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Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region
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Disaster risk reduction in the Hindu Kush – Himalayan Region

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  • 1. Earthquake Risk in the Himalayas: Special Reference to Kathmandu City Deepak Chamlagain PhD Department of Geology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • 2. Science behind theHimalayan earthquakes• Active collision zone of the Eurasian and Indian plates• Belt segmented by many active Subduction followed by collision seismogenic faults• Continuous strain accumulation along Eurasi an Indian Plate the major active plate faults due to locking
  • 3. Historical Earthquakes Pakistan(~75,000) Assam Bihar-Nepal (~1500) (10,653) Shillong Plateau (~1542)Estimated Rupture Area of major Himalayanearthquakes (M>7.5) India/Eurasia Plate MotionBilham (2004), Ambraseys and Bilham (2000), Kumar, (Bettinelli et al., J. Geodesy, 2006)et al. (2006) Lavé, et al. (2005)
  • 4. Seismic Intensity of the Past Earthquakes
  • 5. At Present Dharahara(Kathmandu Tower)before 1934 earthquake After the earthquake
  • 6. Clock Tower before 1934 earthquakeClock Tower during 1934 earthquake
  • 7. Probable Seismic Events
  • 8. Numbers of expected fatalities for the future Himalayan Earthquakes (original estimates in Table 2 of Wyss, 2005)
  • 9. Glacial lake outburst flood in the Himalayanregion affecting Nepal (Source: ICIMOD)
  • 10. Courtesy: ICIMOD
  • 11. Reasons for high earthquake risk in Kathmandu Valley• Active tectonic and fragile geological condition• Earthquake induced hazard (e.g. landslide, flood, fire, ground failures etc.)• Rampant urbanization• Lack of landuse regulation in place• Ineffective implementation of building regulations• Absence of licensing system to the technical persons for anti-seismic construction
  • 12. Urban Earthquake Risk Assessment• The study on earthquake disaster mitigation in the Kathmandu valley, Nepal. JICA/MoHA (2002).• Earthquake Vulnerability Profile and Preparedness Plan (UNDP/ERRRP Municipalities programme)
  • 13. Kathmandu Valley•Basin is located in midland andbounded by the Mahabharat Lekhin south and Shivapuri Lekh inNorth.•Inter-montane Basin with averageelevation of 1340m•Surrounded by mountains of Kathmandu2400-2800 m above sea level•Diameter of about 30 km in E-Wand 25 km in N-S•About 500m thick soft sediments After DMG
  • 14. Building Types in Kathmandu Valley
  • 15. Current Practices of Construction
  • 16. Shifting Paradigm of Construction
  • 17. Yet to see the fate of modernbuilding in impending mega- earthquake. Fate?????
  • 18. Seismic Hazard of Nepal
  • 19. Flowchart for Earthquake Risk Assessment Source: JICA/MoHA, 2002
  • 20. Fault and Lineaments in Kathmandu Valley Ground Model for Seismic Analysis Source: JICA/MoHA, 2002
  • 21. Fault Model and Scenario Earthquake Fault Model Scenario Earthquake S. Earthquake Location Magnitude N. (Ms) 1 Mid Nepal 82°and 85° 8.0 Earthquake 2 North Bagmati North of 6.0 Earthquake Kathmandu 3 KV Local Local 5.7 Earthquake earthquake based on lineament 4 1934 Bihar NE of 8.4 Nepal Kathmandu EarthquakeSource: JICA/MoHA, 2002
  • 22. Slope instabilityBuilding Types Source: JICA/MoHA, 2002
  • 23. PGA Distribution Intensity Distribution
  • 24. Liquefaction Potential Distribution Heavily Damaged Building Number Distribution
  • 25. Casualty Findings •The number of heavily damaged buildings would be 53,000, i.e., 21% of all buildings. •The death toll, 18,000, i.e., 1.3% of the total population in the Valley. •The seriously injured people: 53,000, i.e., 3.8% of the total population in the Valley. •Serious damage to road networks, hospital, sewerages etc.
  • 26. On going preparedness/awareness programmes• Celebration of earthquake safety day• Formal/informal education on disaster management• Mock drilling on earthquake safety in schools• Mason training on earthquake resistant construction• Promotion of community based organizations
  • 27. Gap areas• Investment on research, education, training, and human resource development• Enhancement of the earthquake technology• Mapping of the earthquake hazard both urban and rural areas and linking of these maps with the development plan and activities.• Establishment of Earthquake Risk Evaluation Centre (EREC)• Development of insurance policy for earthquake risk• Promotion of public awareness and preparedness programs intensively
  • 28. Concluding Remarks• Owing to its tectonics and built environment risk of the earthquake is increasing day by day.• Haphazard urbanization, lack of landuse regulations, weak implementation of building codes, poverty etc. are the major reasons in fueling the earthquake risk in the Himalayas.• Seismic hazard mapping and corresponding vulnerability and risk assessment is most crucial and urgent for the major urban areas of Nepal.• Seismic microzonation and periodic risk and loss assessment is crucial in minimizing the effects of earthquake.• Regional collaboration both on technological and management aspects is necessary.

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