Addressing Risk and Resilience:An analysis of Māori communities and culturaltechnologies in response to the Christchurchea...
Aim and Purposes• Identify and document Ngāi Tahu cultural  attributes that facilitate resilience In Māori  communities fo...
Community-based Participatory         Research Design• Māori Qualitative Research Methodology:• Participants:  - 100* Te R...
Christchurch ContextPopulation: 399,900 (1800 Ngāi Tahu)Loss of Shelter (100,000 damaged homes)Loss of Power (54,000 homes...
Ngāi Tahu‟s Response•   Established contact and communication support•   Opened Marae (community centres) as shelters/welf...
Kaupapa (values) = Cultural Strengths •   Kotahitanga (Unity) •   Whānau (family, whakapapa {genealogy}) •   Whanāunatanga...
Kotahitanga (Unity)• There is no you, There is no I, there is only us. We are in this  together. (MS)• In the end everyone...
Whānau (Families)• We had power, food and water and others didn‟t, and for  whānau that is what you do, you get on, ring a...
Whanāungatanga (relationships)• The communication between our staff and other services was  good. We kept in touch with Te...
Marae (Community Centres)• Welfare centres were set up on our marae (community centre);  and they all opened even Rapaki (...
Manaakitanga (Support)• “It was about getting out to the people, engaging face to face  and offering support.” (DA)• “We h...
Kaitaikitanga (Guardianship)•   We have passed down knowledge of our whenua (land)    our awa (rivers) which could help in...
Value for Risk Management• Integration of Ngāi Tahu resources and strengths into  disaster preparedness and emergency resp...
Conclusion• Ngāi Tahu identity imposes relational obligations on  tribal members to facilitate community well-being• Ngāi ...
References•   Bishop, R. (1996). Whakawhanaungatanga Collaborative Research Stories. Palmerston North: Dunmore    Press Lt...
References•   Kenney, Christine (2009). Me aro ki te hā o Hineahuone: women miscarriage stories and midwifery: towards    ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Addressing risk and resilience: an analysis of Māori communities and cultural technologies in response to the Christchurch earthquakes

786

Published on

Christine Marie KENNEY1, David JOHNSTON2, Douglas PATON3, John REID4, Suzanne Rachel PHIBBS5

1Edith Cowan University, Australia; 2Joint Centre for Disaster Research/GNS Science, New Zealand; 3University of Tasmania, Australia; 4Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu, New Zealand; 5Massey University, New Zealand

