Development of a European Training Curriculum for International Crisis Management


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GRF 2nd One Health Summit 2013: Presentation by Kubilay Kaptan, Istanbul Aydin University

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Development of a European Training Curriculum for International Crisis Management

  1. 1. Development of a European Training Curriculum for International Crisis Management (FP7 SEC-2011.7.6-1) GRF Davos One Health Summit 2013 One Health - One Planet - One Future Risks and Opportunities 17 - 20 November 2013 in Davos, Switzerland Asst. Prof. Kubilay Kaptan Disaster Education, Application and Research Center, Istanbul Aydin Univerity
  2. 2. Contents of the presentation Natural Disasters DITAC Project •Natural Disasters •Scope of the Project. •Organization •Outputs Competency Based Curriculum
  3. 3. AFAM Excellence in Research, Education and Service
  4. 4. In Turkey AFAM travelled to primary schools to help children learn disaster and increase their understanding of disaster recovery  AFAM Excellence in Research, Education and Service
  5. 5. The causes of disasters 1980- 2007
  6. 6. AFAM Excellence in Research, Education and Service
  7. 7. DITAC Project Scope • Actors like first responders and strategic crisis managers confronted to a large scale crisis such as (large) natural disasters, humanitarian crisis (e.g. displaced populations), conflict • • Prevention, mediation or security sector reform. • • networking of existing training institutes •Development of a set of European standards, concepts, methods and doctrines The European dimension and the involvement of concerned public authorities, international organisations (e.g. UN) and NGOs are essential. It is important to take into account existing initiatives, and, if possible, involve a wide range of stakeholders. AFAM Excellence in Research, Education and Service
  8. 8. DITAC Project Scope • Assessing the state-of-the- European standards for professional crisis response and identification the main didactical and procedural challenges. • Development a novel, integrated concept for set of European standards, concepts, methods and doctrines. • Improving management of large disasters • This capability/integrated project should aim at: Improved the preparation and the availability of trained personal facilitate coordination and effective management of large crisis. AFAM Excellence in Research, Education and Service
  9. 9. The action aims develope European training curricula for professional crisis response
  10. 10. Key Masseges in the Call • Scenarios: major diseases like earthquakes, flood disease Natural & manmade disasters to be covered • Creation a concensus European Training Curriculum for Disaster and Crisis Management to bringing standardiced help to the people in need • Requested are novel standards and methods, new concepts and doctrines AFAM Excellence in Research, Education and Service
  11. 11. Specific objectives 1 Development a strategy to formulate the common curriculum 2 Scenarios, Standard Analysis 3 Actors identification 4 Requirements for improving the training 5 Focus of the curriculum will be research, recognizing that teaching and reform are directly related to the primary aim. Analysis of EM Competencies AFAM Excellence in Research, Education and Service
  12. 12. Specific objectives 6. Both "top down" and "bottom up" approaches should be used to develop the curriculum . 7 The proposed curriculum framework aims to accommodate all these topics, and also exploit the latest educational technologies including the internet to disseminate this knowledge among the present and future global first responders and crisis managers. 8 Any emergency Standardized education concept 9 Evaluation of the Training Curriculum 10 Demonstration the novel concept and it’s success
  13. 13. Partners • Italy • Romania • Germany • UK • Sweden • Turkey • Netherlands • Greece • Croatia
  14. 14. Project approach Awareness Laying the Foundation for Change DITAC teams build the awareness that high-quality, inquiry-oriented instructional materials matter in the learning process for first responders and strategic crisis managers. Selection Making Evidence-based Decisions DITAC teams establish selection criteria based on research and the needs of rescue forces, first responders and medical personal. During the decision-making process, they build consensus to select instructional materials for the Curriculum. Scalling up Designing Support for Implementation DITAC teams use a comprehensive design process to construct a professional development program that supports the effective implementation of inquiry-based instructional materials. Sustainability Monitoring Reform Efforts DITAC teams collect and use data to evaluate progress and inform decisions about teaching and learning the new Curriculum.
