Plenary III: Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

Wastewater, Ecosystems and Health: Risks
and Opportunities
Guéladio Cissé
Rese...
One Health

Well covered:
• Human Health
• Animal Health
• Food Safety and
Security
Weak up to now:
•Environmental
Health
...
SANITATION - Global Situation – Africa
2010

Source: AMCOW 2012
SANITATION - Global Situation – Africa
2010

Source: AMCOW 2012
WASH and Health
• 88% of diarrhoeal disease is due to
unsafe water supply, inadequate
sanitation and hygiene
• WASH interv...
Effect on diarrhoea of WASH
interventions

6
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

Wastewater

7
Wide range of wastewater sources
Wastewater
Used water of different qualities ranging from raw to
diluted; usually a combi...
Water … Wastewater

Need more attention than before

• Waste (liquid and solid) production in
general on rise
• More Water...
Urban water - withdrawal and
pollution discharge
Agriculture
Domestic
Industry

10
2- Opportunity
Water scarcity --- reuse
Water availability in
decline, while
agriculture accounts
for more than 70% of
glo...
Waste management options

Reduce: reduce the
amount
Reuse : someone’s
waste used else
Recycle: use in
another way or
proce...
Waste management options
Worldwide, the new environmental paradigm is to
eliminate the concept of throwing away waste and
...
Wastewater --- opportunity
●

An approximate estimate of global wastewater
production is 1,500 km3 per day

●

Recycling w...
3- Risks
Wastewater --- Health Risks
• Major wastewater related diseases
(Diarrhoea, Typhoid, Schistosomiasis,
Ascariasis,...
Ecosystems Health Risks
•Wastewater from industries is on rise!
• Global annual water use by industry is
expected to rise ...
Ecosystems Health Risks
Low ratio of wastewater treatment in developing countries
> 80-90% of urban wastewater improperly ...
4- Challenges
Climate, Extreme events,
Disasters

Number of disasters
increasing

Increasing
occurrence of floods
among cl...
Climate, Extreme events, Disasters
2013 !!!
Nouakchott

Climate extreme events: floods
in Nouakchott (Mauritania)

2009 !!...
What needs to be done

Support Initiatives
on
WASTEWATER, ECOSYSTEMS,
and HEALTH
Particular focus on
Urban and Rural Inter...
What needs to be done
International, National, Local
Policy, Technology, Economy, Finance
Behavioral change, Partnership
B...
Conclusion
• A big number of human health problems result
from degraded ecosystems, and poorly managed
environments
• Incr...
Thank you very much
for your attention

gueladio.cisse@unibas.ch
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Wastewater, Ecosystems and Health: Risks and Opportunities

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GRF 2nd One Health Summit 2013: Presentation by Gueladio Cisse, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH), Switzerland

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Transcript of "Wastewater, Ecosystems and Health: Risks and Opportunities "