Published in: Education, News & Politics
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
786
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Our research conducted in partnership with the tribal corporate body, Te Runanga o Ngai Tahu is identifying cultural strengths and documenting the ways such attributes have facilitated Maori community resilience in response to the earthquakes.Ngai Tahu infrastructure and resources which enhance hazard mitigation as well as facilitate organisational and community disaster recovery and preparedness planning; are being documented. Emerging research findings will facilitate Maori disaster preparedness workforce capacity, inform urban rebuild planning as well as regional and national disaster preparedness and risk management strategies.
  • Ngai Tahu are the indigenous people of Christchurch and more broadly the South Island. Tribal members constitute a very small percentage of a community which is struggling to recover from earthquake devastation Ngai Tahu has responded to community needs by...
  • (READ SLIDE) The drivers for these actions are Ngai Tahu cultural values and which are embedded in sets of understandings about Ngai Tahu cultural identity and operationalised as technologies to shape behaviours and actions.Setting up a Emergency Contact Centre in 24 hours0800 Kai Tahu number, Face book, Texting teamsOpened 12 Ngai Tahu Marae (community centres to provide shelter and food)Later all marae in South Island and others through out New ZealandSet up Wigram Base of operations: Govt/Inter-tribal liaison, Iwi administration, Received goods).Provided Emergency Support Services (Nga Hau e Wha and Rehua Marae)Health care services (He Oranga Pounamu) 13 barefoot doctor teams nurses psychologist Immigrant agencies support relocation (Rehua Marae)immigrant relief (Dunedin marae)Security: Maori wardens 160 deployed in worst areas, prevent looting also door knockedFinancial support: $200 grants ($ 366,235.00) – 574 families 238 ongoing kaiako support 60% Non Maori 40% Water: Supplied and delivered from trucks filled from the Te Waikororpupu river tributaries. Food/clothing/toys: Collated at Wigram and distributed through Rehua Marae and He Oranga Pounamu
  • Inregards to the Christchurch context, Ngāi Tahu values constitute cultural strengths which have acted as moral and relational technologies in a Latourian sense (2005), to facilitate support for tribal members and the wider community.Initial analysis of participants’ talk suggest that key cultural strengths include (Read slide)Ngāi Tahu describe the ways in which these cultural strengths were operationalised as follows:
  • Analysis of the participants’ talk infers that Ngai Tahu cultural strengths constitute an un-finalised assemblage of actors and actants, an actor network (Latour, 2005) which facilitates Maori, and potentially wider community, resilience in the face of adversity. Emergent research findings highlight the relevance of indigenous engagement in integrated disaster response planning and risk management at local and national levels. In keeping with the Hyogo Framework recommendation that cultural diversity should be taken into account when planning for disaster risk reduction…
  • Ngāi Tahu has a statutory governance role in the Christchurch rebuild as stipulated in the Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority Act (2011). Research findings will be communicated directly to the Crown via established links between Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu, CERA local authorities, the New Zealand cabinet and relevant government agencies . Key information arising from the research will be integrated into regional and national disaster preparedness policies. Ngāi Tahu epistemological knowledge and processes documented during the research will inform local integrated risk management strategies and the urban rebuild.Findings will also be communicated to other Iwi (tribes) in order to facilitate Maori disaster preparedness, planning and emergency workforce development at the national level.In summary the research facilitates key activities designed to address priorities 1 , 3 and 5 stipulated in the Hyogo framework. Resources are developed through promoting community participation and capacity buildingInformation is managed and exchanged in ways which enable stakeholders to act to build resilience; in this instance capturing and tailoring indigenous knowledge and cultural heritage to support holistic integrated disaster preparedness and risk management, whilst strengthening networks and promoting cross-sectoral dialoguePromoting a coordinated regional response enhances policy, technical and institutional capacities in disaster management at local regional and national levels as well as ensures the active participation of relevant stakeholders, in this case Maori communities in strategizing for future urban sustainability.
  • To conclude - NgāiTahu share a collective ‘ensemble’ identity that is genealogically linked across social communities, tribes and land .This socio-ecological genealogy of Ngāi Tahu imposes relational obligations on Iwi whānui (tribal members) to ensure the well-being of the environment, land and people following natural disasters through the application of Ngai Tahu cultural strengths. Such strengths constitute moral and relational technologies/actor networks which operate across government, community, organisational, family, intra- and inter-tribal linkages to create and sustain the resilience of Maori communities.In doing so these technologies, have facilitated accommodation, cultural social, financial and health services support for the wider Canterbury community NgāiTahu wish to facilitate increased disaster response workforce capacity, as well as refine current Iwi organisational infrastructure and existing hazard mitigation strategies to ensure organizational competence and effective disaster preparedness and risk management strategies for the future. These findings have implications for disaster preparedness planning in other Māori organisations as well as the broader Māori communityof New Zealand. The Maori response… should be seen as a template for the future, with a door-to-door approach that identified need from a holistic perspective of health and wellbeing - physical, mental and spiritual. Leanne Dalziel MP ChCh East
  • Transcript of "Addressing risk and resilience: an analysis of Māori communities and cultural technologies in response to the Christchurch earthquakes"