  15. 15. Timeline conception phase Scenarios, Standard Analysis Conception of Curriculum 2st phase 1st phase Strategy Analysis Requirements Actors identification Standardized education concept research research "top down" "top down" and "bottom and "bottom up" up" approaches approaches validation validation AFAM Excellence in Research, Education and Service Demonstration of Curriculum Results Final Concept Demonstration
  16. 16. WP Outputs WP100 (Scenarios, Standard Analysis) • To analyze the today’s situation of education and training for disaster relief operations from an end user perspective. (Literature Review of large Disasters, Meta Analysis of Existing Training Curricula)) • To analyse and define the relevant European standards, concepts, methods, and doctrines reacting on a disaster. In Turkey AFAM travelled to primary schools to help children learn disaster and increase their understanding of disaster recovery  AFAM Excellence in Research, Education and Service
  17. 17. WP Outputs WP200 (Requirements for improving the training) • Weakness analysis for the domains of Didactic, practical training and education. • Analysis of the requirements of the actors in education in Disaster Medicine and management, local authorities, NGOs, Training Institutes, scientific societies etc. Identification of the needs of relevant actors and the resulting end user requirements for significant improvement of the education of international crisis management. • • Development Learning goal definition Didactic Concept AFAM Excellence in Research, Education and Service
  18. 18. WP Outputs WP300 (Common Concept) •Organising of Consensus Conferences and Focussing of common standard for disaster training education. •gap definition and prioritization of requirements and common standards •Development of Common Concept •Organising Collaboration of Trainíng Institutes. AFAM Excellence in Research, Education and Service
  19. 19. WP Outputs WP400 (Dissemination) •Demonstrator platform for networking of existing Training Institutes •Demonstrator European Curriculum for international crisis management AFAM Excellence in Research, Education and Service
  20. 20. Project Needs Partners needed providing the following competences: •Domain knowledge (e.g. end users like NGO, first-aid organizations, first responders) •Process analysis / concepts development (e.g. research institutes, system integrators, ) •Research project management (e.g. research institutes) •Demonstration & technology assessment (e.g. research organizations, system integrators) •Didactic and Training knowledge AFAM Excellence in Research, Education and Service
  21. 21. Disaster Education, Implementation and Research Center (AFAM) Developing Competency-Based Disaster Training Programs Kubilay Kaptan, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Disaster Education, Implementation and Research Center Istanbul Aydin University E-mail: 24
  22. 22. Objectives • Analyzing changing environments of disasters and emergencies • Identifying core competencies for emergency & disaster managers • Sharing experience in emergency management academic program development • Developing emergency management programs based on core competencies • Discussing curriculum design and delivery strategies AFAM 25
  23. 23. Context • Disasters have changed in scope and severity • Today’s disasters overwhelm the capacity, capabilities and skills of emergency management leaders and practitioners • Adjustment is imperative through training and more responsive academic programs AFAM 26
  24. 24. Literature Review • Over the years, the effectiveness of disaster management tools, techniques, and strategies has waned, and to address this issue more up-to-date disaster management skills are required (Waugh & Tierney, 2007) • New skills and competencies are needed because of: - increased scope and diverse nature of the disasters - heightened expectations and demands by societies and communities to serve them during catastrophic events - advancements and innovations in technology demanding more sophistication - impact of globalization demanding networking with different societies across the world AFAM 27
  25. 25. DM in Public Affairs & Administration • Significant attention to Disaster Management in the field of public administration over the last three decades • Increased research and publications on DM: - Public Administration Review (PAR) has devoted three issues to emergency and disaster management (1985, 2002 – on the Implications of September 11 terrorist attacks, and 2007– on Administrative Failure in the Wake of Hurricane Katrina) • Increase in academic programs: master’s, certificates, minors, and concentrations have been developed in schools/departments of public affairs and administration AFAM 28
  26. 26. DM Programs • According to FEMA Emergency Management Institute (2009), there are 173 college DM programs: - 59 certificates, minors, diplomas, tracks, and foci - 39 associate degrees - 26 bachelor degrees - 42 masters-level programs - 7 doctoral-level programs Source: FEMA Emergency Management Institute, 2009 AFAM 29
