• Save
Anneke TRUX "Water and soil conservation practices in the Sahel"
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Anneke TRUX "Water and soil conservation practices in the Sahel"

on

  • 729 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
729
Views on SlideShare
710
Embed Views
19

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

3 Embeds 19

http://www.conftool.pro 11
http://conftool.grforum.net 7
http://unjobs.org 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Anneke TRUX "Water and soil conservation practices in the Sahel" Anneke TRUX "Water and soil conservation practices in the Sahel" Presentation Transcript

  • Water and soil conservation practices in the Sahel.Analysing their potential to increase the resilience ofrural livelihoodsAnneke TRUX, GIZ© GIZ / Trux © GIZ / Wohlmann © Bender 10 April 2013 Water and soil conservation practices in the Sahel Page 1
  • The presentation is based on the paperWater and soil conservation practices in the Sahel. Analysing their potential to increase theresilience of rural livelihoods.authored by Ackermann, K.; Nill, D.; Schöning, A.: Trux, A.: Van den Akker, E.; Wegner, M.10 April 2013 Water and soil conservation practices in the Sahel Page 2
  • Vulnerbility and resilience Vulnerability - Climate change: pressure to destabilized livelihoods - Drylands: particularly vulnerable - Livilyhoods depend on natural resources - Poverty Adaptive Capacity - unfavorable political and institutional conditions Resilience - Focus must be on strengthening adaptive capactity of vulnerable housholds - Holistic framework of resilience 10 April 2013 Water and soil conservation practices in the Sahel Page 3
  • Main factors determining the resilience of rural livelihoods in the Sahel Population growth - Growth 2.5% annually for past 60 years (1950: 186 Mio – 2010: 856 Mio) (UNEP 2012) - Most of Sahel > 3 % p.a (2050: expected population of Africa 2 Billion) Land degradation - Soils: fragile, poor in plant nutrients, prone to erosion - Lack of spatial planning, traditional strategies of natural resource management no more viable Climate and Climate Change - Strong climate variations in Sahel and irregular rainfall between 200 and 600 mm as biggest obstacle for assuring food security - Future Climate projections for Sahel > warming of 0.2°C to 0.5°C per decade > greatest warming in interior of Sahel > higher evapotranspiration > arid conditions exacerbated 10 April 2013 Water and soil conservation practices in the Sahel Page 4
  • Main factors determining the resilience of rural livelihoods in the Sahel 10 April 2013 Water and soil conservation practices in the Sahel Page 5
  • German development cooperation in Sahel - Since 1980s development and implementation of SWC-approaches in the Sahel - Rural development projects in Niger, Burkina Faso, Chad and Mauritania; providing knowledge about SWC-technologies - helped protecting huge landscapes against desertification - Accompanied by „local conventions‟ in order to prevent conflicts - SWC-measures supported by social transfer systems © GIZ/Klaus Wohlmann 10 April 2013 Water and soil conservation practices in the Sahel Page 6
  • Main land improvement techniques Improvement of plateaux Semi-circular bunds; Nardi/Vallerani trenches Contour bunds Firebreaks Improvement of slopes hand-dug trenches permeable rock dams Dune stabilisation Improvement of pediments Contour stone bunds; Permeable rock dikes Zai planting pits Use of organic matter: manure and compost; Mulching Assisted natural regeneration Improvement of valley bottoms Water-spreading weirs Small-scale dams ; Village irrigation schemes 10 April 2013 Water and soil conservation practices in the Sahel Page 7
  • How Soil and water conservation (SWC) / Soil protection and restoration(SPR) impact on resilience Improving water management - Run-off of rainwater is slowed down or stopped o distribution of water over wider areas o increasing infiltration of water into ground o infiltrated water stored in soil or recharges water table (rise by up to several meters) © GIZ/ Dieter Nill 10 April 2013 Water and soil conservation practices in the Sahel Page 8
  • How Soil and water conservation (SWC) / Soil protection and restoration(SPR) impact on resilience Improving ecosystem services - Erosion control - Rehabilitated landscapes are used for agriculture, grazing and forestry Mai 2009 Mai 2010 Mai 2011 Mai 2012 July 2009 July 2010 July 2011 July 2012 © GIZ/Bartholdi 10 April 2013 Water and soil conservation practices in the Sahel Page 9
  • How Soil and water conservation (SWC) / Soil protection and restoration(SPR) impact on resilienceImproving livelihoods- Increased yields, better pasture, more fuelwood- livelihood systems get more diversified and household incomes increases and households are more resilient © GIZ/Klaus Wohlmann 10 April 2013 Water and soil conservation practices in the Sahel Page 10
  • Focus: Water spreading weirs- Water spreading weirs as technology for rehabilitation of degraded inland valleys (since late 1990s) © Heinz Bender Source: Bender (2011) 10 April 2013 Water and soil conservation practices in the Sahel Page 11
  • Water spreading weirs help greening semi-arid landscapes Source: PRODABO in BCI, 2011 10 April 2013 Water and soil conservation practices in the Sahel Page 12
  • Water spreading weirs: Integral part of watershed management Source: PRODABO in BCI, 2011 10 April 2013 Water and soil conservation practices in the Sahel Page 13
