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Resilience of Urban Communities in a Changing Climate and Environment-Focus on Water-Related Issues in Central Vietnam
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Resilience of Urban Communities in a Changing Climate and Environment-Focus on Water-Related Issues in Central Vietnam

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Resilience of Urban Communities in a Changing Climate and Environment-Focus on Water-Related Issues in Central Vietnam

Resilience of Urban Communities in a Changing Climate and Environment-Focus on Water-Related Issues in Central Vietnam

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Resilience of Urban Communities in a Changing Climate and Environment-Focus on Water-Related Issues in Central Vietnam Resilience of Urban Communities in a Changing Climate and Environment-Focus on Water-Related Issues in Central Vietnam Presentation Transcript

  • Resilience of Urban Communities in a Changing Climate and Environment- Focus on Water-Related Issues in Central Vietnam Bam HN Razafindrabe , Rajib Shaw, Makoto Arima Global COE Fellow Yokohama National University [email_address]
  • Concepts
    • Various Resilience definitions in the literature:
    • 1. The capacity of a community or society to adapt when exposed to a hazard (The World Bank, 2008)
    • 2. Putting greater emphasis on what communities can do for themselves and how to strengthen their capacities (Twigg, 2007)
    • 3. Other definitions…
    • the capacity to absorb stress or destructive forces through resistance or adaptation;
    • the capacity to manage or maintain certain basic functions and structures during disastrous events, and
    • the capacity to recover or ‘bounce back’ after an event (Twigg, 2007)
    • (from Mr. David Alexander: the optimum combination of ability to resist and absorb shocks )
    • Hazard X Vulnerability
    • Risk =
    • Capacity
    • 1. To reduce risk, we act on vulnerability, we try to reduce it!
    • So, the questions are:
    • Who or what is vulnerable? To what are they vulnerable to? What can be done to reduce their vulnerability, etc.
    • 2. To reduce risk, we minimize the damage, reduce the impacts,
    • we can also increase or enhance capacity
    • ULTIMATE GOAL = to reduce risk, to be more RESILIENT
    • (to shocks, to threats)
    Concepts View slide
    • Aim
    • Methodology
    • Context
    • Preliminary Results
    Contents Photo: Prof Quang View slide
  • Aim
    • To clarify and characterize the resilience of the city and its community with a special attention to water-related issues (mainly floods)
    • in order to enhance Resilience and Adaptive capacity of urban government and community to these changes
    • =To generate the scientific basis that urban managers need to formulate positive and appropriate policies for their city and communities
  • Metabolic Flow Governance Networks & Services Built Environment Social Dynamics URBAN RESILIENCE Income Employment Finance & Saving Budget & Subsidy Health Education Awareness Social Capital Social values in disaster time Housing & land use Electricity Water Sanitation, Solid waste disposal Road condition & accessibility Internal institutions and development plan, Effectiveness of internal institutions, External institution and network, and Institutional collaboration and coordination (modified from CSIRO et al, 2007) Type and Extent of Impacts Risk Perception Coping Mechanism and Preventive Strategies Methodology-Conceptual Framework
  • Some facts…
  • Some facts…
  • Some facts… Polluted by waste water and solid wastes Polluted by eutrophication Photo: Prof Quang
  • Other facts…
  • Study Site: Danang City, Vietnam Districts Ngu Hanh Son Cam Le Ward My An Hoa Quy Hoa Tho Dong Hoa Xuan Characteristics Purely urban Semi-urban Purely urban Semi-urban Coastal Coastal Inland Inland
  • Specific Resilience dimensions Overall, wards belonging to Cam Le District (Hoa Xuan & Hoa Tho Dong) had higher scores (=resilience) in Social dynamics compared to Ngu Hanh Son District -In general, households were less affected by water and vector borne disease & primary health care services were available when disasters occurred -Households were not much aware or were not able to fully access to Danang City’s information and awareness programs -Wards from Ngu Hanh Son District showed less participation to community activities and less preparedness and less mutual help during disaster times Social Dynamics
  • Specific Resilience dimensions Built Environment In general, Built Environment scores were higher in wards belonging to Cam Le District (Hoa Xuan and Hoa Tho Dong)
