gas distribution network...
Gas distribution network (250)
Gas distribution network (60)
Accessing routes
Highway emergency routes
Road emergency rout...
collapse of the bridge and blockage of the road (wenchuan earthquake, 2008(collapse of the bridge and blockage of the road...
Estimating Expected Blockages in the Network Due to the Damage of the Gas Pipe Lines-
Past Experience
Determination the Expected Blockages in the
Network Due to the Collapse of the Ghanats or
Faulting
preparation the
corresponding maps
Determination
their junctions
1- Junction with the
Ghanat route
2- Junction with the
fa...
Estimating Expected Blockages in the Network Due to the Damage of the Gas Pipe Lines-
Experience of Bam Earthquake
Determining Expected Blockages in the Network Due to the Collapse of the Ghanats or
Faulting- corresponding maps
legend
Gh...
Determination Expected Blockages in the Network Due to the Collapse of the Ghanats or
Faulting- experience of the past ear...
Determination the vulnerability of
the bridges, tunnels& technical
buildings -Estimation of the bridges
damage
Field inspections
Collection of information based on the developed form
sheets
Classification of the bridges
Using the ...
Estimation Expected Blockages in the
Network
Caused by the damage of the
bridges
Evaluation the
vulnerability of the
bridges
Determination the
number of the
obstacles
Selection of
earthquake scenario
sce...
Pedestrian bridges
Highway bridges
Estimating Expected Blockages in the Network Due to the Damage of the Life Lines-
Exp...
Estimating Expected Blockages in the Network Due to the Damage of the Life Lines-
Experiences of the Past Earthquakes
Damage Possibility
Bridge Name District RowComplete High
mediu
m low
0.60 0.74 0.79 0.83 Chamran-Jalal (Gisha( 2 1
0.55 0....
Emergency response
plan Plan against
Earthquake Disaster in
the Traffic and
Transportation Section
1. - introducing the responsibilities and the roles of the assisting and
coordinating agencies
2. Introduction
the operati...
introducing the responsibilities and the roles of the assisting and coordinating
ORGs
TDMMO
Municipality of the districts ...
 Detention the characteristics of the Bridges in GIS
Format
Responsibility of the Districts Municipalities of Tehran
 Detention the list of the important centers for
priority access in GIS Format
Responsibility of the Districts Municipali...
 installation signs, traffic linings and other tools for utilizing
the routes, blocking equipment and…
 Development the ...
The form sheet of getting field information and designing and implementation of
the emergency routes in Tehran City
developing the plan for clearing and reopening the routs after the
earthquake, including the evaluation of the passages &...
.
Developing plan for inspections of routes and bridges in the district
after the earthquake (with priority of the emerge...
Developing the program of utilization of the detours in the district
Determination the dispatching centers of the machin...
Designation the traffic control spots in the
network
Estimating the required human
resources and equipment
Related coordin...
Finding
ERN should be selected from existing arterial
road network.
ERN should not be excessively designated/it
should b...
Information Dissemination
Closing (Current situation for Traffic after EQ in Japan)
Rules for Drivers when the earthquake ...
Summery
Invest Today For a Safer TomorrowInvest Today For a Safer Tomorrow
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final version 4

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5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice 24-28 August 2014 in Davos, Switzerland

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  • Next one, I want to introduce the Influence of Traffic and Transportation after EQ occurred.
    After EQ occurred, As Direct damage, Road, Bridges and Railways may be some damaged.
    And As Indirect damage on Traffic, Buildings were collapsed and Lifeline like Electric poles falling down may be damaged.
    and Some damage of lifeline like pipe damage will be damage to Road. 矢印
    Then They will be Debris and obstacles on Traffic.
    These damage and debris will be some negative influence such as Interruption of traffic network, Traffic paralysis and Traffic Jam.
    And then, by these Influence, Emergency Response such as Search and Rescue, Emergency Recovery will be delay,
    and the Damage will be more great.
  • Next one is the Situation of Traffic and Transportation.
    This picture is one location of the Road damage by EQ.
    I want to show the Video of Quick recovery at this location.ビデオ
    ビデオ
    This video shows how quick recovery.
    90% of Highway were recovered 11 days after EQ
    Especially This location were recovered within 6 days.
    How to recovery. This is just image
    1. Remove the collapsed pieces.
    2. And Cover the crushed stones.
    3. Pave asphalt.
    40 to 50 person had works per day.
    最初から1分50秒まで。
  • Seismic Intensity in Tokyo was Maximum Upper 5.