  27. 27. DM Context • Disasters are characterized by several factors: - Uncertainty Complexity Time pressure Lack of necessary information Fast decision-making under stress Networks & complexity AFAM 30
  28. 28. Core Competencies Analysis • Core competencies derived from reports, national and local plans, as well as DM research • Barbera et al. (2005) describe competency as a “specific capability required for effective performance, within the context of a job’s responsibilities, which achieves the objectives of the organization” (p. 3) • Competencies should enable and empower disaster managers to perform in most effective, efficient, and proactive way AFAM 31
  29. 29. Levels of Analysis of DM Competencies DEPTH - Awareness: understanding of knowledge, skills, and abilities encompassed by a specific competency - Operations: knowledge, skills, and the necessary abilities to effectively perform assigned tasks, functions, and activities within an organizational system, including technicality of the process - Expertise: operations-level proficiency, as well as knowledge, skills and abilities required for judgmental and analytical processes and complex decision-making situations AFAM 32
  30. 30. Levels of Analysis of DM Competencies SCOPE - Small Scope: competency limited only to a scientific/ academic knowledge base - Medium Scope: added understanding of psychological, social and political environment and realities when performing his/her job - Large Scope: implementation and application stage in which emergency managers combine their competencies pertaining to the two scopes above and deliver their services; entails effective application of the four emergency management phases AFAM 33
  31. 31. Levels of Analysis of EM Competencies NATURE - Core Competencies: required for technicians and practitioners to perform emergency management functions - Critical Understanding: critical understanding required by managers to address a problem at hand in a holistic perspective and to direct lower-level functions in that regard - Integrated Solutions: creation of integrated solutions by senior policy makers who address problems at a systemic level and come up with fundamental changes and implementations throughout the emergency management field - Critical Research: critical research by relevant emergency management scholars who present research and studies to establish a better and sound base for implementation in light of past experiences AFAM 34
  32. 32. Levels of Analysis of EM Competencies TYPE - Knowledge: what emergency managers should know - Skills: what emergency managers should do - Tools: what emergency managers should use AFAM 35
  33. 33. Levels of Analysis of EM Competencies AFAM 36
  34. 34. Core Competencies Identified • Clarity of Role: Responsibilities and duties are easy and manageable as long as they are clearly defined for respective disaster operation actors to effectively perform their job (especially for routine disasters, not for catastrophic ones) • Effective Organizational Management: Disaster Management should start from effective internal organizational management including resource and personnel management, budgeting, strategic planning, etc. AFAM 37
  35. 35. Core Competencies Identified (con’t) • Technology and Research-integrated Applications: Disaster Management should benefit from relevant technology education/training in order to effectively address natural and manmade disasters. This approach should be strengthened by contemporary developments and improvements in related sciences • Interdisciplinary Approach to Problem Solving: Disaster Management should not be limited to emergency management operations only, but should also address social, political, legal, policy, and ethical issues related to mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. Likewise, the field should focus on and incorporate issues relating to other disciplines and entities when needed AFAM 38
  36. 36. Core Competencies Identified (con’t) • Effective Leadership through Communication and Analytical Skills: Effective Disaster Management is only possible through effective leaders who know the power of communication in affecting and convincing others. Effective leaders also possess strong judgmental and analytical skills needed to make quality decisions in times of uncertainty, time pressure and limited information • Effective Networking, Coordination, Partnerships, and Collaboration: Because of the nature and scope of disasters faced by communities today, it is impossible for local governments to effectively respond to disasters alone, and it is imperative to collaborate in terms of such parameters as information, resources, personnel, etc. Such collaboration also necessitates coordination and interoperability skills to successfully perform assigned tasks and functions AFAM 39
