Feline Bartonellosis and its Zoonotic Potential


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GRF 2nd One Health Summit 2013: Presentation by TSOKANA, Constantina, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Thessaly

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Feline Bartonellosis and its Zoonotic Potential

  1. 1. FELINE BARTONELLOSIS AND ITS ZOONOTIC POTENTIAL Athanasiou Labrini1, Chatzis Manolis1, Tsokana Constantina1, Chatzopoulos Dimitrios1, Kantere Maria1, Kontou Ioanna2, Garoufi Anastasia2, Papaevangelou Vassiliki2, Kontos Vasilios3, Billinis Charalambos1, Spyrou Vassiliki4 1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Greece 2Faculty 3National of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens School of Public Health, Athens, Greece 4Technological and Educational Institute of Larissa, Larissa, Greece
  2. 2. Bartonella spp - An introduction Bartonella spp 14 species with zoonotic potential Aerobic Facultative intracellular Gram-bacteria B. henselae B. clarridgeiae B. koehlerae B. quintana B. bovis B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii Isolated from cats
  3. 3. Transmission and Pathogenesis Arthropods Ctenocephalides felis Ixodes spp Stomoxys Haematobia • B. henselae Ctenocephalides felis • B. clarridgeiae • B. koehlerae (possibly) Various Bartonella species
  4. 4. Transmission and Pathogenesis Cat exposure to flea feces saliva of the flea ✗ bites among cats ✗ (eve of bacterium <9 days) Cuts and wounds Skin inoculation spleen liver ✓ ✓ Entering in the host Prolonged presence in blood circulation RBC + Endothelial cells of blood vessels Intracellular localization •chronic bacteremia •antimicrobial resistance
  5. 5. Diagnosis of ectoparatisoses from fleasCats 1. Visible evidence of flea feces in a cat’s fur 2. Collection by combing the fur x 5 min 3. Wet paper towel Flea Flea feces Turns into reddish brown
  6. 6. Diagnosis - Serology Serology positive Exposure to pathogen negative Cannot exclude infection Cannot • Prove active infection and disease • Attribute symptoms to pathogen IFAT-B.henselae Cannot identify the responsible species of Bartonella
  7. 7. Diagnosis - Serology Serological methods Specificity: 39-46% Sensitivity: 89-97% False negative results More reliable to exclude rather than to confirm infection
  8. 8. Diagnosis - Culture Samples: peripheral blood + aqueous humor Blood culture The most reliable for active infection confirmation Disadvantages: • False negative Remissions • Long incubation period (6-8 weeks) • > 1 for successful isolation • Risk of cross-contamination
  9. 9. Diagnosis - Molecular methods Samples: peripheral blood, aqueous fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, liver and spleen Advantages: •Species specific identification Disadvantages: False negative •More rapid compared to culture •qPCR + nested PCR  more specific and sensitive •qPCR  quantitative method Degradation of the genetic material •Maintenance conditions •Transportation conditions
  10. 10. The Zoonotic Potential of Bartonellosis Cat scratch disease : Zoonosis with worldwide distribution due to Bartonella henselae Cat claws carrying infected flea feces Transmission by scratches Flea bites Person to person ✗ ✗
  11. 11. The Zoonotic Potential of Bartonellosis Medical history : Contact with cats - Usual scratches Clinical picture : Immunocompromised  Spread and detection in liver and spleen Immunocompetent  Self-limiting regional lymphadenopathy + low fever B.koehlerae  isolated in a case of endocarditis B.clarridgeiae antibodies in blood of a person with chest abscess
  12. 12. The Zoonotic Potential of Bartonellosis Suspicion of infection with B. henselae : •regional lymphadenopathy or fever of unknown origin •contact with cat • presence of papules or blisters at the site of inoculation appears 3 to 10 days after inoculation and remains for 1 to 3 weeks
  13. 13. Added Value to One Health Approach Man animal close contact Risk of zoonoses transmission Urban areas Rural areas •Poor personal hygiene •Limited prevention measures against cat pathogens
  14. 14. Added Value to One Health Approach Limited share of knowledge in the field of zoonoses medical doctors + veterinarians + biologists 1) Diagnostic methods  prevention and treatment 2) Study of disease and pathogenesis(studies in animals) •global ecology •interspecies transmission events and pathogens evolution 3) Similar clinical manifestations with severe diseases  rapid diagnosis - great importance
  15. 15. Conclusions Treatable medical problem BUT similarity to other life-threatening diseases e.g. Tularemia ,Tuberculosis, Brucellosis Value of companion animals for immunocompromised people e.g. prevalence of depression among these owners BUT need for protection of their health and well-being KEY ROLE PREVENTIVE MEASURES TO AVOID TRANSMISSION
  16. 16. Conclusions Preventive Measures-Humans • Avoiding contact with young kittens and aggressive cats (more likely to scratch and bite) •Avoiding being licked by cats when open wounds exist •Thorough cleaning and disinfection of any cat scratch or bite
  17. 17. Conclusions Preventive Measures-Cats • Regular nail trimming (especially cats living in and outside the home) • Regular flea control in cats (topical application of 10% imidacloprid and 1% moxidectin on the skin every month throughout the whole year) • Cats infested by fleas or cats with no regular flea control should not be used as blood donors
  18. 18. Our project – Research funding program THALES Multidisciplinary Investigation and Identification of Rota-viruses, Bartonella henselae and Leishmania infantum in children and animal hosts using novel technologies. Importance for Public Health.
  19. 19. Objectives of our Project Research funding program THALES 1. Collection of strains 2. Molecular characterization of human and host strains 3. Determination of prevention/control measures for Public Health protection via risk assessment 4. Dissemination of acquired knowledge
  20. 20. Epizootiological data – Greece Our work so far…. Epizootiological data – Greece •22.17% (domestic cats-archived samples) - IFAT (cut-off value 1/100) (Kontos, 2009 – personal communication) Our work so far.. •7% (healthy cats) - IFAT (cut-off value 1/100) •5 children with compatible clinical picture (research funding program THALES, during the last 18 months of the project)
  21. 21. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION! This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund – ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: THALES. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.