Climate Change and Adaptation-IDRC 2010.ppt

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  • 1. Climate Change and Adaptation: Where do we go from here? Dr. Sarah Ahmed The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda , Vadodara, India.
  • 2. INTRODUCTION
    • Climate Change
    • Variability in temperature , precipitation , hydrological cycles and ocean tides
    • Vulnerability due to the adverse effect of variability impacting on livelihood sectors like agriculture fishery forestry
    • Inequities in sectors like food, water and health especially in developing countries
  • 3. Vulnerability in developing countries
    • Developing countries in arid and semi arid regions
    • Low Human Capital
    • Low Financial
    • Low potential of Employment
    • Low Income
    • Low capability to face changes in climate and ensure sustainability
    • Enhancement of Adaptive capacity essential
  • 4. Adaptation Measures
    • Policy Measures
    • Technological Measures
    • Climate responsive change in location, activity, use
    • Monitoring and Forecasting
    • Risk sharing
  • 5. Total costs of climate change
    • The costs of mitigation i.e. reducing the extent of climate change; e.g. limit the overall temperature increase to 2 o C;
    • the costs of adaptation i.e. reducing the impact of climate change; e.g. invest in coastal protection to limit the negative impacts of 2 o C warming
    • the residual impact cost that can neither be mitigated nor adapted to e.g. accept the loss of certain coastlines because they cannot be defended at reasonable costs.
  • 6. Adaptation costs and equity
    • The UNDP calculates that by 2015, adaptation will cost nearly $86 billion a year.
    • A World Bank estimation puts that number closer to $100 billion
    • equity aspects: the sufferers are usually not the contributors to the adverse effects of climate change.
  • 7. Adaptation costs
    • Adaptation costs would be additional costs to development initiatives to maintain the pre-climate change welfare levels.
    • it involves allocation of resources to adapt to climate change while also meeting the needs of other sectors.
    • Accurate costs of adaptation is difficult to estimate but essential
    • Accurate information and data at the disaggregated level is essential for proper policy framing and allocation of resources.
  • 8. Sectoral Adaptation Costs
  • 9. Funding Resources for Adaptation Measures
    • Adaptation measures can prove to be very costly.
    • It also involves equity aspects as those suffering the ill effects of climate change may not be the creators of the problem
    • developing countries expect the developed countries to fund the adaptation measures.
  • 10. ADAPTATION POLICY MEASURES IN INDIA
    • InJune 2008 India announced its National Action Plan on Climate Change.
    • The Plan covers eight broad areas through its National Missions which takes care of both mitigation and adaptation measures.
  • 11. The Eight National Missions
    • 1. National Solar Mission
    • 2. National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency
    • 3. National Mission on Sustainable Habitat
    • 4. National Water Mission
    • 5. National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem
    • 6. National Mission for a “Green India”
    • 7. National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
    • 8. National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change
    • Each of these Missions has a technology development and R&D component.
  • 12. Adaptation Components in India
    • Major components of Adaptation are:
    • Crop improvement and research
    • Drought proofing and flood control
    • Health improvement and preventation of disease
    • Risk financing
    • Disaster management
    • Forest conservation
    • Poverty alleviation and livelihood preservation
  • 13. Adaptation costs in India
    • As a percentage of GDP, the increse in adaptation costs is as follows:
    • 2004-05 0.88%
    • 2005-06 1.61%
    • 2006-07 2.17%
  • 14. Policy Initiatives for Adaptation
    • Rural employment generating schemes like the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act [NREGA, 2005] for livelihood security in rural areas
    • Watershed Development Projects
    • Urban Employment Programmes
    • Programmes for Tribal Youth
    • Afforestation
    • Infrastructure
    • Insurance
  • 15. Method of Implementation
    • Under the concept of public private partnership
    • Involving all stakeholders: Central Ministries and agencies, State Governments, business and industry, civil society and community level organizations and representatives
    • Both Mitigation and Adaptation Measures are addressed in the missions
  • 16. Policy Action For Successful Adaptation
    • Accurate and disaggregated data is absolutely essential
    • Improve the lack of balanced approach towards addressing all villages and/or talukas
    • It would be worthwhile to involve academic institutions to conduct surveys for assessing the adaptation needs of the various sectors.
  • 17.
    • A public-academic-community policy action would give a fair idea about how much to adapt and which sectors should be given priority and in which areas/regions.
    • Training workshops to train the trainers is essential so that survey instruments are formulated accurately to get the desired data.
  • 18.
    • Incorporating Adaptation Fund allocation in the annual budgets at the local level
    • Municipality and village panchayat officials should be sensitized to incorporate adaptation measures with adequate consultation and cooperation of the local residents
  • 19.
          • Thank you