  1. 1. Plenary III: Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Wastewater, Ecosystems and Health: Risks and Opportunities Guéladio Cissé Research Group Leader “Ecosystem services, Climate and Health” Ecosystem Health Sciences Unit Department of Epidemiology and Public Health Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH), Switzerland
  2. 2. One Health Well covered: • Human Health • Animal Health • Food Safety and Security Weak up to now: •Environmental Health • WASH • Sanitation • Wastewater Source. GRF webpage
  3. 3. SANITATION - Global Situation – Africa 2010 Source: AMCOW 2012
  4. 4. SANITATION - Global Situation – Africa 2010 Source: AMCOW 2012
  5. 5. WASH and Health • 88% of diarrhoeal disease is due to unsafe water supply, inadequate sanitation and hygiene • WASH interventions can lead to a reduction of diarrhoeal cases by up to 45 % • Better management of water resources and wastes will reduce a number of diseases
  6. 6. Effect on diarrhoea of WASH interventions 6
  7. 7. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Wastewater 7
  8. 8. Wide range of wastewater sources Wastewater Used water of different qualities ranging from raw to diluted; usually a combination of one or more of the following (Scott et al 2004): 1. Domestic effluent consisting of blackwater (excreta; urine;) and grey water (kitchen and bathing wastewater) 2. Water from commercial establishments and institutions including hospitals 3. Industrial effluents where present 4. Storm water and other urban run-off Diversity Complexity
  9. 9. Water … Wastewater Need more attention than before • Waste (liquid and solid) production in general on rise • More Water Supplied and Used: More Wastewater to handle 9
  10. 10. Urban water - withdrawal and pollution discharge Agriculture Domestic Industry 10
  11. 11. 2- Opportunity Water scarcity --- reuse Water availability in decline, while agriculture accounts for more than 70% of global water use By 2025, half of the world population will live in water stressed areas, which makes reuse important
  12. 12. Waste management options Reduce: reduce the amount Reuse : someone’s waste used else Recycle: use in another way or process Recover: handle, keep, clean, transform, improve, return to the economy Many other R's: reduce, reuse, recycle, recover, repair, rethink … •Repair: take old and little defected things and repair them •Rethink: environmentally sound management of waste (Source: WB 2012)
  13. 13. Waste management options Worldwide, the new environmental paradigm is to eliminate the concept of throwing away waste and replace it with the concept of considering waste as a resource Focus on “Reduce, Reuse, Recycle” paradigm Considers both solid waste and wastewater -Solid waste -Wastewater -Feacal sludge
  14. 14. Wastewater --- opportunity ● An approximate estimate of global wastewater production is 1,500 km3 per day ● Recycling wastewater for peri-urban agriculture already happens around 4 of 5 cities across the developing world ● Wastewater is estimated to directly or indirectly irrigate about 20 million hectares of land globally— almost 7% of total irrigated areas “Wastewater: tomorrow a resource rather than a problem - Rationale for a shift in thinking” (Malin Falkenmark) Source: UN World Water Development Report 2003; Malin Falkenmark 2011; Pay Drechsel 2010
  15. 15. 3- Risks Wastewater --- Health Risks • Major wastewater related diseases (Diarrhoea, Typhoid, Schistosomiasis, Ascariasis, Hookworm disease, Lymphatic filariasis, Hepatitis A) • Vector-borne diseases of relevance to wastewater use (Dengue, Filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, Malaria) • Survival of various organisms (Viruses, Bacteria, Protozoan cysts, Helminths)
  16. 16. Ecosystems Health Risks •Wastewater from industries is on rise! • Global annual water use by industry is expected to rise from an estimated 725 km3 in 1995 to about 1,170 km3 by 2025,by which time industrial water usage will represent 24% of all water abstractions •Many wastewater flows from land end up at freshwater bodies (rivers, oceans, lagoons, lakes) • This will particularly impact on aquatic ecosystems receiving wastewater from industries Source: UN World Water Development Report 2003
  17. 17. Ecosystems Health Risks Low ratio of wastewater treatment in developing countries > 80-90% of urban wastewater improperly discharged or insufficiently treated Complex chemical and industrial pollutions …. Impact on ecosystems Source: Corcoran et al 2010
  18. 18. 4- Challenges Climate, Extreme events, Disasters Number of disasters increasing Increasing occurrence of floods among climate extreme events related disasters 18 November 2013 18
  19. 19. Climate, Extreme events, Disasters 2013 !!! Nouakchott Climate extreme events: floods in Nouakchott (Mauritania) 2009 !!! Ouagadougou Climate extreme events: floods in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) Contexts of predominant very simple traditional excreta disposal facilities (latrines), non disposed solid waste, non treated wastewater in streets, and traditional sources of water (like unprotected wells) Threat on water quality and consequently on health Credit photos: Noor Info, IRD
  20. 20. What needs to be done Support Initiatives on WASTEWATER, ECOSYSTEMS, and HEALTH Particular focus on Urban and Rural Interfaces
  21. 21. What needs to be done International, National, Local Policy, Technology, Economy, Finance Behavioral change, Partnership Bottom up Research Local governance actors approaches Ecohealth Approach One Health Action Dialogue Policy Makers, Leadership Gender
  22. 22. Conclusion • A big number of human health problems result from degraded ecosystems, and poorly managed environments • Increased contamination of ecosystems by waste and discharges from industry and transport, as well as from household and human waste • Climate variability and change, extreme events: will exacerbate the health challenges, will lead to more and more disasters • Human health, Animal Health and the Health of Ecosystems need to be improved together • Ecohealth and One Health Actors to consider and do more on wastewater 18 November 2013
  23. 23. Thank you very much for your attention gueladio.cisse@unibas.ch

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