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BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b
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BOLASHVILI-Analyzing of biophysical indicators of land degradation-ID1602-IDRC2014_b

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5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice 24-28 August 2014 in Davos, Switzerland

5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice 24-28 August 2014 in Davos, Switzerland

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  • 1. Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography ANALYZING OF BIOPHYSICAL INDICATORS OF LAND DEGRADATION Web: http://geography.tsu.ge, E-Mail: nana.bolashvili@gmail.com
  • 2. Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography The toponyms are sufficient for the primary analysis for the fact that the desertification process takes place in Georgia; for example, there are quite a lot of places and settlements, the names of which denotes a name of individual plant or their group. These names indicate that there could be found the matching plant groups in the vicinity of the settlements. These forests are destroyed completely in the mentioned areas and instead of them the anthropogenic landscapes are developed there. Though we talk about changing of plant – the only one component of the landscape, but along with the changing of plant, other components and the whole landscape has changed as well.
  • 3. Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography During last 4-5 decades the unfavorable climate regime prevailed in Georgia. More frequent became droughts, strong winds and so forth. According researches conducted within climate change projects in Georgia both in lowland and highland the number of hot days will increase by 50% and more for all seasons except winter. First of all this would cause increasing demand on irrigation water in the irrigation area. Climate change together with worsening of ecological problems will aggravate country’s economy especially in lowlands where the utilization of natural resources have long exceeded permissible limits.
  • 4. Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography Distribution of Arid, Semiarid, Semihymid Landscapes of Georgia, scale 1:200 000 Web: http://geography.tsu.ge, E-Mail: nana.bolashvili@gmail.com
  • 5. Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography According to the global climate change and its expected results, the landscape change and the degradation problem threatens to about 3.5% or 2330sq. km of the territory of Georgia, and for such processes, it will be necessary to implement the preventive actions. Otherwise, more than 700 thousand people, which make up to 16% of the population of Georgia will become eco-migrants. Along with the climate change, the negative consequences of anthropogenic impact are obvious as well. There are many examples of the negative consequences of anthropogenic impact in Georgia, such as: degraded soils – as a result of disordered irrigation canals and abandoned not conserved wells; secondary salinizated areas – as a result of breaking the irrigation norms, etc. Web: http://geography.tsu.ge, E-Mail: nana.bolashvili@gmail.com
  • 6. Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography For the assessment of land degradation analyzed natural indicators: precipitation, aridity index, drought, wind, natural calamities (landslides, floods) and the anthropogenic indicators: agriculture, irrigation and mining activity. Web: http://geography.tsu.ge, E-Mail: nana.bolashvili@gmail.com
  • 7. Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography Precipitation Precipitation is one of the basic climate element, it determines territories water budget. Complex orographic conditions, the latitudinal orientation of Caucasus and southern mountains of Georgia and Black Sea, transform atmosphere circulation in such way that on relatively small area there exist dry steps (with less than 400mm annual precipitation) and excess humid regions (more than 4000 precipitation). Web: http://geography.tsu.ge, E-Mail: nana.bolashvili@gmail.com
  • 8. Annual precipitation scale 1:200 000 Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography Web: http://geography.tsu.ge, E-Mail: nana.bolashvili@gmail.com
  • 9. Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography During last 4-5 decades the unfavorable climate regime prevailed in Georgia. More frequent became droughts, strong winds and so forth. According researches conducted within climate change projects in Georgia both in lowland and highland the number of hot days will increase by 50% and more for all seasons except winter. First of all this would cause increasing demand on irrigation water in the irrigation area. Climate change together with worsening of ecological problems will aggravate country’s economy especially in lowlands where the utilization of natural resources have long exceeded permissible limits. Web: http://geography.tsu.ge, E-Mail: nana.bolashvili@gmail.com
  • 10. Aridity Index scale 1:200 000 Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography Web: http://geography.tsu.ge, E-Mail: nana.bolashvili@gmail.com