    Road and Railway were not so serious damaged.
    But, Metropolitan Expressway, the Highway of center area were all Closed for Quick Inspection like Safety Check.
    And All Railway and Subway were also stopped by Emergency Stop and Safety Check as Dr. Hayashi already mentioned.
    クリック
    Therefore, Heavy Traffic Jam was caused.
    And Many people returned home on foot.
    I also returned home on foot from company about for 15 kilometers.
    And, Many Location were filled with Many people who have difficulty returning home
    Because Usually many people commute to company by Train from very far.
    I want to show the Video for these situation in Tokyo.ビデオ
    ビデオの中身
    The station staff has announced the train has stopped.
    Many people have waited.
    Many people have waited for using the public phone.
    Many people had to stay because they have difficulty returning home.
    Many people were not panic and had settled down. I want to emphasize it.
    Expressway were closed.
  • Next one is Bridge damages.
    Some Bridges were falling down by Tsunami like this picture.
  • Finally, as Closing, I want to introduce the Some Rule for Drivers in Japan and Current Situation for Traffic in Japan.
    The Rules for Drivers when the EQ occurs.
    First one is if you feel the shaking??
    In case of this, Of course Stop and not panic. we have to gather the Information.
    and Important one is Do not evacuate by Car.
    But, in case of the Great East Japan EQ, the Time of evacuation by Tsunami is very limited.
    So, now we started to study the Effect and Balance of evacuation by car for especially Tsunami.
    Next one is in case of Normal Road.
    Of course firstly have to stop once to the left side because Japan is the left-hand traffic.
    Then, have to move to the parking or go outside of Emergency Road according to the Police.
    Next one is in case of Highway.
    This is almost the same. Stop once to left side and have to Act for the instruction, assistance and guidance from Police and Road manager.
    Last one is in case of Evacuation as soon as possible to leave the car on the road. such as the Fire is coming near or something.
    Firstly have to park to the left side. and have to leave the engine key in car and Do not lock the door.
    Can you imagine it?? I think you can’t imagine it. I can’t imagine it Because someone can stole it.
    But This is ideal instruction, Rules in Japan.
    By some Questionnaire in japan, 70% of drivers answer that they will do that.
    After that Police can move to somewhere.
    Finally I want to show the Video of Field Training Exercise(FTX) for Traffic Control as a Current Situation.
    It is held on September 1st every year. September 1st is Disaster Management Day in Japan.
    This Video is exercise in Tokyo on that day this year.
    And after the Great East Japan EQ, this Exercise is larger than before.
    In this Exercise, 120 locations were actually closed by Police.
    Some traffic control.
    and It was a first time to collaborate with near prefectures.
    Then some emergency vehicles have passed.
  • Transcript of "final version 4"

    1. 1. In the name of God
    2. 2. Tehran Key Information Province Tehran Latitude 35 40 N Longitude 51 26 E City 1500 km (579 sq mi) Urban 686 km (265 sq mi) Elevation 1200 m (3,900 ft) Population(2006) about 11,000,000 Density 10000/km (25,899/sq mi) Time zone 3.5 GMT District 22 Sub District 155 Neighborhood (Mahalleh) 375 Tehran is located at a zone of high seismic potential with many peculiar active faults. According to historical seismic data, Tehran has suffered from several strong earthquakes.
