Climate Change and Adaptation-IDRC 2010.ppt

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Climate Change and Adaptation-IDRC 2010.ppt

  1. 1. Climate Change and Adaptation: Where do we go from here? Dr. Sarah Ahmed The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda , Vadodara, India.
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>Variability in temperature , precipitation , hydrological cycles and ocean tides </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability due to the adverse effect of variability impacting on livelihood sectors like agriculture fishery forestry </li></ul><ul><li>Inequities in sectors like food, water and health especially in developing countries </li></ul>
  3. 3. Vulnerability in developing countries <ul><li>Developing countries in arid and semi arid regions </li></ul><ul><li>Low Human Capital </li></ul><ul><li>Low Financial </li></ul><ul><li>Low potential of Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Low Income </li></ul><ul><li>Low capability to face changes in climate and ensure sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancement of Adaptive capacity essential </li></ul>
  4. 4. Adaptation Measures <ul><li>Policy Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Technological Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Climate responsive change in location, activity, use </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring and Forecasting </li></ul><ul><li>Risk sharing </li></ul>
  5. 5. Total costs of climate change <ul><li>The costs of mitigation i.e. reducing the extent of climate change; e.g. limit the overall temperature increase to 2 o C; </li></ul><ul><li>the costs of adaptation i.e. reducing the impact of climate change; e.g. invest in coastal protection to limit the negative impacts of 2 o C warming </li></ul><ul><li>the residual impact cost that can neither be mitigated nor adapted to e.g. accept the loss of certain coastlines because they cannot be defended at reasonable costs. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Adaptation costs and equity <ul><li>The UNDP calculates that by 2015, adaptation will cost nearly $86 billion a year. </li></ul><ul><li>A World Bank estimation puts that number closer to $100 billion </li></ul><ul><li>equity aspects: the sufferers are usually not the contributors to the adverse effects of climate change. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Adaptation costs <ul><li>Adaptation costs would be additional costs to development initiatives to maintain the pre-climate change welfare levels. </li></ul><ul><li>it involves allocation of resources to adapt to climate change while also meeting the needs of other sectors. </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate costs of adaptation is difficult to estimate but essential </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate information and data at the disaggregated level is essential for proper policy framing and allocation of resources. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sectoral Adaptation Costs
  9. 9. Funding Resources for Adaptation Measures <ul><li>Adaptation measures can prove to be very costly. </li></ul><ul><li>It also involves equity aspects as those suffering the ill effects of climate change may not be the creators of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>developing countries expect the developed countries to fund the adaptation measures. </li></ul>
  10. 10. ADAPTATION POLICY MEASURES IN INDIA <ul><li>InJune 2008 India announced its National Action Plan on Climate Change. </li></ul><ul><li>The Plan covers eight broad areas through its National Missions which takes care of both mitigation and adaptation measures. </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Eight National Missions <ul><li>1. National Solar Mission </li></ul><ul><li>2. National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>3. National Mission on Sustainable Habitat </li></ul><ul><li>4. National Water Mission </li></ul><ul><li>5. National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>6. National Mission for a “Green India” </li></ul><ul><li>7. National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>8. National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>Each of these Missions has a technology development and R&D component. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Adaptation Components in India <ul><li>Major components of Adaptation are: </li></ul><ul><li>Crop improvement and research </li></ul><ul><li>Drought proofing and flood control </li></ul><ul><li>Health improvement and preventation of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Risk financing </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster management </li></ul><ul><li>Forest conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty alleviation and livelihood preservation </li></ul>
  13. 13. Adaptation costs in India <ul><li>As a percentage of GDP, the increse in adaptation costs is as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>2004-05 0.88% </li></ul><ul><li>2005-06 1.61% </li></ul><ul><li>2006-07 2.17% </li></ul>
  14. 14. Policy Initiatives for Adaptation <ul><li>Rural employment generating schemes like the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act [NREGA, 2005] for livelihood security in rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>Watershed Development Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Employment Programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Programmes for Tribal Youth </li></ul><ul><li>Afforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Insurance </li></ul>
  15. 15. Method of Implementation <ul><li>Under the concept of public private partnership </li></ul><ul><li>Involving all stakeholders: Central Ministries and agencies, State Governments, business and industry, civil society and community level organizations and representatives </li></ul><ul><li>Both Mitigation and Adaptation Measures are addressed in the missions </li></ul>
  16. 16. Policy Action For Successful Adaptation <ul><li>Accurate and disaggregated data is absolutely essential </li></ul><ul><li>Improve the lack of balanced approach towards addressing all villages and/or talukas </li></ul><ul><li>It would be worthwhile to involve academic institutions to conduct surveys for assessing the adaptation needs of the various sectors. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>A public-academic-community policy action would give a fair idea about how much to adapt and which sectors should be given priority and in which areas/regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Training workshops to train the trainers is essential so that survey instruments are formulated accurately to get the desired data. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Incorporating Adaptation Fund allocation in the annual budgets at the local level </li></ul><ul><li>Municipality and village panchayat officials should be sensitized to incorporate adaptation measures with adequate consultation and cooperation of the local residents </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thank you </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>

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