RCRC Tsunami Operation The RCRC response and recovery operation following the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami reflected the scale of what is recorded as the deadliest tsunami in history – one that swept through coastal areas of Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Thailand, and ten other Indian Ocean countries. Over 4.8 million people benefited from a wide range of RCRC support that included reconstruction of physical infrastructure such as homes, schools and health facilities as well as long term recovery and DRR programming. IFRC which is the world’s largest humanitarian relief and development network, has significant knowledge and experience in implementing CBDRR programmes. Building safe and resilient communities is at the heart of the IFRC’ s CBDRR programmes. - The Tsunami Operation provided the IFRC with a unique opportunity to better understand and respond to the two key challenges in the implementation of our programmes – a) how to articulate resilience in a meaningful way to the CBDRR communities and practitioners; and b) to identify the factors decisive of the success or failure of CBDRR programmes. - Through this study we sought to answer the following key questions for CBDRR programming: • What do communities perceive as the most important characteristics needed to be safe and resilient? • Are there a set of characteristics that are common across all communities, despite being located in different countries and settings? • How do communities rank changes in characteristics, and how have Red Cross Red Crescent interventions contributed to these changes? • How do these changes over time reflect shifts in community attitudes and behaviours towards risk?
An in-depth study of CBDRR programmes implemented as part of its Tsunami Operation was carried out between October 2010 and September 2011 by the ARUP International Development. Post-tsunami CBDRR programmes were implemented in 600 communities in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and the Maldives providing an opportunity to learn from implementing at scale CBDRR programmes and to build an evidence base for this work within the IFRC and the broader practitioner community. These programmes were supported by six PNS’s (AmCross, Belgian RC, British RC, Canadian RC, Danish RC, and French RC) and the IFRC. - The study is based on both secondary and primary data sources. Drawing on documentation from the Tsunami Operation, there was a broad-ranging literature review as well as participatory research in 30 communities, involving data collection, field testing, analysis of the fieldwork and reporting.
Key points: How can we articulate resilience in a way that is meaningful both for CBDRR practitioners and for the communities in which CBDRR programs are implemented? Understanding what makes a successful and sustainable CBDRR programme.
Although there is not yet a consensus on the definition of resilience; community resilience is generally understood as the capacity to do three things: -To anticipate, minimize and absorb potential stresses (or destructive forces) either through resistance or by adopting alternative strategies; - To manage or maintain certain basic functions (and structures) during disastrous events; - And to recover or ‘bounce back’ after an event. This definition recognises the importance of awareness and preparedness in enabling communities to respond and recover from disasters, as articulated in the Hyogo Framework But the concept of resilience is much broader, and has gained traction as DRR has progressively moved away from a ‘predict and prevent’ paradigm in the context of specific hazards, to building the capacity of communities who face a wide range of shocks and stresses. The latter is certainly more relevant when faced with future uncertainties associated with climate change. ‘Anticipation strategies work against known problems, while resilient strategies are better against unknown problems’ In order to define resilience we reviewed 25 key documents (including 15 frameworks). From these 5 key themes were identified and shown on the diagram: - Meeting basic needs (food, water, shelter, health) is a pre-requisite to being able to build resilient communities. Communities who are unable to meet their basic needs, whose day-to-day focus remains survival, do not have the capacity to build resilience. This is important in deciding when to commence CBDRR programs in a post-disaster situation. - Building assets (physical, natural, financial, social, political and human) are seen as critical ‘buffers’ to withstand shocks and stresses - But a distinction is made between those assets within the control of the community, and access to external assistance and resources; for example remittances from family overseas, or post-disaster assistance from local government or NGOs. - However, assets and resources alone are insufficient. It is the quality of those assets which determines the safety and resilience of a community. A community may have houses, but they need to be strong enough to withstand cyclones; diversity of water sources or livelihood opportunity is preferable to a single water source, only one basis of employment e.g. fishing. - Finally, but perhaps most importantly is the capacity of the community to self-organise, act and learn from experience.
At the centre is individual health, and knowledge. A safe and resilient comprises individuals who are knowledgeable and healthy. They have the ability to assess, manage and monitor its risks, learn new skills and build on past experiences First aid, family disaster preparedness plan and action, personal hygiene A safe and resilient community is organised. It has the capacity to identify problems, establish priorities and act. It is flexible, resourceful and has the capacity to accept uncertainty and respond (proactively) to change. - Response and evacuation plan, tested with simulations, response team trained with equipment, community shelter, relief supplies
In addition, a safe and resilient community also has infrastructure, access to services, and economic opportunities. It has good quality housing, transport, power, water and sanitation systems; and the ability to maintain, repair and renovate them. It has a diverse range of employment opportunities, income and financial services; and can also manage its natural assets. It recognises their value and has the ability to protect, enhance and maintain them.
