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The H-index as a quantitative method to  measure pathogen impact in North                America                          ...
BackgroundDisease surveillance, management and control needs toassess the relative importance of diseases and pathogens.Of...
Background – The H-index
Background – The H-index  • The H-index assesses the quantity and quality of a scientist’s    research output  • Can be ca...
Background – The H-index• The H-index of a scientific researcher                               25                         ...
Background – The H-index• The H-index of a pathogen reflects the impact of a pathogen   (Mcintyre et al. 2011)• H-index is...
Aim• To use the H-index to identify and prioritise  infectious pathogens that have the highest impact on  human health in ...
Method• Emerging Infectious Disease Database (EID2)• www.zoonosis.ac.uk/eid
Method• Emerging Infectious Disease Database (EID2)  www.zoonosis.ac.uk/eid• Includes information about 6090 pathogens
Method• Two methods were used to identify which pathogens have been recorded  in North America (Canada, United States, Mex...
Results• EID2 contains information about 6090 pathogens• 1828 human pathogen species• 566 of the 1828 were recorded in the...
ResultsFrequency histogram of the H-index of 566 human pathogens                  180                  160                ...
ResultsPathogens with the highest H-indexSpecies                          H-index Taxonomic                               ...
ResultsPathogens with the highest H-indexSpecies                          H-index Taxonomic                               ...
Results• 27.4% of the pathogens were emerging (109/398)• Emerging pathogens had a significantly higher H-index than non-em...
Results• 66.1% of pathogens were zoonotic (265/401)• The H-index of zoonotic pathogens was not significantly different fro...
ResultsPathogens highlighted as a potential threat to CanadaGreer et al. 2008; Public Agency of Canada (pers. comm.).* Not...
Results      • Variation in H-index over time for seven pathogens          160                    Chikungunya virus       ...
Results      • Variation in H-index over time for seven pathogens          160                    Chikungunya virus       ...
Results      • Variation in H-index over time for seven pathogens          160                    Chikungunya virus       ...
Conclusion• Change in H-index may be a crude indicator of pathogen  emergence• Can it be of practical use in surveillance ...
Conclusion• H-index is an indicator of the relative scientific interest in a  pathogen or disease   – Can be used to prior...
Added value created by applying a One Health                  approach• The One Health integrative strategy is necessary t...
AcknowledgementsNick OgdenAlex DemarshPhil Hepworth
25
The H-index as a quantitative method to  measure pathogen impact in North                America                          ...
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Assessment of the H-index as a novel quantitative method to measure pathogen impact and to prioritise diseases in North America.

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GRF One Health Summit 2012, Davos: Presentation by Ruth COX, Atlantic Veterinary College, UPEI, Canada

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Transcript of "Assessment of the H-index as a novel quantitative method to measure pathogen impact and to prioritise diseases in North America."

