Conceptual Models for Disaster Resilient Communities M.Reza.Farzad Behtash PhD Candidate in Urbanism at Art University, Faculty Member Deputy of Environmental Research Committee in Tehran Municipality Head of HSE Research Group in Research & Planning Center of Tehran Behtash@Canada.Com M.T.Pirbabaei PhD, Faculty Member of Tabriz Islamic Art University M.T.Aghababaei MS, Expert of HSE Research Group in Research & Planning Center of Tehran
Introduction: This article is a summary of research project. We want to define a comprehensive pattern of resilient community for our country. At this article: Definition of resiliency Definition of vulnerability Models and frameworks of resilient communities Explain our suggested framework
A recent review of worldwide natural hazard losses during 2001 identified 700 natural disasters, resulting in 25,000 deaths, $36 billion in economic losses, and $11.5 billion in insured losses
Most of these losses occurred at locations where vulnerable urban settlements were developed near known hazard areas, such as floodplains, earthquake fault zones, and hurricane-prone Shorelines
Definition of Resiliency: According to Holling, “resilience determines the persistence of relationships within a system and is a measure of the ability of these systems to absorb change of state variable, driving variables, and parameters, and still persist”.
Louis Lebel (2001) “the potential of a particular configuration of a system to maintain its structure/function in the face of disturbance, and the ability of the system to re-organize following disturbance-driven change and measured by size of stability domain”. Definition of Resiliency:
Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction (SDR, 2005) “the capacity of a system, community, or society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing, in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure. This is determined by the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing itself to increase its capacity for learning from past disasters for better future protection and to improve risk reduction measures.” Definition of Resiliency:
Definition of Vulnerability: Vulnerability is the flip side of Resilience: when a social or ecological system loses resilience it becomes vulnerable to change that previously could be absorbed Vulnerability is a function of the exposure (who or what is at risk) and the sensitivity of the system (the degree to which people and places can be harmed) Vulnerability arises from the intersection of human systems, the built environment, and the natural environment.
Frameworks and Models of Resiliency Community Resilience Model (Center for Community Enterprise) People, Organization in the Community, Resources in the Community, Community Process.
Resilience Alliance (CSIRO, Australia; Arizona State University, USA; Stockholm University, Sweden) has defined four factors: Metabolic Flows Governance Networks Social Dynamics Built Environment Frameworks and Models of Resiliency
Frameworks and Models of Resiliency Godschalk (2003), characteristics of resilient systems: Redundancy - systems designed with multiple nodes to ensure that failure of one component does not cause the entire system to fail Diversity - multiple components or nodes versus a central node, to protect against a site specific threat Efficiency - positive ratio of energy supplied to energy delivered by a dynamic system Autonomy - capability to operate independent of outside control Strength - power to resist a hazard force or attack Interdependence - integrated system components to support each other Adaptability - capacity to learn from experience and the flexibility to change Collaboration - multiple opportunities and incentives for broad stakeholder participation
Frameworks and Models of Resiliency Community and Regional Resilience Initiative (CARRI):Hazards and Vulnerability Research InstituteDepartment of GeographyUniversity of South Carolina Social Vulnerability; Build Environment and Infrastructure; Natural System and Exposure; Hazard Mitigation and Planning
Frameworks and Models of Resiliency Community and Regional Resilience Initiative (CARRI):
Applied Conclusions: Defining & Developing indicators of different dimensions for measuring them Implementing this framework for given communities Determining which resilient dimension of community are powerful Making Stranger the weak dimensions
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