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Changing Perspectives on the Perception of Risk in Planning Profession and Assessment of Natural Disasters
Changing Perspectives on the Perception of Risk in Planning Profession and Assessment of Natural Disasters
Changing Perspectives on the Perception of Risk in Planning Profession and Assessment of Natural Disasters
Changing Perspectives on the Perception of Risk in Planning Profession and Assessment of Natural Disasters
Changing Perspectives on the Perception of Risk in Planning Profession and Assessment of Natural Disasters
Changing Perspectives on the Perception of Risk in Planning Profession and Assessment of Natural Disasters
Changing Perspectives on the Perception of Risk in Planning Profession and Assessment of Natural Disasters
Changing Perspectives on the Perception of Risk in Planning Profession and Assessment of Natural Disasters
Changing Perspectives on the Perception of Risk in Planning Profession and Assessment of Natural Disasters
Changing Perspectives on the Perception of Risk in Planning Profession and Assessment of Natural Disasters
Changing Perspectives on the Perception of Risk in Planning Profession and Assessment of Natural Disasters
Changing Perspectives on the Perception of Risk in Planning Profession and Assessment of Natural Disasters
Changing Perspectives on the Perception of Risk in Planning Profession and Assessment of Natural Disasters
Changing Perspectives on the Perception of Risk in Planning Profession and Assessment of Natural Disasters
Changing Perspectives on the Perception of Risk in Planning Profession and Assessment of Natural Disasters
Changing Perspectives on the Perception of Risk in Planning Profession and Assessment of Natural Disasters
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Changing Perspectives on the Perception of Risk in Planning Profession and Assessment of Natural Disasters

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Changing Perspectives on the Perception of Risk in Planning Profession and Assessment of Natural Disasters

Changing Perspectives on the Perception of Risk in Planning Profession and Assessment of Natural Disasters