It can manage its natural assets. It recognises their value and has the ability to protect, enhance and maintain them. It is connected, through relationships with external actors (family, friends, faith groups, government) who provide a wider supportive environment, and supply goods and services when needed. Early warning system, proposals and investment post VCA, community plan linked to national plan, people know government emergency response focal point
Characteristics of safe and resilient communities and key determinants of successful disaster risk reduction programmes
Disaster 4th IDRC Management Davos 2012 Defining and Achieving Resilience Through CBDRR 4th International Disaster and Risk Conference Davos 2012 Nathan Cooper Community Preparedness and Risk Reduction Department International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societieswww.ifrc.orgSaving lives, changing minds.
Outline of the Presentation 1. Background 2. Tsunami DRR study: Characteristics of a Safe and Resilient Community 3. Key research methodologies and outputs 4. Global significance of this study 5. Next stepswww.ifrc.orgSaving lives, changing minds.
1. Background Indian Ocean Tsunami Response and Recovery Operation. Over 600 CBDRR programs in support of community safety and resilience. Provided a unique opportunity to have an in- depth study of issues related to community resilience. Key questions addressed by the study: Communities’ perception of their resilience Common characteristics defining community resilience How can RCRC interventions contribute to community resiliencewww.ifrc.orgSaving lives, changing minds.
2. Tsunami DRR Study Period: October 2010 – September 2012 Conducted by: Arup International Development/IFRC Scope: o Countries: Maldives, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Indonesia o Programmes: CBDRR programmes implemented in 633 communities and supported by IFRC and 6 PNS’s Methodology: Literature review, data collection, field testing, analysis of the field work, reporting Number of communities covered by the field study: 30www.ifrc.orgSaving lives, changing minds.
3. Key Outputs & Methodologies What are the characteristics of a safe and resilient community? What are the key determinants of a successful CBDRR programme? Characteristics describe the intended outcome of a CBDRR programme Key determinants are factors which help or hinder programme implementation and sustainabilitywww.ifrc.orgSaving lives, changing minds.
Characteristics What do communities perceive as the most important characteristics to be safe and resilient? Is there a set of such characteristics that are common across all communities despite being located in different countries and settings?www.ifrc.orgSaving lives, changing minds.
Research Methodology Theory Practice Literature Community Workshops: •Exercise 1: Understanding the Context? (Timeline, Shocks Review & Stresses, Community Structure) •Exercise 2: What makes your community safe & resilient? •Exercise 3: How have these factors that make your community safe & resilient changed over time? Conceptual Framework Meta -Analysis ‘Characteristics’ of a safe and resilient communitywww.ifrc.orgSaving lives, changing minds.
Conceptual framework for community resiliencewww.ifrc.orgSaving lives, changing minds.
Characteristics of a safe and resilient community A safe and resilient community... …is knowledgeable and healthy. It has the ability to assess, manage and monitor its risks. It can learn new skills and build on past experience. …is organised. It has the capacity to identify problems, establish priorities and act.www.ifrc.orgSaving lives, changing minds.
Characteristics of a safe and resilient community A safe and resilient …has infrastructure and services. It community... has strong housing, transport, power, water and sanitation systems. It has the ability to maintain, repair and renovate them. …has economic opportunities. It has a diverse range of employment opportunities, income and financial services. It is flexible, resourceful and has the capacity to accept uncertainty and respond (proactively) to change. .www.ifrc.orgSaving lives, changing minds.
Characteristics of a safe and resilient community A safe and resilient community... …can manage its natural assets. It recognizes their value and has the ability to protect, enhance and maintain them. …is connected. It has relationships with external actors who provide a wider supportive environment, and supply goods and services when needed.www.ifrc.orgSaving lives, changing minds.
Examples of contributions of DRR projects A safe and resilient …is knowledgeable and healthy: community... First aid, family disaster preparedness plan and action, personal hygiene ..is organised: Response and evacuation plan, tested with simulations, response team trained with equipment, community shelter, relief supplies …is connected: Early warning system, investment post-VCA, community/national plans linked, gov focal point knownwww.ifrc.orgSaving lives, changing minds.
4. Global significance of this study Characteristics are helpful in understanding the features of safe and resilient communities. Characteristics are applicable to all community-based programs whether “humanitarian” or “development” focused Allow us to highlight the contribution humanitarian work makes to resilience Reinforce the importance of multi-sector, holistic approached to building resiliencewww.ifrc.orgSaving lives, changing minds.
5. Next steps Conducting similar study with ARUP in Latin American and the Caribbean; and Africa - leading to global characteristics Develop standard indicators for characteristics Integrate into proposals and evaluations (e.g. CBA) Link to the vulnerability and capacity assessment Develop metrics for quantifying levels of community resilience.. Online resilience database..www.ifrc.orgSaving lives, changing minds.