    1. 1. Addressing Risk and Resilience:An analysis of Māori communities and culturaltechnologies in response to the Christchurchearthquakes Dr Christine M. Kenney PhD Research Fellow Joint Centre of Disaster Research Massey University /GNS Edith Cowan University 4th IDRC Davos Switzerland 28th August 2012
    2. 2. Aim and Purposes• Identify and document Ngāi Tahu cultural attributes that facilitate resilience In Māori communities following disasters• Support development of Māori disaster preparedness workforce capacity• Inform local, regional and national policy development in regards to recovery, rebuild, and disaster preparedness planning
    3. 3. Community-based Participatory Research Design• Māori Qualitative Research Methodology:• Participants: - 100* Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu staff and tribal members• Recruitment: community determined; self selection• Data Collection: semi-structured interviews; focus groups• Data analysis: Bricolage approach - Kaupapa Māori theories (Bishop, 1996; Smith, 1999), - Social theories (Blaikie, 2007; Latour, 2005; Foucault,1963) - Adaptive Capacity Model (Paton, in press).
    4. 4. Christchurch ContextPopulation: 399,900 (1800 Ngāi Tahu)Loss of Shelter (100,000 damaged homes)Loss of Power (54,000 homes without power)Loss of Water Supply (80% population)Limited Food Supplies (Main outlets closed)Disrupted Transport (Liquefaction, ≠ roading)Physical Injury and Illness (7500+ ACC claims)Death Toll: 185 from 15 countries
    5. 5. Ngāi Tahu‟s Response• Established contact and communication support• Opened Marae (community centres) as shelters/welfare centres• Integrated recovery response with Govt, NGOs, and other Iwi,• Coordinated reception/redistribution supplies/resources• Provided emergency support services• Offered outreach primary health care• Assisted immigrants and immigrant support agencies• Assisted urban security services• Provided financial support• Provided/distributed water• IN TOTAL: Contacted/ provided shelter, food, water clothing, toys, finances and other non perishable goods to 8000 households following the earthquake
    6. 6. Kaupapa (values) = Cultural Strengths • Kotahitanga (Unity) • Whānau (family, whakapapa {genealogy}) • Whanāunatanga (relationships) • Manaakitanga (Respect/Support/Hospitality) • Katiakitanga (Guardianship) • Mana whenua (Belonging to the land) • Marae (Community Centres) • Tūrangawaewae (Homeland)
    7. 7. Kotahitanga (Unity)• There is no you, There is no I, there is only us. We are in this together. (MS)• In the end everyone came to our house.., there was 18 to 20 people living in our house with us for 8 weeks . And that is what you do as Ngāi Tahu, as Māori you come together.., you take in whoever needs somewhere to stay.., support.(PA)• If we were able we came and helped..., some Ngāi Tahu was accountants and managers , it didn‟t; matter it was cool. We all pitched in did what we had to do to get the job done to the best of our abilities. It was a horrible time but it was also a great time in terms of the bonds that was formed so it was kotahitanga, unity eh. (AP)
    8. 8. Whānau (Families)• We had power, food and water and others didn‟t, and for whānau that is what you do, you get on, ring around all your family networks and let everybody know …, and say „You need to do washing, somewhere to stay, kai (food)?‟ Come over! (SH)• When they (Govt) want to encourage people to respond well to disaster .., they encourage them to make connections to their neighbours their family… Well that already naturally occurs with an Iwi (tribe); and that is their first advantage… an advantage that you can‟t underestimate… That whānau (family) and that connectedness-base, underpins why Ngāi Tahu performed so well. (LA)
    9. 9. Whanāungatanga (relationships)• The communication between our staff and other services was good. We kept in touch with Te Puni Kokeri, they are friends so.., we knew if the whānau (families) weren‟t getting the assistance that was needed they would contact us.(SO)• We had care parcels arrive in from Tauranga Iwi (tribes) ..There was a lot of baby stuff which was great because a lot of the mothers had lost stuff and there was real thought given to a lot of these parcels. (MA)• We had Iwi (tribes)coming down looking to assist. To help out and we were providing them with what information we could on where their people were and those of their people that had contacted us about what their people‟s core needs were. (DO)
    10. 10. Marae (Community Centres)• Welfare centres were set up on our marae (community centre); and they all opened even Rapaki (marae) who were one of our more harder hit communities with boulders smashing through their houses. I mean they were straight down there..., the marare was open, and functioning, accommodating and supporting whānau. (DA)• Ngāi Tahu was hard hit organisationally so we had to turn to one of the cultural mechanisms of support we know, so obviously we turned to our marae (community centres) because they are right there when a storm hits, there for everyone, pakeha and Māori. (TO)