    3. 3. 1991 )1370H.S.( 1555 )934H.S.( 1866 )1246H.S.( 1970 )1349H.S.( Tehran Urban Development and locationTehran Urban Development and location of existing faultsof existing faults
    4. 4. Integrated Seismic Vulnerability Map of Tehran
    5. 5. Tehran situation Tehran metropolitan cover huge area with: Pop of 8/000/000 Average PoP density about 112 person/hectar/ in some area PoP density reach 350/hectar 11/000 km Road/routs 1500 highway There is a grate need for quick and smooth road network to reach to the affected area for each emergency responsible organization
    6. 6. The Influence on Traffic after the earthquake occurred Road damage Traffic Jam Building collapse Lifeline damage )Electric poles falling down etc. (Railway damage Interruption of traffic network Search and Rescue Traffic paralysis Emergency Recovery Emergency Transportation Evacuation Debris Bridge damage Emergency ResponseEmergency ResponseEmergency ResponseEmergency Response Quick Inspection Earthquake occurredEarthquake occurred Direct DamageDirect DamageDirect DamageDirect Damage Indirect DamageIndirect DamageIndirect DamageIndirect Damage InfluenceInfluenceInfluenceInfluence Delay Greater Damage
    7. 7.  The Road Damaged by Earthquake Experience in Traffic after Great East Japan EQ, 2011(3) Situation of the Traffic & Transportation
    8. 8. Tehran Emergency Road Network Establishment of emergency road network to maintain road functions & to provide proper R.N/S for efficient and smooth emergency vehicle movement & operation & Efficient rescue and relief operation, collection of damage information, fire fighting operation is necessary
    9. 9. Experience in Traffic after Great East Japan EQ, 2011 Situation of Tokyo  Metropolitan Expressway : All Blocked for Quick Inspection Railway, Subway  All Line stopped by Emergency Stop & Safety Check Heavy Traffic Jam Return Home on foot Many People who have difficulty returning home
    10. 10.  The Bridge Damaged by Earthquake Situation of the Traffic & Transportation
    11. 11. Activities of Emergency Road Network plan in Tehran  Preparation emergency routes & designation the alternative routes  Determination the influence of the surrounding buildings &facilities on road  Determination vulnerability of the bridges, tunnels & other technical buildings  Preparation utilization & maintenance plan for ERN /debris removal &reopening plan  preparation guidelines & implementation plan for network facilities  Holding seminars &drills  Holding training workshops
    12. 12. Expected output Emergency road network (Map) Emergency road control zoning (Map) Analysis result of traffic flow in emergency case Manual for emergency traffic control
    13. 13. Preparation the emergency routes and Designation the alternative routes
    14. 14. Preparation the related data of in order to analysis Tehran network Selection the shortest path analysis method • using the time factor • speed limitation, 60 km/hr for the highways • speed limitation of 30 km/hr for the main roads
    15. 15. Input data: Presidential office Ministry of interior and the national disaster management ORG Tehran provincial governor Tehran municipality Traffic and transportation deputy TDMMO Radio and TV Technical and constructional deputy of Tehran municipality Airports Tehran City’s entrances Railway stations Assisting bases
    16. 16. Designing the primery emergency routes by using the shortest path analysis in GIS
    17. 17. controlling for providing access for important spots omitting the extra routes and optimizing the situation of the lines Transforming the routes into a circle shape Determination alternatives for the routes Final revision of the network in terms of unity and integration and other controlling points overall revision of the network in terms of unity and integration Process of the Emergency Route Network design
    18. 18. Designing the Emergency Routes Network for Tehran
    19. 19. - Evacuation of the private cars -Restriction for all type of unauthorized vehicles to enter in city Emergency routes without police control With police control • Retrofitting priority • inspection and data collection priority •Debris removal, reopening and repair priorities •police control at the required parts Types of emergency routes in terms of applied the regulations
    20. 20. Estimation expected Blockages in the Network due to the Destruction of adjacent Buildings
    21. 21. Estimating Expected Blockages in the Network due to Destruction of in the-adjacent Buildings- experience of previous earthquakes
    22. 22. Determination the development of the debris Determination the volume of debris Evaluation of necessary the equipment Comparison with the roads width Determination the extent of road blockage Determination the possibility of collapse building collapse )Hazus( - Age of the building - Type of the structure - The building’s number and stories (how many) Determination the debris amount Estimation Debris from Destruction of Adjacent Buildings in Network
    23. 23. Destruction risk 0-50% >50% Estimating on Expected Blockages in the Network due to the Destruction of Surrounding Buildings- map example
    24. 24. Method for Estimation of the Extent of Debris Development