    • Better road condition and accessibility in non-disaster times accounted for 85% and 88% in Ngu Hanh Son and Cam Le districts respectively
    • Good and accessible road conditions during disaster times  33% and 8% for Ngu Hanh Son and Cam Le district respectively
    • Less developed housing materials , lower plinth level houses and proximity to polluted area were more abundant in studied areas
  • Specific Resilience dimensions Metabolic Flows Employment status of wards in Cam Le district : 77% ; Ngu Hanh Son: 93% of surveyed households (HH) HH with short-term to mid-term working contracts of wards in Cam Le district : 83% ; Ngu Hanh Son: 16% More sources of income and better income extent in H. Xuan and H. Tho Dong wards More available and accessible subsidies/incentives during or after disasters in H. Xuan and H. Tho Dong wards
  • Overall specific resilience dimensions in each ward a. social dynamics resilience; b. built environment resilience and c. metabolism flows resilience a. Lower scores for Hoa Quy & My An b. Slightly low scores for HQ & MA c. Slightly high scores for HQ & MA (results obtained by using WMI method)
  • Specific Resilience dimensions City governance : Danang city is changing gradually for its accountability and transparency elements - the City is one of the most competitive provinces in Vietnam (second rank over 64 provinces) according to two recent surveys on Vietnam Provincial Competitiveness Index 2005 and 2006, VietInsight (2007) Governance & Networks According to the city officials : -Poor effectiveness was found in the following aspects relating to internal institutions: role of formal and informal institutions, city regulations, social norms, trained emergency workers, logistics, capacity of public institutions and effectiveness of disaster management plan -Poor network with neighboring cities for emergency management BUT more collab. With central government and external institutions Photo: Red Cross, VN 2009
  • Metabolic Flow Governance Networks & Services Built Environment Social Dynamics URBAN RESILIENCE Income Employment Finance & Saving Budget & Subsidy Health Education Awareness Social Capital Social values in disaster time Housing & land use Electricity Water Sanitation, Solid waste disposal Road condition & accessibility Internal institutions and development plan, Effectiveness of internal institutions, External institution and network, and Institutional collaboration and coordination (modified from CSIRO et al, 2007) Type and Extent of Impacts Risk Perception Coping Mechanism and Preventive Strategies Methodology-Conceptual Framework
  • Type and Extent of Impacts Economic Impacts BUT, still with lower degree of indebtedness : This can be explained by other livelihood alternatives or the intervention of relatives and friends (if they are not affected) This fact also reflects the existence of a certain preparedness level of local households to face flood seasons (lessons learned) A significant negative correlation was found between number of sources of income and the extent of income change during or after a flood disaster (N= 144, p=0.193 at 0.05 level). This contradictory result signifies that although a household manages to diversify their source of income, these new alternatives are also vulnerable to flood impacts as is normally the case of those HH having only one or two sources of income Social Impacts Environmental Impacts
  • Livelihood Recovery- Risk Perception Livelihood recovery after recent major flood events NOT affected by Level of education of HH head , nor by economic status BUT by household size Bigger household size significantly recovered faster than smaller ones after the 1999 flood (F= 54.450, p<0.001 ) Level of protection provided by their current houses : 62% of households from Cam Le district think their house cannot protect at all or they need major reinforcement
  • Coping Strategies Examples of coping strategies; proportion of households borrowing money from relatives (a.) and others opting for sending their children to work for households’ additional income (b.) a. b. Strategies to face future disasters such as heightening floor-beds, reinforcing roofs, building two-storied or stronger house, making temporary lofts, buy small boats for transportation during flood times, sell animals or other goods before disaster season or diversify the sources of income
  • Need to add further field work and analysis related to…
    • Loss of Functionality (community/City); recovery time ?