  1. 1. The H-index as a quantitative method to measure pathogen impact in North America Ruth Cox K. Marie McIntyre, Javier Sanchez, Christian Setzkorn, Matthew Baylis, Crawford Revie
  2. 2. BackgroundDisease surveillance, management and control needs toassess the relative importance of diseases and pathogens.Often involves: complex risk assessments qualitative data expert opinion quantitative measurements?
  3. 3. Background – The H-index
  4. 4. Background – The H-index • The H-index assesses the quantity and quality of a scientist’s research output • Can be calculated automatically using Web of Science (or other citation databases)Hirsch JE (2005).Proceedings of the National Academyof Sciences of the United States ofAmerica 102(46): 16569-16572.
  5. 5. Background – The H-index• The H-index of a scientific researcher 25 20 Number of citations 15 Citations = Publications = h 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Number of publications
  6. 6. Background – The H-index• The H-index of a pathogen reflects the impact of a pathogen (Mcintyre et al. 2011)• H-index is correlated with Disability Adjusted Life Year measurement Mcintyre KM, Hawkes I, Waret-Szkuta A, Morand S, Baylis M (2011). The H-Index as a quantitative indicator of the relative impact of human diseases. PlosONE 6(5): e19558.
  7. 7. Aim• To use the H-index to identify and prioritise infectious pathogens that have the highest impact on human health in the North American region.
  8. 8. Method• Emerging Infectious Disease Database (EID2)• www.zoonosis.ac.uk/eid
  9. 9. Method• Emerging Infectious Disease Database (EID2) www.zoonosis.ac.uk/eid• Includes information about 6090 pathogens
  10. 10. Method• Two methods were used to identify which pathogens have been recorded in North America (Canada, United States, Mexico, Greenland).• Search for pathogens in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy website (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore). Documents genome sequences and includes geographic location where pathogens have been isolated.• Search for pathogens in the PubMed database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/). Search for publications where the pathogen and North American search terms occurred.
  11. 11. Results• EID2 contains information about 6090 pathogens• 1828 human pathogen species• 566 of the 1828 were recorded in the North American region Pathogen taxonomic group % Bacteria 42.4 Fungi 22.8 Viruses or prions 18.2 Helminths 10.1 Protozoa 6.5
  12. 12. ResultsFrequency histogram of the H-index of 566 human pathogens 180 160 140 • H-index ranged from 0 to 584 120 • Median = 38 Frequency 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 50 110 170 230 290 350 410 470 530 590 H-index value
  13. 13. ResultsPathogens with the highest H-indexSpecies H-index Taxonomic groupSaccharomyces cerevisiae 584 FungiEscherichia coli 524 BacteriaHuman immunodeficiency virus 1 410 VirusHuman immunodeficiency virus 2 399 VirusHepatitis C virus 289 VirusStaphylococcus aureus 271 BacteriaHuman herpesvirus 4 257 VirusHelicobacter pylori 246 BacteriaHepatitis B virus 246 VirusPseudomonas aeruginosa 243 Bacteria
  14. 14. ResultsPathogens with the highest H-indexSpecies H-index Taxonomic groupSaccharomyces cerevisiae 584 FungiEscherichia coli 524 Bacteria Yeast – opportunistic infection,Human immunodeficiency virus 1 410 Virus brewing and baking industryHuman immunodeficiency virus 2 399 Virus Person – person transmittedHepatitis C virus 289 Virus bacteria and virusesStaphylococcus aureus 271 Bacteria Bacteria that cause multiple clinical infectionsHuman herpesvirus 4 257 Virus Food borne pathogenHelicobacter pylori 246 BacteriaHepatitis B virus 246 VirusPseudomonas aeruginosa 243 Bacteria
  15. 15. Results• 27.4% of the pathogens were emerging (109/398)• Emerging pathogens had a significantly higher H-index than non-emerging pathogens (p<0.001)
  16. 16. Results• 66.1% of pathogens were zoonotic (265/401)• The H-index of zoonotic pathogens was not significantly different from non-zoonotic pathogens (p=0.38).
  17. 17. ResultsPathogens highlighted as a potential threat to CanadaGreer et al. 2008; Public Agency of Canada (pers. comm.).* Not recorded in the North America region Disease/pathogen H-index Trypanosoma cruzi 130 Nipah virus* 51 Hendra virus* 43 Rift Valley fever virus* 41 Chikungunya virus 39 Monkeypox virus 35Greer A, Ng V, Fisman D. (2008). Climate change and infectious diseases in North America:the road ahead. Canadian Medical Association Journal 178: 715-722.
  18. 18. Results • Variation in H-index over time for seven pathogens 160 Chikungunya virus 140 Hendra virus Monkeypox virus Nipah virus 120 Rift Valley fever virus Trypanosoma cruzi 100 West Nile virusH-index 80 60 40 20 0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Year
  19. 19. Results • Variation in H-index over time for seven pathogens 160 Chikungunya virus 140 Hendra virus Monkeypox virus Nipah virus 120 Rift Valley fever virus Trypanosoma cruzi 100 West Nile virusH-index 80 60 40 20 0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Year
  20. 20. Results • Variation in H-index over time for seven pathogens 160 Chikungunya virus Hendra virus There is an increasing trend in the total 140 Monkeypox virus number of publications over time Nipah virus 120 Rift Valley fever virus Trypanosoma cruzi 100 West Nile virusH-index 80 60 40 20 0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Year
  21. 21. Conclusion• Change in H-index may be a crude indicator of pathogen emergence• Can it be of practical use in surveillance for emerging pathogens? – Time lag between emergence and publication – Newly emerging pathogens likely to be under represented – Reflection of trends in interest of pathogens or diseases, research funding, regional bias
  22. 22. Conclusion• H-index is an indicator of the relative scientific interest in a pathogen or disease – Can be used to prioritise pathogens in North America – Can be incorporated into prioritisation tools and risk assessments 22
  23. 23. Added value created by applying a One Health approach• The One Health integrative strategy is necessary to manage today’s complex and interdependent health risks – The H-index can be used as a measure of the impact of a pathogen – It is an objective and time efficient method that could be incorporated in disease prioritisation 23
  24. 24. AcknowledgementsNick OgdenAlex DemarshPhil Hepworth
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. The H-index as a quantitative method to measure pathogen impact in North America Ruth Cox K. Marie McIntyre, Javier Sanchez, Christian Setzkorn, Matthew Baylis, Crawford Revie

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