    25. 25.  Considering different modes of debris development  Similarity of the destruction modes in the study zoon with the buildings of Tehran City Estimation Expected Blockages in the Network due to the Destruction of Surrounding Buildings-Greek method
    26. 26. ‫حداقل‬5 ‫متر‬ blockage of a pedestrian and one line Extent of debris removal 2.01-4.7 0-2 4.71–8.3 8.31–10.9 10.91–17.3 Estimation the Expected Blockages in Network due to the Destruction of Adjacent Buildings- sample map of debris development
    27. 27. Damage Assessment Method for Life Lines Determination expected Blockages Caused by the Damage of the Life Lines
    28. 28. influence of destruction of the power poles on the roads (Wenchuan earthquake, 2008(influence of destruction of the power poles on the roads (Wenchuan earthquake, 2008( Estimation of the Expected Blockages in the Network due to the Damage of the Life Line- experience of the previous earthquakes
    29. 29. preparation corresponding maps determination the junctions of them Evaluation the vulnerability of life lines (RR) Determination the no of rupture 1- . junction with gas pipelines 2- . junction with water pipelines 3- . junction with swage pipelines 4- .junction with power transmission lines 5- . junction with optical fiber lines Selection the earthquake scenario scenario of an earthquake with magnitude of 7 on the northern Tehran’s fault Estimation of the expected Blockages in the Network due to the Damage of the Gas Pipelines- Determining the Junction Spots
    30. 30. Example of Estimation of Expected Blockages in the Network )due to the damage of gas pipe lines(
    31. 31. Map of distribution of gas pipes and the emergency road network in district 3 District border Gas distribution network (250) Gas distribution network (60) Emergency transportation network Primary route Secondary route Accessing route Highway Main road Branch road Foot path Estimation of expected Blockages in the Network due to the Damage of the Gas Pipelines- Determining the Junction Spots
    32. 32. Map of distribution of gas selection and the emergency road network in district 3 District border Gas distribution network (250) Gas distribution network (60) Emergency transportation network Primary route Secondary route Accessing route Highway Main road Branch road Foot path Estimation of Expected Blockages in the Network due to the Damage of the Gas Pipelines- selecting the obstacles
    33. 33. Gas distribution network (250) Gas distribution network (60) Accessing routes Highway emergency routes Road emergency routes Highway Main road Branch road Foot path Estimation of Expected Blockages in the Network due to the Damage of the Gas Pipelines- selection the obstacles
    34. 34. collapse of the bridge and blockage of the road (wenchuan earthquake, 2008(collapse of the bridge and blockage of the road (wenchuan earthquake, 2008( Estimating Expected Blockages in the Network Due to the Damage of the Life Lines- Experiences of the Past Earthquakes
    35. 35. Estimating Expected Blockages in the Network Due to the Damage of the Gas Pipe Lines- Past Experience
    36. 36. Determination the Expected Blockages in the Network Due to the Collapse of the Ghanats or Faulting
    37. 37. preparation the corresponding maps Determination their junctions 1- Junction with the Ghanat route 2- Junction with the fault Selection the earthquake scenario scenario of an earthquake with magnitude of 7 over the northern fault of Tehran Determining Expected Blockages in the Network Due to the Collapse of the Ghanats or Faulting
    38. 38. Estimating Expected Blockages in the Network Due to the Damage of the Gas Pipe Lines- Experience of Bam Earthquake
    39. 39. Determining Expected Blockages in the Network Due to the Collapse of the Ghanats or Faulting- corresponding maps legend Ghanat Fault Emergency transportation route Primary route Secondary route Accessing route Highway Main road Branch road Foot path District border Main fault zone Medium fault zone Branch fault zone Map of the Ghanats and the emergency road network in district 3
    40. 40. Determination Expected Blockages in the Network Due to the Collapse of the Ghanats or Faulting- experience of the past earthquakes
    41. 41. Determination the vulnerability of the bridges, tunnels& technical buildings -Estimation of the bridges damage
    42. 42. Field inspections Collection of information based on the developed form sheets Classification of the bridges Using the HAZUS methodology in order to study the effect of wave propagation Damage estimation by considering different scenarios Developing the ID for each District municipality
    43. 43. Estimation Expected Blockages in the Network Caused by the damage of the bridges
    44. 44. Evaluation the vulnerability of the bridges Determination the number of the obstacles Selection of earthquake scenario scenario of an earthquake with magnitude of 7 over the northern fault of Tehran Estimation Expected Blockages in the Network Caused by the damage of the bridges
    45. 45. Pedestrian bridges Highway bridges Estimating Expected Blockages in the Network Due to the Damage of the Life Lines- Experiences of the Past Earthquakes
    46. 46. Estimating Expected Blockages in the Network Due to the Damage of the Life Lines- Experiences of the Past Earthquakes
