Desertification Davos 2014-08-28

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5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice 24-28 August 2014 in Davos, Switzerland

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Desertification Davos 2014-08-28

  1. 1. 5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 Davos - Switzerland THU1.2: National Risk Management Approaches The innovation of global desertification risk governance from China’s practice Peijun SHI Lianyou LIU Guoyi HAN State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology Key Laboratory of Environmental Change and Natural Disaster, MOE Academy of Disaster Reduction and Emergency Management MOCA &MOE Sweden Stockholm Environment Institute Beijing Normal University (spj@bnu.edu.cn)
  2. 2. 1 Aeolian Precesses and Blown-sand Disasters in China 2 Control Techniques & Practices and Sustainability paradigm of Sandy Region in China 3 Implications of Sandy Desertification Change in China 4 China’s Remarks from the way for Prevention and Control of Desertification in HFA2
  3. 3. 1 Aeolian Precesses and Blown-sand Disasters in China
  4. 4. Gobi- Pebblization Shadow Dunes on the Black Gobi Surface
  5. 5. Vegetation Degeneration Dead Bushes due to desiccation 梭梭
  6. 6. Sandification 内蒙古锡林郭勒---Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia 交通引起的草原退化/Grassland degeneraton due to traffic
  7. 7. --- Ordos, Inner Mongolia: 50 mm a-1 2 m Age of Trees: 40 Yrs Severe Erosion of Sandy Soil by Wind
  8. 8. Sand Burying by Sand Deposition Sandified Cropland
  9. 9. The Black City (800 a B.P.) The Black City Ruined in the Shifting Dunes
  10. 10. The Great Wall abraded by blown sand
  11. 11. Shifting sand covers railway
  12. 12. Shaanxi Shaanxi Houses Wrecked by Shifting Sand, Inner Mongolia
  13. 13. 通讯线路沙害 Communication Line Endangered by Shift Dunes
  14. 14. Dust storm More than 100 Person died in the storm 1993年/5.5 A dust storm encroached Jinchang, on May 5, 1993
  15. 15. 山 东 苏 江 S K Japan China
  16. 16. Annually Mean (1951-2000) Distribution of Dust-storm Days in China
  17. 17. The Air Pollution Index Affected by Dust Storms in Beijing, 2002 Air Pollution Index 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 1月1日 2月1日 3月1日 4月1日 5月1日 6月1日 7月1日 8月1日 9月1日 10月1日 11月1日 12月1日 500 400 300 200 100 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D Month Air Pollution by Dust Emission, Transportation and Sedimentation
  18. 18. 2 Control Techniques & Practices and Sustainability paradigm of Sandy Region in China
  19. 19. 2.1. Control Techniques and Practices Mechanical dune fixation Chemical dune fixation Plantation sand fixation
  20. 20. Straw Checkerboards along the Bao-Lan Railway
  21. 21. Checkerboards in Kubqi Sand Desert
  22. 22. Chemical dune fixation on highway slope
  23. 23. Plantation in Taklimakan Sand Desert
  24. 24. Shrub dune fixation system
  25. 25. Artifical forest along Jing-Tong railway in Horqin Sandy Land
  26. 26. Evergreen trees in Mu Us Sandy Land
  27. 27. Agricultural shelterbelts system
  28. 28. 2.2. Sustainability paradigm of Sandy Region in China Industry Development Based on Ecosystem Service Capacity, Ecosystem Restoration Based on Industry Development Principle Optimized Eco-productive Paradigm Regional Patterns for Combating Sandification
  29. 29. The land use mode is adjusted from“small area ecological construction and large area production develop in” to “large area ecological construction but small area production developing”.It is not only simply converting farmland for forestry and pasture, but also the transition of production mode, adjustment of land use mode. Four eco-industrial patterns are capital region, farming-stockfarming region, steppe region and desert-oasis region
  30. 30. Four eco-industrial patterns for Combating Sandification in China capital region steppe region farming-stockfarming region desert-oasis region
  31. 31. 3.Implications of Sandy Desertification Change in China 3.1 Drying andWarming Trends in the Sandy Desertification Areas Rainfall Contrast between Northeastern and Northwestern China A FastWarming Trend in the North of China Decrease of surface wind in Northern China
  32. 32. Distribution of Temperature Tendency (1960- 2010) Distribution of temperature tendency values in China (1961–2010)
  33. 33. Distribution of Precipitation Tendency (1960-2010) Distribution of precipitation tendency values in China (1961–2010)