  • 11. Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography Drought Against the background of global warming the favorable natural factors for aridization becomes more intense, resulting in a natural increase of aridity in Georgia. This is evidenced by the frequency of droughts, which took place in the territory of Georgia in recent years. Aridization is particularly noticeable will be in the country's arid and semi-arid zones. In Georgia, as well as in the whole Caucasus region, droughty years are frequent that are linked to global climate warming by most of researchers. Over the last few decades the years of 1976, 1992, 1996, 1998-2000, 2006 and 2010 can be considered as droughty ones. Web: http://geography.tsu.ge, E-Mail: nana.bolashvili@gmail.com
  • 12. Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography Summer drought of 2000 was the strongest, which caused the ecological disaster of eastern Georgia’s plains zone. According to Tbilisi Airport data, a strong wind was blowing during the 19 days, which contributed to a strong drying of arable soil layer. The loss amounted to several hundreds of millions GEL. The summer drought of 2010 is remarkable, when the air temperature exceeded the many years norm by several (5-60C) degrees. Web: http://geography.tsu.ge, E-Mail: nana.bolashvili@gmail.com
  • 13. Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography Wind The origin of winds is closely linked with unequal heating and pressure distribution of territory. The formation of wind regime in our country is greatly depended on the pressure seasonal distribution over Eurasian continent, with Black and Caspian Sea basins and complex orographic conditions. In west Georgia there prevailing eastern winds (terrestrial) in winter and in summer the west (sea) winds on the contrary. In west Georgia local winds land- breezes have enhanced the wind frequency while the east –Fiona. In addition to the mentioned winds the local mountain-gorge winds often arise in Georgia. Average annual wind speed in Georgia varies from 0.6 (Abastumani) to 9.2 m/sec (Mount Sabueti). Web: http://geography.tsu.ge, E-Mail: nana.bolashvili@gmail.com
  • 14. Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography Wind is important because it leads to erosion. Wind erosion occurs during the cold period of the year – in the winter-spring months (December, January, February, March and April). During these months are dominated north-west winds, sometimes reaching speeds of 18-28 m/sec, while the average speed in February -March-April is 2,2 –2,5 m/sec or more. Wind erosion was intensified because of the energy crisis and uncontrolled deforestation. In east Georgia the wind average velocity at which it begins soil particles blowing changes within 10-15 m/sec frame. Except strong winds the wind erosion is depended on winter draughts. The coincidence of those two processes creates conditions for wind erosion development. The area of eroded soil is strongly related to the disposition of agricultural lands , according to the inclination of the slopes. Web: http://geography.tsu.ge, E-Mail: nana.bolashvili@gmail.com
  • 15. Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography Wind speed and direction scale 1:200 000 Web: http://geography.tsu.ge, E-Mail: nana.bolashvili@gmail.com
  • 16. Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography Water Resources The most important are the water resources to mitigate the negative effects of desertification. Georgia distinguishes by abundant fresh water resources. The problem of the water supply is very acute in the eastern part of Georgia. In the conditions of approximately equal area of western and eastern Georgia (respectively, 32.0 thousand sq.km; 37.0 thousand sq.km) and the same number of population in terms of per capita is: in the west - 17700 cubic meter of water and in the east – 4600 cubic meter per year, i.e. about 4 - times less water. In addition, the intra-annual distribution of irrigation water consumption is asynchronous. Often the river flow is low than the ecological norm in some basins (the rivers of Alazani, Iori, Khrami, etc.) during the low water periods. Web: http://geography.tsu.ge, E-Mail: nana.bolashvili@gmail.com
  • 17. Distribution of river run-off by the regions scale 1: 3 500 000 Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography Web: http://geography.tsu.ge, E-Mail: nana.bolashvili@gmail.com
  • 18. Landslides and mudflows Nearly all landscape-geographic zones are more or less damaged by the natural process in Georgia, from the Black Sea coast to the highmountain-nival zone. Georgia belongs to one of the most difficult regions of the world’s mountainous areas according to the scales of development of natural –catastrophic processes of ecological character and their frequency and the loss made to population, farm lands and engineering objects. In Georgia before the last decades of the XX century the extremums of activation of natural processes mostly obeyed to a certain cyclicity, and because of the geological-climatological conditions of the area, they were recurred once during 3-5 and 8-11 years in average. Since 90s, . the activation process has taken place almost every year, and the intervals of their extreme manifestations are considerably shortened. As a result, more new areas, populated places and engineering-agricultural objects are under the negative impact areal. Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography Web: http://geography.tsu.ge, E-Mail: nana.bolashvili@gmail.com