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  • 1. 1. Introduction 2. Early 40s – late 70s: human factors involved in natural disasters 3. 80s and 90s: development plans and land-use planning as a tool of hazard mitigation 4. 1990 – 2015: creating strategies to reduce the disaster effects and conferences 5. Italy and planning system of Italy 6. Conclusion
  • 2. Risk and Regulation: Can Improved Government Action Reduce The Impacts of Natural Disasters? Spence, R. 2004 Re-framing Risk: The Changing Context of Disaster Mitigation and Preperedness Christopholos et al. 2001 Present Challenges of Risk Governence Gilles F. Heriard-Dubreuil 2001 The environment as hazard Burton et al. 1978 Politics of Hazard Mitigation Prater & Lindell 2000 Reframing Disaster Policy: The Global Evaluation of Vulnerable Communities Comfort et al. 1999 Is Crisis Management Only a Management of Exceptions? Roux-Dufort 2007 By Design: The Disaster Resistant and Quality-of-life Community Geis 2009
  • 3. Seismic risk and urban planning process: towards the integration Cremonini, I.; Galderisi, A. 2007. Risk, prevention and urban planning Galderisi, A.; Menoni S. 2007. Reconstruction following the disaster Haas, J.E.; Kates R.W.; Bowden M.J. (eds.) 1977. The hazardousness of a place: a regional ecology of damaging events Hewitt, K.; Burton, I. 1971. Environmental management and governance: Intergovernmental approaches to hazards and sustainability May, P.J. et al. 1996 Crucibles of hazard: mega-cities and disasters in transition Mitchell, J.K. 1999. Disasters: theory and research Quarantelli, E.L. (ed.) 1978. Creating hazard resilient communities through land-use planning Raymond, J.B.; Deyle, R.E.; Godschalk, D.R.; Olshansky, R.B. 2000.
  • 4. Natural hazards and spatial planning in Europe Mark Fleischauer et al. 2006. Rating the risks Slovic, P.; Fischhoff, B.; Lichtenstein, S. 1979. Urban planning theory since 1945. Taylor, N. 1998. Notes on flood protection and land use planning White, G.F. 1936. Assessment of research on natural hazards White, G.F.; Haas, J.E. 1973. Mapping the impacts of recent natural disasters and technological accidents in Europe EEA, European Environmental Agency 2003 UN - IDNDR, 1990-2000. http://www.unisdr.org/ UNISDR (1994). Yokohama strategy, http://www.undp.org/cpr/disred/documents/miscellanous/yokohamastrategy.pdf UNISDR (2000) http://www.unisdr.org UNISDR (2005) ‘Living with risk’ report. UNISDR (2005). Hyogo Framework, http://www.unisdr.org/hfa
  • 5. Natural hazards are usually defined as extreme natural events that pose threat to people their property and their possessions. Between 1998 and 2002, natural disasters and technological accidents affected more than seven million people in Europe and caused at least 60 billion Euro in insured losses. (EEA, 2003, p1) Reported effects of larger natural disasters on European countries (1970-2005) Source: Fleischauer, 2006; EM-DAT 2005
  • 6. - Planning was guided by the idea that human could apply scientific knowledge of positive science directly to social problems. - Natural disasters were disconnected from human factor and were undertaken with technical methodologies. - In 1936 in a planning journal a new proposal was put forward by Gilbert White. He claimed that there are human factors involved in disasters. - In 70s this proposal gained momentum. Social scientists and geographers claimed that “it is people who transform the environment into resources and hazards. - The shift from a technological knowledge to a more policy oriented approach.
  • 7. - Two theory groups have emerged: “human ecologists” and “political economists” - Human ecologists believe that the focus in disaster mitigation should be on “decision making by individuals and groups in the face of extreme events” - Political economists take into consideration political, economic and social structures as producer of hazard's conditions and to make population at risk incapable to apply safety precautions. - Land use planning had been fully recognized as a natural risk mitigation tool to reduce losses. - Zoning regulations to limit development in hazardous areas, building codes, relocation of existing development at risk, infrastructure location, design standards and public information tools gained importance as tools to develop land use plans and which can help to reduce losses. - In this period it is clearly understood that combining characteristics of land use plans and hazard assessments with a focus on pre-disaster mitigation helps communities to be aware about present risk and decreases the expected losses in the pre-disaster period.
  • 8. - UN declared the decade between 1990 – 2000 to create strategies reducing disaster effects and to require the urgent need to develop strategies to decrease populations' vulnerability. - In 1994 Yokohama Conference had been issued to designate new strategies and policies. In this conference “disaster prevention, mitigation, preparedness and relief” were determined as the four elements of sustainable development policies. - ISDR established in 2000 to implement the new strategies declared in Yokohama Conference. - In 2004 the UN office for risk reduction published the “Living with risk” report, which is addressing risk reduction and providing a framework to reduce disaster effects in the context of sustainable development. - In 2005 the Kobe conference has been organized by ISDR and aims that building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters. In this conference the 2000 - 2015 ”Hyogo Framework” was declared.
  • 9. -20 regions -103 provinces -8101 municipalities - Legislative power belongs both to the state and regions
  • 10. Source: Fleischauer et al., 2006 - Italy prone to the natural hazards. As floods, landslides, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and forest fires. - 68.8% of Italian municipalities are prone to floods and landslides and almost 7.1% of the area is classified as area at very high hyrogeological risks. - All the Italy is prone to the earthquake risk. 30% of the total area is in the highest level risk zone.
  • 11. There are three levels in Italian planning system 1. Regional and provincial 2. Master Plan 3. Detailed and executive plansfocusing on the specific areas within a municipal territory.
  • 12. - As in the world, at the beginning of the 90s, in Italy land use planning had gained importance as a major tool in preventing and mitigating natural disaster risk. - At the beginning of the 21st century, the definition of the Millennium Development Goals in the AGENDA 21 had some consequences in Italy. Cremonini and Galderisi (2007, p7) state that the central role of sustainability in the most recent regional and urban planning laws and the specific reference to the actions to be taken for risk reduction and in the Strategia di azione ambientale per lo sviluppo sostenibile lay the ground for an efficient integration of the risk analysis in the process of the territorial government.
  • 13. - INTERREG IIIB Sisma (System integrated for security management activities, 2004-07) - National Research program “PRIN” (The safeguarding of historical and cultural values, along with the landscape in the Italian seismic zones 2002-04) - EU funded Armonia Project The common goals of all three projects are to have a connection between the expert knowledge in the risk management and ordinary planning and to enhance the awareness in the local authorities.
  • 14. - In terms of disaster risk perception and considering the city as a spatial and functional complex system, Italy is keeping track of the debate going on the international arena. - As a final comment on Italy it is worth mentioning that there is still a gap in combining environmental plans and risk mitigation plans with the ordinary plans in terms of mitigation and prevention strategies on one hand, and emergency preperadness on the other.
  • 15. Thank you!

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