    • How they addressed uncertainty ? (risk management)
    • Detailed analysis of Urban Vulnerability/Risk in Danang City
    • Recommendations for Urban
    • Resilience and adaptation
    • action plans at city and
    • community level (feasable?? How?)
  • … THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
    • - Vietnam is highly prone to impacts of changing climate and frequent disasters , due to its geographical position and long coastal line with dense population
    • Every year, Central Vietnam , including Danang City , is facing numbers of typhoons , floods and flash floods, storm surges with high tides, drought with forest fires which cause enormous impacts to the city and its citizens
    • Environmental problems , improper planning and
    • multiple use conflicts in the coastal areas has significant
    • impacts on natural environment and also on the
    • socio-economic development of the city
    • - Rapid development of the city
    • Rapid urbanization
    (VAST, 2008) Why Danang City, Vietnam…
    • POTENTIALS : Economic growth, important transport hub
    • Average GDP of Danang City is 11.5%
    • GDP per capita 2006 was 1,050 USD (4 times higher compared to that of 1997)
    • Industrial income increases 18% per year,
    • Export income increases 18% per year (source: People’s Committee, 2008)
  • Context
    • City brief Profile (Source: Danang City 2008 Stat Book) : Area : 1,283 km2; Population : 822,178 Pop. Density : 640 (pers/km 2 )
    • Population growth of Danang city: 1.2% per year
    • (source: Danang People’s Committee, 2008)
    • Consequences:
    • Increase of water consumption , health care and living conditions; especially, the increase of land use for accommodation. The increase of urban land and transport is approximately 100 ha per year
    • Increase of job demands : from now to 2010, every year the city has to provide jobs for 22,000 to 25,000 labourers
    • Increase of waste emission : it is estimated that waste in urban areas in 2010 will increase 1-2 times
    • Increasing social problems : social complexity, overload in using infrastructure
  • Type and Extent of Impacts Environmental Impacts Social Impacts Length of school absence for children after a flood event Spread of household solid waste after flood event Ward No change after flood Cohesion got stronger at first, then became normal after some time Cohesion got stronger, people tended to help each other Hoa Quy 94.44 0.00 5.56 My An 97.22 0.00 2.78 Hoa Xuan 13.89 8.33 77.78 Hoa Tho Dong 8.33 11.11 80.56
  • Results of FGD in Cam Le District Major problem (decreasing importance) Cause Impacts Solutions Polluted water - Waste from small production factories such as carpentry, plastic making, brick, tail, metallurgy, etc. are affecting the environment - Vestige of American/Vietnamese War in terms of Agent Orange -Development of population had led to pressure on environment -Lack of sanitation/latrines -Cemetery is located nearby settlement places - Local people’s perception on environmental protection is limited - Impacts on community’s health as follows: Cancer, Pulmonary tuberculosis, malformation by Agent Orange, Diarrhea, Dengue, Cholera, Gynecological disease, sore eyes, dermatological disease, -Impacts on economy: Influence to agricultural crops, influence to aquaculture - Supply clean water -Improve perception for local people to protect environment -Need to study on water-related issues and community’s life -Improve community health care system -Plan and build sanitation system in community -Build sewage disposal system Establish community regulation for environment protection Lack of water supply (domestic use) -The fee for water connection was higher than income sources -Underground water is polluted, not to be used -Difficulties to access clean water for poor people -Flood affected drinking-water sources -Lack of running water system in residential places -Abundance of chemicals in water sources -Hard living conditions of residents -Conflicts between residents and water supply company in terms of water sources -Inhibition of small business development in the ward and household economy -Water-borne disease highly increasing -Necessity of external supports -Payment by installment for water connection Submersion phenomena during flooding season -Climate change: heavy rain in rainy season; drought in dry season -Poor sanitation system -Poor infrastructure -Increase of new constructions -Inequity in development plans (not uniform) -Mining exploitation by private companies -Pollution of water quality -Destruction of home garden and other crops
  • Mining map of Danang ) City (ICMD, 2004)