  37. 37. Core Competencies Identified (con’t) • Environment and Community-sensitive Practices: Effective leadership is inevitably possible only through thorough analysis and consideration of political, social, economic, and environmental factors and their incorporation into the general picture of the disaster situation faced • All-hazards, Holistic, and Proactive Approach to Emergency Situations: Disaster Management needs an all-hazards and holistic approach, which not only addresses issues in an environment-sensitive way, but also tries to progressively solve problems during all phases of the disaster management cycle AFAM 40
  38. 38. Core Competencies Identified (con’t) • • • Knowledge, Training and Experience-based Critical Decision-making: Since Disaster Management is an applied and practical field, ample resources should be invested in developing knowledge and theory-based training, along with empowering the inexperienced and employing the experienced personnel so that disaster operations do not suffer from lack of experience while conducting and managing disaster management operations Horizontal, Egalitarian, and Trustful Relationships: This factor is especially important when networking and collaborative efforts are considered. A collaborative initiative would be ineffective and most probably fail when there is lack of inter-actor trust and acceptance, as well as when imbalanced power relationships exist between actors. This is true for both intra- and interorganizational relationships in disaster management Rule-oriented though Flexible Structures, Operations, and Thinking: Any disaster operation should follow a certain chain of command and rules described by organizational norms and culture, though such practice should be easily avoided when and if needed for achieving a higher goal for the organization or public. Flexible structures and innovative thinking do not imply disorderly actions, but instead imply alternative approaches to solve problems AFAM 41
  39. 39. DM Programs at IAU-AFAM Minor in Disaster Management 18 credit hours: - 5 core courses - AFM 4110 Intergovernmental Administration - AFM 4392 Disaster Management - AFM 4712 Information Systems for Public Managers and Planners - AFM 4395 Disaster Response and Recovery - AFM 4390 Hazard Mitigation and Preparedness - 1 restricted elective course - ESS 4012 Conflict and Terrorism - ESS 4013 Homeland Security and Criminal Justice - HRS 4938 Health Issues in Disasters AFAM 42
  40. 40. DM Programs at IAU-AFAM AFAM 43
  41. 41. Delivery: Collaborative Learning • Collaborative learning refers to an instruction method in which learners at various performance levels work together in small groups toward a common goal – Active class contribution – Work with other students on projects during class – Work with classmates outside of class – Participate in a community-based projects (advisory council) – Discuss ideas from readings/classes with others – Involvement and experience – Ability to learn from peers (co-learning) AFAM 44
  42. 42. Hierarchical vs. Collaborative Model Hierarchical Model • Teachers detain knowledge while students consume knowledge • Instructional methods based on memorization of information and individual study Collaborative Model • Students and teachers are, at the same time, producers and consumers of knowledge • Instructional methods based on teams of students working together toward AFAM 45
  43. 43. Collaborative Learning Activities • Discussions • Games/Simulations • FEMA Professional Development Series • On Hand Courses • Case studies • Discussion groups – Position & response papers • Brainstorming • Group projects – community-based service-learning projects AFAM 46
  44. 44. Analytical Reasoning: Basics of Network Measures • Centrality – Degree – Closeness – Betweenness – Flow Betweenness • Cliques & Sub-groups – N-cliques – N-Clans AFAM 47
  45. 45. Friendship Network Analysis Before After AFAM 48
  46. 46. Advice Network Analysis Before After AFAM 49
  47. 47. Affiliation Networks Before After AFAM 50
  48. 48. Conclusion • Disaster Management field needs effective, skillful and competent leaders and disaster managers to deal with complex emergencies and disasters • Respective DM programs need to meet the current need of the practice • Collaborative, inter-governmental, and inter-sector practices are to be included in the curriculum • Collaborative nature of DM should be reflected in curriculum design and delivery AFAM 51
  49. 49. Thank You! Questions & Comments? You will find the AFAM team in • Australia Melbourne, Sydney • Brunei • Burma Mandalay, Rangoon • Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Pyongyang • Indonesia Jakarta • Japan Osaka, Tokyo • Malaysia Kuala Lumpur, Kuching, Kota Kinabalu, Penang • New Zealand Auckland • Philippines Manila • Republic of Korea Seoul • Singapore • Taipei • Thailand Bangkok, Chiang Mai • Vietnam Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City