    11. 11. Manaakitanga (Support)• “It was about getting out to the people, engaging face to face and offering support.” (DA)• “We had people ringing families and saying what do you need? What can we get you? And then we‟d ring up one of the boys and say Can you drop off $50.00 worth of groceries this person needs coffee milk sugar, water whatever.” (MA)• We‟d get containers in from the Kohanga (kindergarten) in Wellington and they would leave little notes with the kai (food) and clothing for people and it was primo!” (SH)
    12. 12. Kaitaikitanga (Guardianship)• We have passed down knowledge of our whenua (land) our awa (rivers) which could help in planning for the future. Some of our kaumatua (elders) even have old maps, for example one Ngāi Tahu whānau has a map of all the underground awa (rivers) below Christchurch. (SO)• We have a responsibility as Kaitiaki (guardians) of our land to work with CERA and the others to plan for the future. One of the ways we can help is by using our cultural knowledge to inform the redesigning and rebuilding of Christchurch. (T)
    13. 13. Value for Risk Management• Integration of Ngāi Tahu resources and strengths into disaster preparedness and emergency response planning at local and national levels• Application of Ngāi Tahu cultural and environmental knowledge to inform urban panning/rebuilding• Creation of a Ngāi Tahu model of Māori community resilience following disasters• Enhancement of Ngāi Tahu disaster preparedness infrastructure and disaster and emergency response workforce capacity
    14. 14. Conclusion• Ngāi Tahu identity imposes relational obligations on tribal members to facilitate community well-being• Ngāi Tahu cultural values constitute cultural strengths• Ngāi Tahu cultural strengths act as moral and relational technologies/actor networks to facilitate community recovery and resilience• Ngāi Tahu cultural knowledge and practices will enhance integrated disaster risk management
    15. 15. References• Bishop, R. (1996). Whakawhanaungatanga Collaborative Research Stories. Palmerston North: Dunmore Press Ltd.• Blaikie, N. (2007). Approaches to Social Inquiry (2nd ed.). Malden, MA, Cambridge: Polity Press.• Boulton, Amohia; Gifford, Heather (2011). Resilience as a Conceptual Framework for Understanding the Māori Experience: Positions, Challenges and Risks. In Tracey McIntosh and Malcolm Mulholland Māori and Social Issues: Volume One, Huia, Publications, Wellington, New Zealand.• Frank, Arthur (2005). What is dialogical research and why should we do it? Qualitative Health Research, 15(7), 964-974.• Frank, A. (2006). Health stories as connectors and subjectifiers. Health, 10(4), 421-440• Freire, Pablo. (1967, 2000). Pedagogy of the Oppressed 30th Anniversary Edition (M. Ramos, Trans.), Continuum, London, New York.• Harre, R. & Van Langenhove, L. (Eds.) (1999). Positioning Theory: Moral Contexts of Intentional Action. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.• Hudson, James; Hughes, Emma (2007). The role of marae and Māori communities in post disaster recovery: A Case study, GNS Science Report, 2007/15, GNS Science, Wellington, New Zealand.• Israel, Barbara; Schulz, Amy; Parker, Edith; Becker, Adam (1998). Review of community based research: Assessing partnership approaches to improve public health. Annual Review of Public Health, 19, 173-202.• Johnston, David; Becker, Julia; Paton, Douglas. (2008). Building disaster-resilient communities: the need for community-based programmes. New Zealand Local Government, 44, 17.
    16. 16. References• Kenney, Christine (2009). Me aro ki te hā o Hineahuone: women miscarriage stories and midwifery: towards a contextually relevant research methodology. PhD Thesis, Massey University, Palmerston North, NZ, http://hdl.handle.net/10179/1191• Latour, B. (1991). Technology is society made durable. In J. Law (Ed.), A Sociology of Monters: Essays on Power, Technology and domination (pp. 103-131). London, New York: Routledge.• Latour, B. (2005). Reassembling the social: An introduction to actor-network-theory. Oxford, New York, NY: Oxford University Press• Paton, Douglas (2007). Measuring and monitoring resilience. GNS Science Report 2007/18, GNS Science, Wellington, New Zealand.• Paton, Douglas (In Press). Psychological rehabilitation planning for disaster survivors. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences.• Proctor, Elisabeth-Mary (2010). Toi tu te whenua, toi tu te tangata: A holistic Māori Approach to flood management in Pawarenga. Masters Thesis, Waikato University, Hamilton, New Zealand.• Smith, Linda (1999). Decolonizing Methodologies Research and Indigenous Peoples (2nd ed.), University of Otago Press, Dunedin, New Zealand.• Somers. M. (1994). The narrative constitution of identity: A relational and network approach. Theory and Society, 23, 605-649• Sonn, Christopher; Green, Meredith (2006). Disrupting the dynamics of oppression in intercultural research and practice. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 16(5), 337-346.

    ×