  • SWC/SPR: Impacts- Water spreading weirs buffer peak runoffs from drainage basins, reduce erosion and improve availability of water for people, livestock, agriculture and nature- Ecological improvement of alluvial plains protects against changes in environmental conditions and stabilises food supply and living conditions of local population- Water spreading weirs therefore are effective measures for adapting to climate change o Lower vulnerability o Diversification of livelihoods o Food security o Increased income- reduced migration o Rehabilitation of degraded land o Increased groundwater level © Bender 10 April 2013 Water and soil conservation practices in the Sahel Page 14
  • Economics - Average costs per weir: 20.000 to 50.000 Euros - Construction costs of a weir are between 600 and 1500 Euros per ha improved land - So far, in Niger, Burkina Faso and Chad, more than 370 weirs cover an improved cultivation area of more than 20.000 ha benefitting more than 40.000 households (Wegner 2013) - Costs of rehabilitation likely to be recovered by additional harvest of one year © Bender 10 April 2013 Water and soil conservation practices in the Sahel Page 15
  • RecommendationsFor achieving significant impact on, resilience to climate change, livelihood andecosystems services SWC/SPRThink big: o Long-term commitment needed for implementation of measures over a wide area (watershed) and achievement of significant impacts not just on individual plots (several generations) o Adopt a landscape approach based on spatial analyses and planning for up-scalingSite-specific planning: o No „one-size-fits-all‟ technical solution > need to determine most suitable measures according to topographical units /land uses o diagnostic assessment of watershed with participation of all different users o shows and helps to prevent potential conflicts over land tenure and conflicting interests over certain areas or strategic natural resources 10 April 2013 Water and soil conservation practices in the Sahel Page 16
  • Recommendations (2)Farmers decide: o For adoption on large scale, mix of techniques must be flexible, adaptable and testable by farmers under their specific social, economic and environmental conditions o Participatory planning reduces costs and enhances sustainability o Promotion of experience exchange and trainings on a farmer-to-famer base is neededDiversity counts o Combine techniques and approaches addressing individual households AND community interests o Address SWC as well as regeneration of natural resources 10 April 2013 Water and soil conservation practices in the Sahel Page 17
  • Recommendations (3)Sustained national effort is key o for supporting community organisation o for integration of SWC into a broader land improvement framework o For secure land tenure arrangementsTalk about money: Upscaling SWR/SPR needs resources o international financial support is needed to complement national and local effortsBut talk about also success factors o Upscaling SWC/SPR has to be based on long term commitment and embedded in long- term measures needed to address root causes of vulnerability o Technical, social, economical conditions o Monitoring of impact of agro-ecological system across wealth groups and different types of household economy (Gubbles, 2011) 10 April 2013 Water and soil conservation practices in the Sahel Page 18
  • Thank you very much for your attention.Merci beaucoup pour votre attention.Muchas gracias por su atención.Большое спасибо за ваше внимание非常感谢你的关注 10 April 2013 Water and soil conservation practices in the Sahel Page 19
  • ReferencesBai, Z. G., Dent, D. L., Olsson, L. and Schaepman, M. E. (2008), Proxy global assessment of land degradation. Soil Use and Management, 24: 223–234.Dregne, H.E. a. N.T. Chou (1992): Global desertification dimensions and costs. In: Dregne, H.E. (Ed.): Degradation and restoration of arid lands, 249-282, Texas, Tech. University, Lubbock.Foley, J.A.; Ramankutty, N.; Brauman, K.A.; Cassidy, E.S.; Gerber, J.S.; Johnston, M.; Mueller, N.D.: O‟Connell, C.; Ray, D.K.; West, P.C.; Balzer, C.; Bennett, E.M.;Carpenter, S.R.; Hill, J.; Monfreda, C.; Polasky, S.; Rockström, J.; Sheehan, J.; Siebert, S.; Tilman, D.; Zaks, D.P.M. (2011). Solutions for a cultivated plantet. Nature478, 337-342.Gubbels, P. (2011). Escaping the hunger cycle. Pathways to resilience in the Sahel. Sahel Working Group.Kandji, S.T.; Verchot, L.; Mackensen, J. (2009). Climate change and variability in the Sahel region: Impacts and adaptation strategies in the agricultural sector.UNEP, ICRAF.Mertz, O.; Mbow, C.; Reenberg, A.; Diouf, A. (2009). Farmers perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptations strategies in rural Sahel. EnvironmentalManagement 43, 804-816.Nill, D.; Dorlöchter-Sulser, S. (2012). Good practices in soil and water conservation. A contribution to adaptation and farmers resilience towards climate change inthe Sahel. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (Editor), Bonn and Eschborn.Oldeman, L.R.; Hakkeling, R.T.A.; Sombroek, W.G. (1991). World map of the status of human-induced soil degradation. (2nd revised edition). Wageningen: ISRICand Nairobi: UNEP.Reij, C.; Tappan, G.; Smale, M. (2009). Agroenvironmental transformation in the Sahel. Another kind of “green revolution”. IFPRI Discussion Paper 00914, IFPRI.Sarr, B.; N‟djafa Ouaga, H. (2009). Les tendances actuelles et futures du climat en Afrique sahélienne: une base pour agir. Centre RégionalAGRHYMET/CILSS, Niamey.Sendzimir, J.; Reij, C.P.; Magnuszewski, P. (2011). Rebuilding resilience in the Sahel: Regreening in the Maradi and Zinder regions of Niger. Ecology and Society 16(3), 1.Sörensen, L.; Trux, A.; Duchrow, A.; Bodemeyer, R. (2009). Running dry? Climate change in drylands and how to cope with it. Deutsche Gesellschaft fürInternationale Zusammenarbeit (Editor), Bonn and Eschborn.Zika, M. a. K.-H. Erb (2009). The global loss of net primary productivity resulting from human-induced soil degradation in drylands. Ecological Economics 69, 310-318. 10 April 2013 Water and soil conservation practices in the Sahel Page 20