  34. 34. Vam (m s-1) 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Annual mean wind speed (Vam) in northern China since 1960
  35. 35. qs (t m-1 a-1) 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Annual potential sand transport flux (qs) in northern China since 1960
  36. 36. 3.Implications of Sandy Desertification Change in China 3.2 Human Proactive Responses Played the Main Role Growing Population Pressure on Land Significant Rural Depopulation Overgrazing on grassland still exist The Government Purchased Vegetation Construction in Sandy Desertification Area Great Motivation of Ecological Industrial Engineering on Sandy Desertification Control
  37. 37. Rpg (‰) Population growth rate (Rpg) in China since 1949 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
  38. 38. Number of livestock (million)) 40 30 20 10 0 1950 1955 19 60 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 19 95 20 00 Livestock growth in northern China since 1949
  39. 39. Areas of sandy desertified land in northern China since 1994 Years (Source: Office to combat desertification of China) Total area of desertified lands (million km2) Total area of sandy desertified lands (million km2) Trend 2009 2.624 1.7311  2004 2.636 1.7397  1999 2.674 1.7431  1994 2.622 1.7259 
  40. 40. Population change in six provinces/regions in arid and semiarid China Province Years Urban (X104) Rural (X104) Total (X104) 1982 300.19 1656.74 1956.92 Gansu 1990 493.06 1744.05 2237.11 2000 603.23 1909.20 2512.43 2010 923.66 1633.87 2557.53 1982 79.79 309.78 389.57 Qinghai 1990 121.88 323.81 445.69 2000 180.09 338.06 518.16 2010 251.63 311.05 562.67 1982 556.13 1371.29 1927.43 Inner 1990 779.69 1365.96 2145.65 Mongolia 2000 1013.88 1361.66 2375.54 2010 1372.02 1098.61 2470.63 1982 371.48 936.67 1308.15 Xinjiang 1990 508.30 1007.39 1515.69 2000 623.10 1223.16 1846.26 2010 901.53 1279.80 2181.33 1982 549.05 2341.39 2890.44 Shaanxi 1990 706.77 2581.47 3288.24 2000 1162.88 2441.89 3604.77 2010 1705.86 2026.88 3732.74 1982 87.59 301.96 389.56 Ningxia 1990 119.75 345.79 465.54 2000 180.39 368.25 548.64 2010 301.83 328.30 630.14
  41. 41. Government investment in five key forestry and desertification control programs in China Key Projects Gevernment investment (X 108 Yuan) Chief benefit of different projects 3NSDP 1978-2010 128 26.47 million ha of afforestation land CCFP 2002-2010 2332 9.26 million ha of cropland was converted into forest land NFPP 2000-2010 784 forest area increased by 14.00 million ha, timber production reduced by 220 million m3 SSCP 2001-2010 412 6 million ha of cropland was returned to forest GBGRP 2003-2010 203 518.66 million ha of grassland was protected with fence and 12.40 million ha of severe degraded grassland was reseeded Five key forestry and sandy desertification control programs are as follows: the Three North Shelterbelt Development Program (3NSDP), the Conversion of Cropland to Forest Program (CCFP), the Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP), the Sand Source Control Program in the vicinity of Beijing and Tianjin (SSCP), and the Grazing Ban for Grassland Restoration Program (GBGRP).
  42. 42. 4. China’s Remarks from the way for Prevention and Control of Desertification in HFA2 China's success is rooted in that government attaches great importance to ecological construction; put the prevention and control of desertification as the core mission of ecological construction; adhere to the construction of the Great Green Wall (including north, northeast, northwest of China region); pay attention to the sand source control; keep co-governance between governments and local peasants, herdsmen; adhere to the path of ecological construction --"Industrialization of Ecological Construction, Ecologization of Industrial Construction ","Most areas focus on ecology, small areas focus on production". China's strategic countermeasures to prevention desertification risk should integrate global climate change adaptation with combating desertification together, strengthen the unity of carbon-sinks and discharge reduction, properly master the relationship of artificial harness and ecological self-recovery, improve the mechanism through alliance of government, companies and social investments. It could be valuable for the prevention and control of desertification in the world.
  43. 43. Thank You for Your Attention!

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