  • 19. Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography Territories under the natural disaster areal Web: http://geography.tsu.ge, E-Mail: nana.bolashvili@gmail.com
  • 20. Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography Agriculture A significant contribution to the transformation of the natural environment belongs to agricultural activities. Its impact on the natural environment was particularly significant during the XX century in Georgia. Cultural landscapes generation, irrigation activity and soil secondary salinization, Waterlogging of the territories, or on the contrary, drying-out of wetlands, is the incomplete list of the changes, which suffered the environment of the farm lands. Eroded arable lands are closely related to the inclination of the slopes. Web: http://geography.tsu.ge, E-Mail: nana.bolashvili@gmail.com
  • 21. Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography Livestock breeding is the oldest economic activity of the country that has a leading role in the economy of the mountainous areas. Georgia's natural lands cannot provide food for livestock and hamper its development. The most part of hay fields and pastures are in the high mountains and their use is available only in four months a year. Winter, spring and autumn pasture areas are very small. Winter pastures in the North Caucasus which Georgian shepherds benefited previously, are not available under the current conditions due to the political situation. In winter the shepherds use Shiraki and Eldari pastures and in summer - the pastures of the Caucasus and southern Georgia. Agriculture as a priority sector of the country needs the development of a well- thought-out strategy and considerable investments. Web: http://geography.tsu.ge, E-Mail: nana.bolashvili@gmail.com
  • 22. Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography Irrigation The development of the national economy requires the proper use of land and water resources. This is especially true in dry and semi- dry regions, where due to the hard natural conditions the water is essential for harvesting. However, as a result of unsystematic irrigation farming, often operation in violation of norms the type of anthropogenic erosion occurs – "Irrigation erosion". As a result: • Georgia losts 5 million cubic meters soil annually; • Large landslides are formed (e.g. Aghaiani, Aradeti, Gachani, etc.); •Amount of swamped lands exceeded 50thousands of hectares. Web: http://geography.tsu.ge, E-Mail: nana.bolashvili@gmail.com
  • 23. Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography Registered, irrigable and actually irrigated area (1988-2005) 500 400 300 200 100 0 registrirebuli farT. 1988 1990 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Area (000 ha) Registered area Irrigable area Actually irrigated area Web: http://geography.tsu.ge, E-Mail: nana.bolashvili@gmail.com
  • 24. Forest cover (%) by regions N.Ketskhoveli, 1959 procenti mxareebis saerTo farTobidan <20 20-40 40-60 60-80 >80 N.Beruchashvili, 1983
  • 25. Regions Phytomasses, mln.t By the map of N.Ketskhoveli By the map of N.Beruchashvili The difference between them Imereti 222,617 115,059 107,56 Abkhazia AR 219,104 189,975 29,129 Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti 183,231 122,004 61,227 Kakheti 176,13 110,561 65,569 Achara AR 83,228 63,777 19,451 Racha-Lechkhumi Kvemo Svaneti 82,53 60,874 21,656 Shida Kartli 77,561 53,222 24,339 Mtskheta-Mtianeti 70,492 64,227 6,265 Samtskhe-javaxeti 68,621 60,565 8,056 Kvemo Kartli 62,853 32,591 30,262 Guria 49,665 27,773 21,892 Total 1296,032 900,628 395,4 Reduction, % 30,509
  • 26. Washout of soils from the arable lands Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography Web: http://geography.tsu.ge, E-Mail: nana.bolashvili@gmail.com
  • 27. Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography CONCLUSIONS Soil degradation is mainly stipulated not by the climatic factors in Georgia, but due to natural processes activated as a result of climate change and anthropogenic impacts; The separation of disasters provocative natural and anthropogenic factors becomes almost impossible in most cases among the natural process developed in the territory of Georgia; For the monitoring of desertification process it is necessary to restore hydrometeorological monitoring network. It is absolutely inconceivable to research regions in this aspect without precise and adequate climate materials in light of the current climate change. Web: http://geography.tsu.ge, E-Mail: nana.bolashvili@gmail.com
  • 28. Tbilisi State University Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography Thank You for Attention Web: http://geography.tsu.ge, E-Mail: nana.bolashvili@gmail.com

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