    47. 47. Damage Possibility Bridge Name District RowComplete High mediu m low 0.60 0.74 0.79 0.83 Chamran-Jalal (Gisha( 2 1 0.55 0.70 0.75 0.80 Hafez-Taleghani 6 2 0.55 0.70 0.75 0.80 College bridge (Hafez-Enghaleb( 6 3 0.52 0.77 0.87 0.90 Hemmat-Modarres (Fajr Bridges( 3 4 0.44 0.63 0.70 0.80 Tehran-Karaj highway- Shisheh Mina Bullevard 21 5 0.43 0.63 0.70 0.79 Tehran-Karaj highway- Western entrance of Azadi Stadium (9th Chogan( 22 6 0.37 0.62 0.73 0.74 Modarres-Mirdamad 3 7 0.36 0.61 0.73 0.74 South Chamran to Niayesh 3 8 0.35 0.61 0.72 0.74 Niyayesh-Chamran 3 9 0.35 0.60 0.72 0.74 Chamran-Valiasr (Parkway( 3 10 0.29 0.50 0.50 0.51 Tehran-Karaj highway – Chitgar Park 22 11 0.27 0.48 0.48 0.48 Hafez-Jomhoori 11 12 Selection the vulnerable bridges along the emergency routes
    48. 48. Emergency response plan Plan against Earthquake Disaster in the Traffic and Transportation Section
    49. 49. 1. - introducing the responsibilities and the roles of the assisting and coordinating agencies 2. Introduction the operation 1. inspection and collecting info 2. debris removal and reopening the passages 3. doing repairs 3. program development assumptions 4. Introduction the Emergency routes 5. Recovery plan Emergency Response Plan against Earthquake Disaster in the Traffic and Transportation System of Tehran City
    50. 50. introducing the responsibilities and the roles of the assisting and coordinating ORGs TDMMO Municipality of the districts (disaster services director, transportation deputies) Traffic and Transportation Deputy of Tehran Municipality Urban Services Deputy of Tehran Municipality Technical and Constructional Deputy of Tehran Municipality Subway Company of Tehran and the Suburbs The Bus and the Taxi Company of Tehran City Traffic Police of the Greater Tehran Emergency Response Plan against Earthquake Disaster in the Traffic and Transportation Sector of Tehran City
    51. 51.  Detention the characteristics of the Bridges in GIS Format Responsibility of the Districts Municipalities of Tehran
    52. 52.  Detention the list of the important centers for priority access in GIS Format Responsibility of the Districts Municipalities of Tehran
    53. 53.  installation signs, traffic linings and other tools for utilizing the routes, blocking equipment and…  Development the executing plan for emergency routs after disaster Responsibility of the Districts Municipalities of Tehran
    54. 54. The form sheet of getting field information and designing and implementation of the emergency routes in Tehran City
    55. 55. developing the plan for clearing and reopening the routs after the earthquake, including the evaluation of the passages &the obstacles and…. clearing and reopening the routes (wenchuan, 2008)clearing and reopening the routes (wenchuan, 2008) Responsibility of the Districts Municipalities of Tehran
    56. 56. . Developing plan for inspections of routes and bridges in the district after the earthquake (with priority of the emergency routes) inspection of the bridges after the earthquake (wenchuan, 2008(inspection of the bridges after the earthquake (wenchuan, 2008( Responsibility of the Districts Municipalities of Tehran
    57. 57. Developing the program of utilization of the detours in the district Determination the dispatching centers of the machineries and the human resources in the district Determination the program for metro passengers; Preparation the program for bus and taxi lines in the district in order to meet the needs in disaster time Determination the evacuation routes for the district Responsibility of the Districts Municipalities of Tehran
    58. 58. Designation the traffic control spots in the network Estimating the required human resources and equipment Related coordination with the Police Utilization of the Emergency Routes Network of Tehran City
    59. 59. Finding ERN should be selected from existing arterial road network. ERN should not be excessively designated/it should be in coordination with actual capabilities of each emergency task force / debris removal/ traffic control & etc… The public & private participation is important The information dissemination is key element of successful operation
    60. 60. Information Dissemination Closing (Current situation for Traffic after EQ in Japan) Rules for Drivers when the earthquake occurs in JapanRules for Drivers when the earthquake occurs in Japan If you feel the shaking? • Stop and not panic • Information gathering • Do not evacuate by car (Now studying the effect and Balance of the evacuation by car) In case of Normal Road? • Stop once to the left side • Move the parking, outside of Emergency Traffic Road • Follow the Police In case of Highway ? • Stop once to the left side • Act for the instruction, assistance and guidance by police, road manager • Park to the left side • Leave the engine key in car • Do not lock the door • Do not leave the valuables In case of evacuation to leave the car on the road? Field Training Exercise for TrafficField Training Exercise for Traffic Control after the Great East Japan EQControl after the Great East Japan EQ Field Training Exercise for TrafficField Training Exercise for Traffic Control after the Great East Japan EQControl after the Great East Japan EQ Current situation for Traffic after EQ in JapanCurrent situation for Traffic after EQ in Japan
    61. 61. Summery
    62. 62. Invest Today For a Safer TomorrowInvest Today For a Safer Tomorrow

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