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Dieter Nill "20 years of watershed management in Niger: Approaches, impacts and economic aspects of large scale soil and water conservation measures"
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Dieter Nill "20 years of watershed management in Niger: Approaches, impacts and economic aspects of large scale soil and water conservation measures"






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Dieter Nill "20 years of watershed management in Niger: Approaches, impacts and economic aspects of large scale soil and water conservation measures" Dieter Nill "20 years of watershed management in Niger: Approaches, impacts and economic aspects of large scale soil and water conservation measures" Presentation Transcript

  • 20 years of watershed management in Niger: Approaches, impacts and eco­nomic aspects of large scale soil and water conservation Dieter Nill Sector Project Sustainable AgricultureSector Project „Sustainable Agriculture" Page 1
  • Context  Man-made and natural conditions have caused severe land degradation in the Sahel since the 60ies.  Higher temperatures and heat waves.  Declining and less reliable rainfall.  Severe droughts especially during 70ies and 80ies.  Demography increases (2-3 %) enhances pressure on land and resources (deforestation, overgrazing).  Progressive degradation: reduced vegetation cover, increased runoff, wind- and water erosion, decreasing ground water tables.Sector Project „Sustainable Agriculture" Page 2
  • Programme  Funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development - BMZ, GIZ / KfW/ Government of Niger have been fighting desertification in the South of Niger for more than 20 years.  Different soil and water conservation and restoration (SWC/R) techniques applied to private and communal land.  In 2010, more than 400,000 ha treated with 343 villages at a rhythm of 20.000 ha/year.  Programme is one of the largest SWC/R programmes of German Development Cooperation worldwide.  Objectives: Sustainable resource management, food security, poverty reduction.Sector Project „Sustainable Agriculture" Page 3
  • Approach  Programme support only after active request and acceptance.  A rolling approach to work with about 100 villages at the same time.  Year 1: organizing villages, planning, pilot activities.  Years 2 to 5: Intensive implementation.  Years 5 and 6: Progressive shift of responsibilities to the villages. End of support  autonomous villages.  Population provides: free labour, local materials and maintenance.  Programme provides: training, basic tools and material, trucks and tractor-ploughing of plateaus.Sector Project „Sustainable Agriculture" Page 4
  • Techniques • Stonebunds • Trenches • Nardi trenches • Planting pits • Dykes • Half-moons • Stonebunds SWC mesures (Mulching, compost, (Planting of grass & tree conservation) trees)Sector Project „Sustainable Agriculture" Page 5
  • Planting pits Technics in fields Stonebunds Half-moonsSector Project „Sustainable Agriculture" Page 6
  • Plateaus Nardi trenchesSector Project „Sustainable Agriculture" Page 7
  • Results Fields: Millet grain yields more than doubled by using stonebunds, compost and/or mulching (200  400 kg/ha) i.e. 200 kg/ha*yr more. Straw increased by x1.6 (940  1.460 kg/ha) i.e. 520 kg/ha*yr more. After 15 years of measurements, no decline in yield shows long-term sustainability of the effects. Plateaus: Very harsh environment for vegetation. Yields of herbaceous biomass from ~ 0 to 600/700 kg/ha*yr. Production of wood generally around 1 stere/ha*yr. Remark: Surplus straw production in the fields (520 kg/ha) equals around 80% of the herbaceous production of plateaus (600-700 kg/ha).Sector Project „Sustainable Agriculture" Page 8
  • Unit costs (rounded figures) Investment cost Population Treatment (FCFA/ha) (%) Fields Stonebunds (truck) 20.000 38 % Stonebunds (donkey cart) 11.000 70 % Planting pits 30.000 99 % Plateaus Half-moons + tree plantation 148.000 91 % Nardi trenches + ripping + 79.000 54 % grass + trees 10.000 FCFA = ~ $20 US or 15 €Sector Project „Sustainable Agriculture" Page 9
  • Annual benefit of different treatments Fields Life Total Surplus Surplus Value surplus Annual time annual cost grain straw grain + straw net (yr) (FCFA/ha) (kg/ha/yr) (kg/ha/yr) (FCFA) benefit (FCFA) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) = (4) + (5) (7) = (6) – (3) Stonebunds (truck), 15 13.406 225 1.035 43.200 29.800 manure Stonebunds (truck) 15 10.846 86 396 16.512 5.700 Planting pits + manure 2 16.500 236 1.086 45.312 28.800 Plateaus Biomass Wood (kg/ha) (stere/ha) Nardi + ripping + grass 15 15.094 588 1,00 16.760 1.700 and trees Forestry half-moons + 15 17.954 539 1,00 15.780 -2.200 tree plantationSector Project „Sustainable Agriculture" Page 10
  • Economic results  Stonebunds and planting pits yield high returns.  Optimum economic use of investments on fields needs additional agronomic measures.  Planting pits limited by high labour input and short lifetime (2 yrs).  Only small annual returns from the treatment of plateaus with nardi trenches caused by high investment costs and low productivity.  Half-moons in fields and on plateaus are not economically viable.Sector Project „Sustainable Agriculture" Page 11
  • Conclusions I  Treatment of fields with simple stonebunds /planting holes and manuring are low cost, profitable options, which can be applied at large scale.  Initial investment of 10.000 to 30.000 FCFA/ha (~ 20 to 60 $US) produces annual grain surplus of 200 kg i.e. food for one person or 45 €/ha additional income.  Large-scale treatment of sterile plateaus offers low economic returns in terms of fodder and wood production.  Straw production in fields is more cost- efficient than biomass production on plateaus (1 ha of treated plateau equals 4 ha of fields)  fodder.Sector Project „Sustainable Agriculture" Page 12
  • Conclusions II  Wood production can be substituted by agroforestry in the fields.  Economically, SWC/R should therefore focus on fields.  This does not mean that treatment of plateaus should be stopped but:  Treatment of plateaus needs additional benefits i.e. protection of infrastructure below, production of high value crops.  Cost can be reduced by point-wise treatment of plateaus.  Plateaus might become water- harvesting areas in future and treatment is focusing on channeling water to the fields below.Sector Project „Sustainable Agriculture" Page 13
  • Thank you very much for your attention!Sector Project „Sustainable Agriculture" Page 14